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PROCEEDINGS 



JassatjmMs Historical Sbrieig. 



V * J<Jk™L*- 

1855-1858. 



SELECTED FROM THE RECORDS. 




BOSTON : 
PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY. 



M.DCCC.LIX. 



BOSTON: 
PRINTED BY JOHN WILSON AND SON, 

22, School Street. 



PREFATORY NOTE. 

1128331 



By a vote of the Massachusetts Historical Society, at 
the meeting held on the 19th of April, 1858, the Stand- 
ing Committee were authorized to publish such a selec- 
tion from the recent Proceedings of the Society as they 
deemed to be of general interest. The Chairman and 
Secretary were appointed a Subcommittee to carry this 
vote into effect ; and they immediately commenced the 
performance of that duty. 

A large portion of the Proceedings contained in the 
present volume was in type several months since ; but 
circumstances beyond their control have compelled the 
Committee to delay the publication of the work until 
the present time. 

It was a matter of no little consideration at what 
date this volume of Proceedings should commence. 
Reasons, which were satisfactory to the Committee, 
determined them to begin with the Annual Meeting of 
1855, and to conclude with the final Proceedings of the 
year 1857-8. The volume thus contains a complete 



IV PREFATORY NOTE. 

account of the donations of the Appleton and the Sears 
Fund ; of the Dowse Library and Fund ; of the Belknap 
Collection of books, manuscripts, &c. ; of the recovery 
and publication of the Bradford Manuscript ; of the 
purchase of the Building occupied by the Society; of 
the amendment of its Charter ; and of the adoption 
of the new code of By-laws. 

The engravings by which the Proceedings are illus- 
trated were executed expressly for this volume, without 
expense to the Society. The head of Samuel Appleton, 
from the Society's portrait by Healey, was presented by 
his executors ; that of Thomas Dowse, from Wight's 
painting, and of Edward Everett, from Stuart's unfin- 
ished sketch, painted in 1821, — the only portrait in 
the Dowse Library when at Cambridge, — were fur- 
nished by Mr. Dowse's executors. The portrait of the 
Rev. Dr. Belknap, and that of Washington by Gullager, 
were the gift of Edward Belknap, Esq. For the 
engraving of the Washington Chair, we are indebted 
to Benjamin R,. Winthrop, Esq., of New York. 

The publication of the Proceedings of the Society 
is not intended to interfere with that of the Collections, 
of which three series, and a part of the fourth, — 
thirty-four volumes in all, — have already been issued, 
and another volume is now in charge of a Publishing 
Committee. The Collections have hitherto been neces- 
sarily of quite a miscellaneous character. The liberal 



PREFATORY NOTE. 






provisions of the Appleton Fund will hereafter allow 
the Society to publish annually a handsome volume 
from original manuscripts of permanent interest, either 
from its own Archives or from other sources ; while the 
Proceedings will contain an account of the stated and 
special meetings, the reports of committees, correspond- 
ence, announcements of donations, and papers of a less 
elaborate character, prepared by members, and read 
before the Society. 

Another volume of Proceedings, commencing with 
the Annual Meeting in April, 1858, is already in press. 
The Committee hope that there will also be prepared, 
at some convenient and not very remote time, a digest 
or selection from the Society's records, which may give a 
connected history of its origin and early transactions, — 
that the Society may thus acknowledge, in the most 
fitting manner, its indebtedness to the founders and 
early members by whose exertions, so wisely applied, 
it was established on a basis which has secured its con- 
tinued usefulness and increasing prosperity. 



GEORGE L1VERMORE, 
CHANDLER ROBBINS, 



Committee of 
Publication. 



Boston, April 14, 1859. 



OFFICERS 



OF TUK 



MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY, 

Elected April, 1858. 



SpresitJent. 
HON. ROBERT C. WINTHROP, LL.D Boston. 

17ice=$rest0cnt*. 

JARED SPARKS, LL.D. Cambridge. 

HON. DAVID SEARS, A.M. Boston. 

Ikecottmig Secretary. 
REV. CHANDLER ROBBINS, D.D. . Boston. 

©orresponUfng Secretary. 
JOSEPH WILLARD, A.M. ............ Boston. 

treasurer. 
HON. RICHARD FROTHINGHAM, Jun., A.M. . . Charlestown. 

3Librartan, 
REV. SAMUEL K. LOTHROP, D.D. . . Boston. 

NATHANIEL B. SHURTLEFF, M.D. . : ...... . Boston. 

StantHitfl (Eommtttee. 
GEORGE LIVERMORE, A.M. .......... Cambridge. 

THOMAS ASPINWALL, A.M. ........... Boston. 

HON. EMORY WASHBURN, LL.D Cambridge. 

HON. LORENZO SABINE, A.M Roxbury. 

CHARLES DEANE, A.M Cambridge. 



RESIDENT MEMBEES, 



AT THE DATE OF THE PUBLICATION OF THIS VOLUME, IN THE ORDER OF 
THEIR ELECTION. 



Hon. Josiah Quincy, LL.D. 
Hon. James Savage, LL.D. 
Hon. Nathan Hale, LL.D. 
Hon. Edward Everett, LL.D. 
Rev. William Jenks, D.D. 
Jared Sparks, LL.D. 
Joseph E. Worcester, LL.D. 
Joseph Willard, A.M. 
Rev. Joseph B. Felt, LL.D. 
Hon. Lemuel Shaw, LL.D. 
Rev. Convers Francis, D.D. 
George Ticknor, LL.D. 
Hon. Nathan Appleton, LL.D. 
Hon. Rufus Choate, LL.D. 
Hon. Daniel A. White, LL.D. 
Hon. Robert C. Winthrop, LL.D. 
Rev. Alvan Lamson, D.D. 
Hon. Charles F. Adams, A.M. 
Rev. George E. Ellis, D.D. 
Hon. John C. Gray, LL.D. 
Rev. Nathl. L. Frothingham, D.D. 
Hon. George S. Hillard, LL.D. 
Hon. William Minot, A.M. 
Hon. Peleg W. Chandler, A.M. 
Rev. George W. Blagden, D.D. 



Rev. Lucius R. Paige, A.M. 
Hon. Solomon Lincoln, A.M. 
Rev. Chandler Robbins, D.D. 
Francis Bowen, A.M. 
John Langdon Sibley, A.M. 
Hon. R. Frothingham, jun., A.M. 
Nathaniel B. Shurtleff, M.D. 
Henry Wheatland, M.D. 
Hon. David Sears, A.M. 
Sylvester Judd, Esq. 
Thomas H. Webb, M.D. 
Charles Deane, A.M. 
George Livermore, A.M. 
Francis Parkman, A.B. 
Ellis Ames, A.M. 
Hon. John H. Clifford, LL.D. 
William Brigham, A.B. 
Hon. Emory Washburn, LL.D. 
Rev. Samuel K. Lothrop, D.D. 
Rev. William Newell, D.D. 
Hon. Lorenzo Sabine, A.M. 
Thomas Aspinwall, A.M. 
Rev. John S. Barry. 
John A. Lowell, LL.D. 
Lucius M. Sargent, A.M. 



RESIDENT MEMBERS. 



IX 









Cornelius C. Helton, LL.D. 
J. Lathrop Motley, A.B. 
Nathaniel I. Bowditch, A.M. 
George R. Russell, LL.D. 
Hon. Charles H. Warren, A.M. 
Rev. James Walker, D.D. 
Rev. Edmund H. Sears, A.B. 
Oliver Wendell Holmes, M.D. 
Hon. William H. Sumner, A.M. 
Henry W. Longfellow, A.M. 
Rev. Fred. H. Hedge, D.D. 
Frederick Tudor, Esq. 
Jacob Bigelow, LL.D. 
Hon. George T. Davis, A.B. 
Hon. Stephen Salisbury, A.M. 
Henry Austin Whitney, A.M. 
Hon. Luther V. Bell, M.D. 



Rev. William S. Bartlet, A.M. 
J. G. Holland, M.D. 
Rev. Charles Brooks, A.M. 
Hon. William Sturgis. 
Leverett Saltonstall, A.M. 
Hon. William Appleton. 
Rev. Alonzo H. Quint, A.M. 
Hon. Thomas G. Cary, A.M. 
Samuel F. Haven, A.M. 
Hon. George T. Curtis, A.B. 
Richard H. Dana, jun., A.M. 
Hon. Levi Lincoln, LL.D. 
Joseph Palmer, M.D. 
Hon. George T. Bigelow, LL.D. 
Hon. Caleb Cushing, LL.D. 
Henry W. Torrey, A.M. 



HONORARY AND CORRESPONDING 
MEMBERS, 

ELECTED UNDER THE ORIGINAL ACT OF INCORPORATION, 1794. 

IX THE ORDER OF THEIR ELECTION. 



This List is believed to contain the Names of all the Honorary and Corresponding 
Members, elected as above, now living. 



Benjamin Silliman, LL.D. 
Rev. Eliphalet Nott, D.D. 
John Wakefield Francis, M.D. 
Baron Alexander von Humboldt. 
Hon. Gulian C. Verplanck, LL.D. 
Frederic von Adelung. 
Don Manuel Moreno, M.D. 
Don Jose Maria Salazar. 
Rev. John Hutchinson. 
Charles Christian Rafn, P.D. 
Thomas C. Halliburton, Esq. 
Hon. Washington Irving, LL.D. 
Charles Fraser, Esq. 
Sir Francis Palgrave. 
Hon. Lewis Cass, LL.D. 
Theodore Dwight, A.M. 
Cesar Moreau. 
Erastus Smith, Esq. 
Hon. James Kirke Paulding. 
Rev. Benjamin Tappan, D.D. 
Joshua Francis P'isher, A.M. 
T. A. Moerenbout. 
Usher Parsons, M.D. 



Hon. George Folsom, A.M. 

Rev. Luther Halsey, D.D. 

John Disney, Esq. 

Rev. Francis Lister Hawks, D.D. 

Rev. Leonard Bacon, D.D. 

Henri Ternaux-Compans. 

George Catlin, Esq. 

John Winthrop, Esq. 

Joaquim Jose Da Costa de Macedo. 

Hon. Daniel D. Barnard. 

Frederic de Waldeck. 

Israel K. Tefft, Esq. 

Hon. David L. Swain, LL.D. 

Hon. James M. Wayne, LL.D. 

M. Hall McAllister, Esq. 

Rev. William B. Stevens, D.D. 

Henry Black, LL.D. 

Rev. John Lee, D.D. 

Rev. Charles Burroughs, D.D. 

George Atkinson Ward, Esq. 

Rev. Joseph Hunter, F.A.S. 

Richard Almack, Esq. 

Rev. George Oliver. 



HONORARY AND CORRESPONDING MEMBERS. 



XI 






Sir Archibald Alison, Bt, D.C.L. 

Col. James D. Graham. 

Robert Lemon, Esq. 

Thomas C. Grattan, Esq. 

Don Pedro de Angelis. 

John Romeyne Brodhead, A.M. 

Major E. B. Jarvis. 

E. George Squier, Esq. 

Payne Kenyon Kilbourne. 

Miss Frances Manwaring Caulkins. 

Thomas Donaldson, Esq. 

Hon. George Bancroft, LL.D. 

Don Lucas Alaman. 

J. Hammond Trumbull, Esq. 

Robert Bigsby, LL.D. 

Rev. Joseph Romilly, A.M. 

James Ricker, jun., Esq. 

Henry Bond, M.D. 

Henry Stevens, Esq. 

Cyrus Eaton, Esq. 



Baron Macaulay, D.C.L. 

Hon. William Willis. 

Frederic Griffin, Esq. 

John Carter Brown, Esq. 

Hon. Elijah Hayward. 

William S. Southgate, Esq. 

Hon. Samuel G. Arnold. 

Hon. Charles S. Davies. 

John Gilmary Shea, Esq. 

James Lenox, Esq. 

Rt. Rev. Samuel Wilberforce, D.D. 

Winthrop Sargent, A.M. 

Earl Stanhope. 

Hon. William C. Rives. 

Peter Force, Esq. 

Hon. John R. Bartlett. 

Samuel Eliot, A.M. 

G. P. Faribault, Esq. 

William Paver, Esq. 



HONORARY AND CORRESPONDING 
MEMBERS, 

ELECTED SINCE THE PASSAGE OF THE ACT OF 1857. 



Honorary. 

Francois Pierre Guillaume Guizot, 

LL.D. 
Alexis de Tocqueville, LL.D. 
Lord Lyndhurst. 
Count Jules de Menou. 
Hon. Richard Rush. 
Hon. J. J. Crittenden, LL.D. 
Hon. Edward Coles. 

Corresponding. 

Rev. William B. Sprague, D.D. 
Rev. Samuel Osgood, D.D. 



William Durrant Cooper, F.S.A. 
E. B. O'Callaghan, M.D. 
Buckingham Smith, Esq. 
Benjamin F. French, Esq. 
Francis Lieber, P.D. 
William H. Trescott, Esq. 
Rev. A. P. Peabody, D.D. 
Richard Hildreth, A.B. 
Dr. J. G. Kohl. 
Hon. A. G. Greene. 
Hon. J. P. Kennedy. 
Hon. G. P. Marsh. 
Benjamin R. Winthrop, Esq. 
J. Carson Brevoort, Esq. 



PROCEEDINGS 






MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



Annual Meeting, April 12, 1855. 

THE Society met this day, at twelve o'clock, m., at 
their Rooms in Tremont Street, Boston ; the Pre- 
sident, Hon. James Savage, in the chair. 

The Librarian announced donations from the City of 
Boston ; Messrs. Solomon Piper, Nehemiah Cleaveland, 
Henry P. Drowne, Samuel H. Congar, and Hon. 
Charles Hudson ; also from Messrs. Adams, Shurtleff, 
and Webb, of this Society. 

The Corresponding Secretary communicated a letter 
from Don Pedro De Angelis, of Buenos Ayres, accom- 
panied with a donation of his pamphlet upon the navi- 
gation of the river Amazon, in reply to Lieutenant 
Maury of the United-States Navy. He also communi- 
cated a letter of acceptance from Hon. Samuel G. 
Arnold, of Providence, who was elected a Correspond- 
ing Member at the last meeting of the Society. 

Mr. Ticknor, from the Committee on the Treasurer's 
Accounts, reported in part, " that the accounts are pro- 



2 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [APRIL, 

perly vouched and correctly cast ; and that there is a 
balance of ninety-two dollars and eleven cents due to 
the Treasurer in general account, and one hundred and 
ten dollars in his hands on account of the Appleton 
Fund." 

Voted to accept the foregoing report ; and that the 
same Committee, Messrs. Ticknor and Sears, be directed 
to report further, at the next meeting, concerning the 
property of the Society in the hands of the Treasurer. 

Mr. Livermore, from the Committee appointed at 
the February meeting of the Society " to consider the 
mode of keeping the Treasurer's accounts of the Apple- 
ton Fund, and the mode in which the regular publica- 
tions of the Society shall hereafter be made," submitted 
the following Report : — 

Report of the Committee on the Appleton Fund, fyc. 

The orders adopted by the Society, on the recommendation 
of "the Committee to whom was referred the letter of the 
Trustees under the will of the late Samuel Appleton, Esq., 
addressed to the Treasurer, together with his official report 
thereon," fully express the purpose of the Society to keep this 
property separate from their other funds, and to apply the in- 
come derived from it entirely to the objects specified in the 
letter of the Trustees ; namely, " the procuring, preservation, 
preparation, and publication of historical papers." 

The only question, therefore, on this subject, for the con- 
sideration of the present Committee, relates to the disposition 
to be made by the Treasurer of any money that may be re- 
ceived by the sale of works published from this source. 

As the regular income from the Appleton Fund will be 
amply sufficient to pay for the publication, annually, of a 
valuable volume of historical papers in a style superior to 



1855.] THE APPLETON FUND. 3 

that in which the Collections have generally been printed, 
your Committee recommend that all money received for the 
sale of the Society's publications be placed by the Treasurer 
in his general account of unrestricted receipts. In this way, 
the Society will have the benefit of a portion of this fund for 
defraying the expenses of preserving the valuable historical 
papers in their possession, — an object mentioned by the 
Trustees, but one which cannot well be separated from the 
other current expenses ; whilst the whole of the regular in- 
come of the Appleton Fund will first be used for the other 
objects specified, and credited accordingly. 

By means of this munificent donation, the usefulness of the 
Society will be greatly increased ; a larger number of copies 
of the Collections than heretofore can be distributed gratui- 
tously, or sent to other societies and institutions which send 
us their publications in exchange, — thus enriching our own 
library, whilst we are enlarging the means of historical know- 
ledge to ail who obtain these volumes. 

The name of Appleton will henceforth be closely connected 
with this Society as its most generous benefactor ; and the 
intelligent liberality of the agents through whom the gift is 
made, in allowing so wide a range in the application of the 
income, — embracing all the objects of the Society, — gives to 
the donation the highest value. 

To signify the Society's sense of grateful obligation more 
widely than by the mere record upon the Secretary's book, 
the Committee recommend that the letter of the Trustees, the 
reports and votes relating to the same, and a memoir of 
the late Samuel Appleton, Esq., be printed in the next volume 
of the Collections. 

Your Committee have also considered " the mode in which 
the regular publications of the Society shall hereafter be 
made." % 

Two changes have been suggested : namely, an independent 
series of elegant volumes, varying in form and style from the 



4 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [APRIL, 

former series, and embracing reprints of scarce historical 
works of a more costly character than those heretofore pub- 
lished by the Society ; and a Quarterly Historical Journal, to 
be edited by members of the Society. Each of these plans has 
some advantages over the present mode ; but neither of them 
sufficient, in the view of your Committee, to induce them to 
recommend so wide a departure from the time-honored mode 
in which the Collections have been published, at least until 
the completion of the present decade, of which two volumes 
have already been printed. The Publishing Committee will, 
however, be enabled, with the increased means at their dis- 
posal, to make some improvements in the future publications, 
without departing from a general uniformity in size and ap- 
pearance with the previous volumes. 

Whilst adhering for the present to the old mode in their 
regular publications, the Society can, by special vote, at any 
time authorize the printing of valuable manuscripts, or the 
re-issue of important rare historical works of more general 
interest than the Collections, in independent volumes, bearing 
the imprimatur of the Society, and published from, and cre- 
dited to, the Appleton Fund. 

Respectfully submitted, for the Committee, 

Geo. Livermore, Chairman. 

Whereupon, Voted to accept the report of the Com- 
mittee ; and that the Rev. Dr. Lothrop be requested to 
prepare a memoir of the late Samuel Appleton, Esq., 
in pursuance of the recommendation of the Committee, 
for the next volume of the Society's publications. 



[The proceedings of the Society relating to the Apple- 
ton Fund, referred to in the above report, were as fol- 
lows : — 



1855.] THE APPLETON FUND. 5 

At the meeting of the Society, Dec. 14, 1854, Mr. 
Frothingham, the Treasurer, stated that he had re- 
ceived a communication from the Trustees acting under 
the will of the late Samuel Appleton, Esq. ; viz., — 

Boston, Nov. 18, 1854. 

Dear Sir, — As Trustees under the will of the late Samuel 
Appleton, and in accordance with what we believe to have 
been his wish, we have transferred to the Massachusetts 
Historical Society the following stocks, amounting, by the 
appraisement of his estate, as nearly as may be to the sum 
of Ten Thousand Dollars; viz., — 

Two shares in the Amoskeag Manufacturing Company. 
Two shares in the Stark Mills. 

One share in the Merrimack Manufacturing Company. 
One share in the Appleton Manufacturing Company. 
One share in the Hamilton Manufacturing Company. 
One share in the Massachusetts Cotton Mills. 
One share in the Suffolk Manufacturing Company. 
One share in the Manchester Print-works. 

This donation is made in trust to constitute a fund, the 
income of which shall be applied to the procuring, preserva- 
tion, preparation, and publication of historical papers. 

N. Appleton, J 

Wm. Appleton, > Trustees . 

N. I. BOWDITCH, ) 

To Richakd Frothingham, jun., Esq., 
Treasurer of the Massachusetts Historical Society. 

Mr. Frothingham further reported, that he had re- 
ceived from the Trustees the certificates of the above- 
named stocks, for which he had given a receipt as 
Treasurer of the Society. 

Voted to refer this subject to Messrs. Adams, Tick- 
nor, and Minot. 



6 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [APRIL, 

Mr. Adams, at the stated meeting of the Society, 
Jan. 11, 1855, made the following Report, which was 
read and accepted ; viz., — 

The Committee to whom was referred, at the December 
meeting of the Society, a letter of the Trustees under the will 
of the late Samuel Appleton, Esq., addressed to the Treasurer, 
together with his official report thereon; have considered the 
same ; and report, that these papers convey to the Society 
the grateful announcement of the presentation and receipt 
of a munificent donation of the sum of ten thousand dollars 
made to them on behalf of Mr. Appleton by his Trustees, in 
whom he reposed a discretion to give such a direction to his 
generosity as seemed to them likely most to subserve useful 
public objects. Whilst the Society cannot fail to acknowledge 
this benefaction with great thankfulness, as essentially enlar- 
ging their means of usefulness, your Committee feel that all 
is not done in that behalf that should be done until there be 
placed on the Records the evidence of a full and formal accept- 
ance of the terms upon which the fund is given to them in 
trust. This act is equally dictated by good faith to the Trus- 
tees through whom this bounty flows, and by the desire of the 
Society strictly to carry their wishes into effect. Your Com- 
mittee, therefore, recommend the adoption of the following- 
orders : — 

Ordered, That the Historical Society of Massachusetts gratefully 
accept the donation of ten thousand dollars made on behalf of the 
late Samuel Appleton by the Trustees under his will, in trust, to 
constitute a fund, the income of which shall be applied to the 
procuring, preservation, preparation, and publication of Historical 
Papers. 

Ordered, That the property so received be set apart by the Trea- 
surer of the Society as a fund in trust, to be designated as the 
Appleton Fund; and the income of the same — the accounts of 
which shall be kept separately from the other receipts and expendi- 
tures of the Society — be applied forever exclusively to the procur- 








<L. ^ 



1855.] MEMOIR OP SAMUEL APPLETON. 7 

ing, preservation, preparation, and publication of Historical Papers, 
being the object specified in the letter of the Trustees. 

Ordered, That, in every publication that shall hereafter be made 
from the income thus applied, there be inserted in each volume a 
notice in print that it was published at the charge of the Appleton 
Fund. 

For the Committee, 

C. F. Adams, Chairman. 



To complete the history of this munificent foundation, 
the following Memoir of Mr. Appleton is reprinted 
from the third volume of the fourth series of the 

" Collections." 



MEMOIR OF SAMUEL APPLETON, ESQ., 

Founder of the Appleton Publishing Fund. 
BY REV. SAMUEL K. LOTHROP, D.D. 

Commercial Biography is a department of literature in which 
we have fewer books than might be written for the benefit and 
instruction of the world. Of the lives of statesmen, poets, 
artists, literary, military, and professional men of all sorts, we 
have enough ; but of eminent and successful merchants, men 
who have made commerce the sphere of their extensive activity 
and usefulness, we have few permanent records. Even the 
writers of fiction, whose object is to combine amusement with 
instruction, seldom make a merchant the hero of their tale ; 
yet commerce has had its heroes, its saints, and martyrs, — 
men who, along its dusty paths, in its busy counting-houses, 
amid its varied enterprises, have exhibited the noblest qualities 
of intellect and of heart. Few of the departments of life are 
more full of interest and incident, or more rich in instructive 
exhibitions of character. Directly connected with all that 



8 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [APRIL, 

helps to adorn, embellish, or elevate social life, and promote 
the world's progress, its records, if searched and revealed, 
would present probably as noble specimens of our common 
humanity as the bar, the pulpit, the senate-chamber, the armies 
or navies of the world, or any of the paths of literary or pro- 
fessional occupation. We should find there men as thoroughly 
developed, intellectually and morally, — men who to a keen 
sagacity, a far-reaching penetration, a clear judgment, a mind 
large and comprehensive in its grasp, have added the qualities 
of a bold energy and an indomitable perseverance in enter- 
prise ; an integrity that could withstand the fiercest tempta- 
tions, make all sacrifices, and endure all losses but the loss 
of honor ; and a large-hearted benevolence which used wealth 
for noble purposes, listened with sympathy to every appeal of 
humanity in its individual sufferings, and met with generous 
aid every effort to sustain or advance the great public interests 
and institutions of society. To these men, these noble and 
benevolent merchants, literature, learning, science, humanity 
in all the instrumentalities that would promote its progress, in 
all the institutions that would alleviate its sufferings, owes a 
debt which cannot be too gratefully acknowledged. 

One of these men it is alike our duty and our privilege to 
commemorate in this volume, by some brief notice of his life 
and character. 

The late Samuel Appleton, for so many years an eminently 
successful and eminently useful merchant of Boston, was born 
at New Ipswich, N.H., June 22, 1766. His first American 
ancestor was Samuel Appleton, born in 1586 at Little Walding- 
field, Suffolk County, England ; in which county the family had 
held estates for many generations, and were persons of great 
respectability and influence. In the collection of the Harleian 
Manuscripts at the British Museum, there is a genealogy of the 
family, tracing Samuel of Little Waldingfield directly to John 
Appleton, who died in 1412 ; and making it probable that he 
was descended from William de Appleton, who died in 1326. 



1855.] MEMOIR OP SAMUEL APPLETON. 9 

The name " Appleton," signifying orchard, is of Saxon origin, 
and is found applied to places before the Norman Conquest ; 
after that event, it is found applied to persons, but always 
with a Norman Christian name, such as William, Henry, &c, 
prefixed. The family, therefore, were probably of Norman 
origin, and took the name of Appleton from some characteristic 
— such as the orchards — of the lands granted them after the 
Conquest. 

The precise year in which Samuel Appleton of Little Wald- 
ingfield came to this country cannot be ascertained. As his 
name first appears among those who took the freeman's oath on 
the 25th of May, 1636, he probably came a few months previous 
to that date. He settled in Ipswich, where he had a grant of 
lands, large portions of which are still in the possession of his 
descendants. His son Samuel, born at Little Waldingfield 
in 1624, and consequently about eleven years of age when his 
father came to America, became subsequently quite a distin- 
guished man, and took an active and prominent part in the 
public affairs of the Colony. In 1668, and in several succeed- 
ing years, he was returned a deputy to the General Court. 
On the breaking-out of King Philip's war, 1675, he received a 
commission as Captain, " to command a foot-company of one 
hundred men." In this capacity he rendered very important 
services in protecting the towns on Connecticut River, and 
exhibited such bravery, skill, and efficiency as a military com- 
mander, that he was soon promoted to the rank of Major, and 
made " Commander-in-chief" of all the forces on Connecticut 
River. In the expedition into the Narragansett country by the 
combined forces of the Plymouth, Massachusetts, and Connec- 
ticut Colonies, under General Winslow, Major Appleton com- 
manded the Massachusetts contingent, about five hundred men, 
and was present at the bloody battle of the 19th of December 
and the capture of Narragansett Fort. A zealous supporter of 
the rights and interests of the Colonies, his free speech and 
independent action made him obnoxious to the government of 



10 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [APRIL, 

Sir Edmund Andros, and subjected him to arrest and imprison- 
ment. It is a tradition in the family, that, on the deposition 
of Sir Edmund, Major Appleton, who had been one of the 
especial objects of the Governor's vengeance, was allowed the 
satisfaction of handing him into the boat that was to convey 
him to his confinement in the Castle. The fact that on this 
occasion he was one of the council called to the provisional 
government of the Colony, and also one of the council named 
in the charter of William and Mary, in 1692, is satisfactory 
evidence of the confidence reposed in his abilities, integrity, 
and patriotism. 

Isaac Appleton, grandson of the preceding, born at Ipswich 
in 1704, was one of the sixty inhabitants of Ipswich to whom 
it was granted in 1735-6, by the General Court, " to lay out a 
township of six miles square in some of the unappropriated 
lands of the Province." The township laid out under this 
grant, and called New Ipswich, was subsequently, by the run- 
ning of the boundary line between New Hampshire and 
Massachusetts in 1741, thrown almost entirely into the former 
Province. The work of settlement was therefore arrested 
almost as soon as commenced, and several years passed before 
a satisfactory title was procured from the authorities of New 
Hampshire. Isaac Appleton did not probably remove to 
New Ipswich till these difficulties were adjusted. His son 
Isaac, born at Ipswich in 1731, was the father of Samuel, 
the subject of this Memoir, whose mother was Mary Adams, 
daughter of Joseph Adams, of Concord. They had a family 
of twelve children, of whom Samuel was the third. 

Isaac Appleton was a deacon of the church, a man of piety 
and integrity, highly respected and beloved in the little commu- 
nity of New Ipswich ; but, of course, he and his family were 
subject to the privations and hardships that necessarily at- 
tached to life in a newly ^ettled frontier town a century ago. 
So far as the characters and future destiny of his children 
were concerned, these privations were perhaps in reality advan- 



1855.] MEMOIR OF SAMUEL APPLETON. 11 

tages. They served to develop energy, self-reliance, benevolent 
and kindly feelings, a manly simplicity, and an elevated, inde- 
pendent tone of moral sentiment, that were of more worth than 
all the benefits that come from the more thorough intellec- 
tual and conventional culture to be had amid the influences of 
a great city far advanced in civilization. Undoubtedly the 
scenes amid which his childhood was passed, his training in a 
mountainous region, in agricultural employments, and, above 
all, in the home of wise and pious parents, were among the 
influences that helped to develop in Mr. Samuel Appleton 
the intellectual and moral qualities that made his life suc- 
cessful, and as pure and honorable as it was successful ; and 
that won for his character the affectionate respect and confi- 
dence of all who knew him. 

The district school of his native town was the only seminary 
of learning which he ever had any opportunity to attend, and 
this only for a limited portion of the year, till he was sixteen ; 
yet so faithfully had its advantages been improved, that at 
seventeen he was the teacher of a district school himself, and 
gave so much satisfaction, that his services in this capacity 
were in request every winter, in his own or in neighboring 
towns, so long as he was willing to engage in the office of 
teaching. Two years before this, however, just as he was 
completing his fifteenth year, he had an experience and disap- 
pointment which cannot be better told than it is by himself in 
a brief autobiography of his early years, written in the third 
person. 

" In 1781, Mr. R H , a merchant of Concord, N.H., 

was on a visit at New Ipswich, and observed to Deacon Apple- 
ton, ' You have a large number of boys ; and, if you wish it, 
I will take one of them to tend my store in Concord.' Upon 
this slight invitation, and without further ceremony, Samuel 
was on his way to Concord within three days, with a very 
small bundle of clothes and fifty cents in cash, to seek his 
fortune among strangers. He set off on foot, though the 



12 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [APRIL, 

travelling was very bad, in March, in very good spirits. To 
be a trader, though it might be in a small way, was his hob- 
by. He arrived at Concord about noon the second day after 

leaving home. Mr. H had not returned home ; he had 

gone to Boston, and was not expected for a week. The boy 

Samuel told his simple story to Mrs. H , who was a very 

superior woman. She told him Mr. H had not written 

her upon the subject ; that they did not want another boy in 
the store, and but for his honest looks she should take him for 
an impostor. She told him, however, that he might remain, 
and she would find some work for him to do till her husband 

returned. . . . Mr. H returned in about a week : his wife 

told him the whole story, and said they did not want another 
boy ; and, when they might want one, she had a nephew 

she wished to put into the store. Mr. H told the boy he 

hardly expected him to come to Concord on so slight an invi- 
tation, and without any thing being said respecting the terms. 
He told him, however, he might stay for a while, and see how 
he liked shop-keeping. He was immediately put to work 
in the store. . . . With this kind of business Samuel was 
well pleased, and believed he gave satisfaction, till he had been 

there about four months, when Mrs. H 's nephew arrived. 

Mrs. H then told Samuel, as she must give the preference 

to her nephew, she had no further need of his services, and 
that he had better return to his father. This was to him a 
severe blow. However, the next day, with a heavy heart and 
a light purse, he set out for New Ipswich. His father was as 
much surprised and disappointed at his return as was Mrs. 

H , four months before, at his arrival at her house in 

Concord." 

He returned to New Ipswich from this unsuccessful attempt 
" to become a trader," and for four or five years remained at 
home, assisting his father on the farm in the summer, and 
teaching a district school, in his own or some neighboring 
town, in the winter. When about twenty-two years of age, he 



1855.] MEMOIR OP SAMUEL APPLETON. 13 

went into Maine with a party of young men to settle a town- 
ship of land which had been granted to Hon. C. Barrett. Mr. 
Appleton went partly as agent for Mr. Barrett, and with some 
design of making it his permanent residence. " I took for 
myself," he says in one of his letters, " a lot of land more than 
two miles from any other settlement, and for some time 
carried my provisions on my back, going through the woods by 
marked trees to my log-house and home at that time." Nearly 
sixty years afterwards, he presented a bell for a meeting-house 
erected in this town, then known as " Hope," now called 
"Appleton;" rejoicing, as he says, " that the gospel is preached 
within three miles of the place where I spent three long 
summer seasons, during which time I never heard the sound 
of a church-going bell, or ever heard a sermon, or the voice of 
prayer, there being at that time no place of public worship 
within twenty miles of my humble dwelling." 

The experience and discipline of this pioneer-life in Maine 
served to develop yet further his energy and self-reliance, to 
mature his self-knowledge, and indicate the path of activity and 
enterprise that would be most in harmony with his tastes 
and powers. This was evidently not that of the farmer. " His 
special gift was not for handling the axe or guiding the 
plough," though he could do these well. He wished to become 
a merchant ; and accordingly, leaving Maine, he entered into 
trade, first with Colonel Jewett at Ashburnham, and subse- 
quently with Mr. Barrett at " the foot of the old Meeting-house 
Hill in New Ipswich." But his energy and activity required a 
larger sphere. He removed to Boston in 1794, and commenced 
a business which at once became prosperous, and soon large 
and extensive. In 1799, having formed a partnership with his 
brother Nathan, under the firm of " S. & N. Appleton," he made 
his first voyage to Europe ; and, for the next twenty years, 
much of his time was passed abroad, in selecting importations, 
and transacting the foreign business of the firm. Though 
largely engaged in the importing business, he was, in connec- 



14 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [APRIL, 

tion with his brother, Nathan Appleton, and others, among the 
earliest of those who encouraged the introduction of domestic 
manufactures, and is entitled to share largely in whatever 
praise is due to the patriotism, the public spirit, " the wise 
foresight of the future industrial wants of the community," 
which built up Waltham, Lowell, Manchester, and other manu- 
facturing towns. 

In 1819, Mr. Appleton married Mrs. Mary Gore, a lady 
whose just appreciation of all that was noble and excellent in 
his own character, whose ready sympathy in whatever inte- 
rested him, and in all things good and pure, whose gentle 
virtues, refined tastes, and elevating influence, made his home 
a scene of serene domestic happiness, as delightful and attrac- 
tive to others as it was blessed to its inmates. " There never 
was," writes one who was competent to judge, " a more sun- 
shiny home ; and, for the sunshine which filled it, it was his 
happiness to feel that he was indebted to the character and 
affection of the wife whom he loved." 

As he approached sixty years of age, Mr. Appleton retired 
from the firm of which he had so long been the head, and, 
gradually relinquishing all participation in the active pursuits 
of business, passed the remainder of his life in the graceful 
enjoyment, the wise and noble use, of the ample fortune which 
an honorable industry, enterprise, and commercial sagacity, 
had secured to him. His old age was beautiful and instruc- 
tive. As his life had been honorable and useful, cheerfulness 
and usefulness marked it to the last. Though withdrawn from 
business pursuits, his sympathies were never withdrawn 
from the best interests of society, or his aid refused to that 
which his judgment approved as calculated to promote them. 
During the last two or three years of his life, he was, in a great 
measure, confined to his room and his chair ; yet that room 
was the most cheerful in the house, the centre of attraction to 
the friends who loved him best and were dearest to himself, 
and from it there went forth a healthy and holy tone of moral 



1855.] MEMOIR OF SAMUEL APPLETON. 15 

feeling, and wise and large charities, that remain to benefit and 
bless many hearts. Waiting patiently, like one of old, his 
work well done, he was at length permitted to say, " Lord, 
now lettest thou thy servant depart in peace." He died on 
the 12th of July, 1853, in the eighty-eighth year of his age, 
leaving behind him that " memory of the just which is 
blessed." 

He was a just man. That comprehensive word describes 
the great element that controlled his life and character. He 
was just in his dealings, just in his judgments, just to others, 
just to himself, — to all the powers of his mind and all the 
affections of his heart, — to the mortal and immortal part of 
his nature. He had but one purpose, he knew but one law ; 
and that was to do and say and feel that which on the occa- 
sion, under the circumstances, it was just, right, that he should 
do and say and feel. Doubtless he was ambitious of success ; 
and the energy and enterprise, the patient, persevering indus- 
try and sagacity, with which he entered upon and pursued his 
business, indicate a determination to achieve success. But 
instinctively almost, in the very depths of his nature, there was 
one condition attached, — it must be an honorable and just 
success ; it must be the fruit of integrity, a success which 
brought no reproaches from others, no accusations from his 
own conscience. " A stranger, on seeing him," writes Dr. 
Peabody, " would have been first struck with his apparent sim- 
plicity and open-hearted honesty. It was in his manner, in 
his look, and in the tones of his voice. There was no mistak- 
ing it. He was an honest man, without subterfuge or dis- 
guise, incapable of any thing indirect or underhanded. . . . He 
knew of but one way of speaking; and that was to say, straight 
on, the truth. It was a principle grown into a necessity of his 
moral nature. He did not know what else to say." And it 
may be added, that he knew but one way of acting, and that 
was to do what was just and right. So strong was the impres- 
sion, the conviction, of his perfect integrity, made upon the 



16 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [APRIL, 

minds of all who knew him, that in a suit at law brought 
against him on a note of hand for a few hundred dollars, 
signed " Samuel Appleton," and found among the papers 
of a deceased person, — which note he could not prove to be a 
forgery, as there was a resemblance to his own signature, but 
simply declared it could not be genuine, as he had no recollec- 
tion of it, and there were no traces of it in his books, — the 
jury gave a verdict in his favor, on the ground that they were 
" quite sure that Mr. Appleton would not dispute the payment 
of the note, except on the certainty that he did not owe it." 
What stronger evidence could any man receive of the con- 
fidence reposed by his fellow-citizens in his integrity ? — a 
confidence which in this case was proved to be correct ; as it 
was ascertained, several years afterwards, that the note was 
genuine, but the signer of it was another Samuel Appleton, a 
sea-captain of Portland, Me., who had been dead many years. 

Mr. Appleton was a just man. Even his charities were in 
his mind but acts of justice, — something that he owed it to 
God, his fellow-men, and himself to do. It is from this 
thought, this feeling, in his own soul, coupled with his perfect 
and unspotted integrity, that they derive much of their 
precious value and efficacy. The charities of an unjust man, 
a man whose integrity and honor are suspected, or more 
than suspected, whose scrambles in the market have been so 
greedy and unscrupulous that it is felt that " dirt sticks to his 
gold," carry no great moral power with them. They are avail- 
able as money to the individuals or institutions on which they 
are bestowed ; but they do not tell upon the heart of the com- 
munity, nor gain for the giver a place of high regard and 
affectionate respect in that heart. Mr. Appleton was beloved 
because he was known to be just as well as benevolent ; because 
he was both just and benevolent ; because he held the property 
which he had accumulated by just and honorable dealing as a 
trust, in the use of which he was to be guided by what was 
due to others, to himself, and to God, the Giver of all. 



1855.] MEMOIR OF SAMUEL APPLETON. 17 

This controlling clement of his character — an instinctive 
integrity and honesty of soul, a simple desire to be and to do 
what was right — was united with a warm heart, strong and 
tender affections, and a quick sympathy in the joys and suffer- 
ings of others. He retained to the last vivid recollections of 
all the scenes and associations of his boyhood, of all the friends 
and companions of his youth, and a deep interest in all that 
related to the prosperity and improvement of his native town. 
There is no surer evidence than this of a good heart, uncor- 
rupted by the world, — of a pure and unstained life, free from 
dark and painful memories. We do not like to look back, if 
there stand out prominent in the path things that fill us with 
regret, with shame, mortification, remorse. Mr. Appleton 
delighted to look back ; for the retrospection was peaceful and 
pleasant, tending only to awaken gratitude to God and kind 
feelings towards man. He never lost his interest in any, how- 
ever humble, who were connected with the labor and struggles 
of his early life, nor failed to give them, if needed, substantial 
tokens of his remembrance and his sympathy. To a large cir- 
cle of kindred, his warm affections went out in constant acts of 
kindness, and in aid and encouragement wisely given to pro- 
mote their success and advancement in the world. All the 
best interests and institutions of his native town were fostered 
by his liberal hand ; and its Academy, placed on a permanent 
foundation through funds which were largely his gift, will 
stand as a lasting memorial alike of his benevolence and of 
" his love toward the spot where he was born." 

But his charities were not confined within the range of his 
personal interests or sympathies. Always liberal, he made it a 
rule, during the last years of his life, to dispose of his whole 
income, and did so in ways marked by a good judgment, as 
well as by a warm and generous heart. Not only in Boston, 
but throughout New England, his name as a benefactor, some- 
times munificent, always large, is inseparably connected with 
innumerable institutions to promote education, to advance 



18 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [APRIL, 

learning, to uphold religion, to relieve the wants and woes of 
suffering humanity. By his will, after making the most ample 
provision for Mrs. Appleton, and for a large circle of kindred 
by special legacies, he bequeathed in trust to his executors 
stocks to the amount, at par value, of two hundred thousand 
dollars, " to be by them applied, disposed of, and distributed 
for scientific, literary, religious, and charitable purposes." 
These gentlemen, in the execution of their trust, selected the 
Massachusetts Historical Society to be the recipient of ten 
thousand dollars of this trust-fund ; and in their note commu- 
nicating this decision, which they believe " to be in accordance 
with his wishes," say, " The donation is made in trust, to con- 
stitute a fund, the income of which shall be applied to the 
procuring, preservation, preparation, and publication of his- 
torical papers." 

Mr. Appleton was not a member of this Society ; but hence- 
forth his name will stand in an honorable position on its records 
and in its publications. In our hearts and memories, and in 
those of this whole community and of coming generations, he 
will be held in affectionate respect and grateful remembrance, 
as a just, generous, truthful, sincere disciple of the great Mas- 
ter; one who, to the trusting and loving heart of the child, 
added the firmness, wisdom, and good judgment of the man ; 
and who, throughout a long life, so far as the infirmities of 
human nature admit, came up to the great, comprehensive 
requirement, "to do justly, love mercy, and walk humbly 
before God."] 



Thomas Aspinwall, Esq., for many years a Corre- 
sponding Member of the Society during his residence as 
United-States Consul in London, having returned to this 
State, was elected a Resident Member vice Isaac P. Davis, 
Esq., deceased. 



1855.] RECOVERY OP BRADFORD'S MANUSCRIPT. 19 

Mr. Deane announced to the Society the recovery of 
Governor Bradford's long-missing manuscript, " History 
of Plymouth," now ascertained to be in the Fulham 
Library; and detailed the circumstances which led to 
its discovery, and the means taken to procure a copy, 
substantially as follows : — 

It may not be familiar to the general reader, but it is well 
known to students of our New-England history, that William 
Bradford, the second Governor of Plymouth, wrote a history 
of the Pilgrims and that colony, from 1602 to 1647, which 
contained two hundred and seventy folio pages ; and this, 
which was never published, was used freely by Morton in 
making his Memorial, by Hutchinson in writing his History, 
and by Prince in preparing his Annals. Thus Prince, in the 
preface to his first volume, 1736, cites as one of his authorities 
" Governor Bradford's * History of Plymouth People and 
Colony, from 1602 to the end of 1646,' in two hundred and 
seventy pages ; with some account, at the end, of the increase 
of those who came over with him from 1620 to 1650 ; and all 
in his own handwriting." Governor Hutchinson, in his second 
volume, published first in 1767, is one of the last, if not the 
last, who has referred to the manuscript. 

From this time, nothing, until lately, was heard of this 
volume. While in the possession of Prince, who died in 
1758, it was deposited in the New-England Library, in the 
tower of the Old South Church, where he kept his choice 
historical treasures, and where probably it reposed at the 
time of the siege of Boston, when that church was used for a 
riding-school by the British soldiers. Among these treasures 
was Governor Bradford's letter-book. This was carried to 
Nova Scotia, and the earlier or more valuable part destroyed ; 
but the remainder was rescued from a grocer's shop in Hali- 
fax, about twenty years afterwards, by James Clark, Esq., a 



20 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [April, 

Corresponding Member of this Society, and was printed in 
the third volume of the Collections, 1794. It has been sup- 
posed that Bradford's manuscript history shared the fate of 
other documents that were at that time destroyed or carried 
away. It has long been given up as lost. 

The late Dr. Young found in the manuscript-records of the 
First Church of Plymouth a narrative, which, by making com- 
parison of it with the large extracts from the original Bradford 
manuscript cited in Hutchinson and Prince, he supposed to be 
a portion of the History of Governor Bradford. This portion, 
which comes down no further than the year 1620, and which 
probably was a compilation by Morton from Bradford's History, 
was printed by Dr. Young in his admirable work, the " Chroni- 
cles of the Pilgrims," 1841. 

Thus matters stood, until a few weeks ago, as to this long- 
lost manuscript, — an authority, of course, that takes prece- 
dence of all other authorities relative to Plymouth Colony. 
The clew which led to its recent discovery was furnished by a 
little volume, which was printed in London a few years ago, 
entitled " A History of the Protestant Episcopal Church in 
America, by Samuel, Lord Bishop of Oxford. Second edi- 
tion, 1846." A copy of this work fell into the hands of the 
Rev. John S. Barry, who has made a valuable contribution to 
our local annals in a History of Hanover, and for several 
years has been engaged in writing a History of Massachu- 
setts, now in the press. In this book, he recognized passages 
similar to those found in Prince and Morton, and cited as from 
Bradford's History ; but the author referred, as the source 
whence he obtained them, to a " MS. History of the Plan- 
tation of Plymouth, &c, in the Fulham Library." There 
were other passages also, containing new matter, which were 
referred to the same source. Mr. Barry was impressed with 
the belief that this manuscript referred to could be no other 
than the long-lost History of Bradford. He immediately 
communicated his views to Messrs. Shurtleff and Deane, of 



Av U * 

































u s ^* "H *1 -8 «« •. 



1855.] RECOVERY OF BRADFORD'S MANUSCRIPT. 21 

this Society, who fully concurred in them, and who felt the 
importance of at once taking steps to ascertain their correct- 
ness. This was in February last. As one of the Publishing 
Committee, Mr. Deane immediately addressed a letter to the 
Rev. Joseph Hunter, of London, a Corresponding Member of 
this Society, soliciting his aid in the examination of the 
manuscript, and in the endeavor to procure a copy of it, should 
it prove to be Bradford's History. He sent further, as a means 
of verification of the manuscript, an original letter of Gov. 
Bradford. 

Mr. Hunter immediately responded to the call made upon 
him ; and the result may be seen in the following letters : — 

30, Torrington Square, March 12, 1855. 
To Charles Deane, Esq., Boston. 

Dear Sir, — Not having the honor of being acquainted with the 
Bishop of London,* I applied to the Bishop of Oxford immediately 
on the receipt of your letter, who assured me that he was confident 
the Bishop of London would allow me to make the examination you 
had requested, and who very kindly undertook to introduce the subject 
himself to his lordship. 

This cleared the way ; and I addressed a letter to the Bishop of 
London, explaining to his lordship what it was that the Massachusetts 
Historical Society had applied to me to perform for them (or rather 
what I was requested to do on behalf of the Society) ; namely, to 
ascertain whether the Fulham manuscript were indeed Bradford's 
original in his own handwriting, and, more generally, what is the true 
nature and character of the manuscript. 

To this I received an immediate reply on Friday last, in which the 
Bishop assures me that every facility shall be afforded me for the ex- 
amination of the manuscript, and that he will bring it to town when 
first he goes to Fulham, and give me notice accordingly. You are 
probably aware that Fulham is several miles distant from London. 

I thought it right, at the same time, to apprise his Lordship that the 
granting this favor might possibly draw on another request ; namely, 
that he would permit an exact copy to be made of it, for the purpose 

* Who has charge of the Fulham Library. 



22 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [April, 

of being introduced among the Transactions of the Society. Should 
this request be presented to him, it will impose more inconvenience 
upon the Bishop than the mere inspection and comparison, which I 
could do in a single morning, unless he would be disposed to intrust 
the manuscript to my care, when I should find no difficulty, or very 
little, in having a transcript made of it. If, after the report which I 
shall make of it, a transcript shall be called for, I think there ought to 
be a formal application from the Council of the Society, expressing 
this their desire to the Bishop, which I would undertake to present 
to him. 

I shall be in daily expectation of hearing that the manuscript has 
been brought to London House, though I can easily excuse any delay ; 
conceiving that at this season of the year, when Parliament is sitting, 
and there is so much other public business requiring his attention, the 
visits of the Bishop to Fulham may not be very frequent. 

I am, dear Sir, your very faithful servant, 

Joseph Hunter. 

30, Torrington Square, March 19, 1855. 
To Charles Deane, Esq. 

Dear Sir, — The Bishop of London, with his accustomed prompti- 
tude, brought the manuscript to town in the course of last week ; and 
on Friday I had the opportunity of inspecting it at his Lordship's 
house in St. James Square. 

But his Lordship added much to this favor, by assuring me that I 
was at perfect liberty to take it home, and to make whatever extracts 
from it I pleased, or to copy the whole ; so that all difficulties of that 
kind are removed, and the Society is perfectly at liberty to have a 
copy made for its use, from which they may print, if they think it ex- 
pedient to do so. 

There is not the slightest doubt that the manuscript is Governor 
Bradford's own autograph. Not only is there a sufficient degree of 
correspondence between the handwriting of the manuscript and that 
of the letter which you transmitted to me, but there is the attestation 
of one of the family, written in 1705, stating that it was given by the 
Governor to his son, Major William Bradford, and by him to his son, 
Major John Bradford. There is also, in the handwriting of Prince, 
a memorandum dated June 4, 1728, showing how he obtained it from 
Major John Bradford. It also appears to have been in the New- 
England Library. And, finally, the written pages are two hundred 



1855.] RECOVERY OF BRADFORD'S MANUSCRIPT. 23 

and seventy ; the number named by Prince, and subsequently by Dr. 
Young, as the number of pages in the long-lost volume. 

I have compared the portion of the manuscript which corresponds 
with pp. 1-108 of Dr. Young's Chronicles of the Pilgrim Fathers, and 
find much variation in the phraseology, and several pretty large 
omissions, not so much of matters of fact and history, as of Bradford's 
reflections upon them. This constitutes about one-sixth part of the 
entire work. I have not compared the remainder with the extracts in 
Prince and Hutchinson ; but, on a cursory examination, I should say 
that there must be many things which they have not used. The latter 
part is in the way of annals, the last year being 1 646. 

It now remains for the Historical Society to determine whether they 
will have a fair and exact copy made of it. I have spoken to a 
gentleman who would undertake to do it, and who would execute it in 
a scholar-like and business-like manner. I cannot undertake to do 
much myself in the labor of transcribing or correcting, though I should 
have no objection to giving a little attention and supervision as the 
work is in progress. 

As it seems to be your wish that no time should be lost, and as I 
should myself be glad to be relieved from the care of so precious a 
volume, and to restore it to the Bishop's library, it would be well 
if instructions were given in your next communication respecting 
the form in which you would wish the copy to be made; that is, 
whether with the contractions as used by Bradford, and his own 
orthography, or reduced to modern orthography, as is done by Dr. 
Young in the part which he has printed. It would be expedient to 
copy the original so far as to write on only one side of the leaf, as 
there are a few additions on some of the opposite pages, and also a 
few notes in the handwriting of Prince, which it might be well to pre- 
serve ; distinguishing them, of course, from the work of Bradford. 

I return the letter of Governor Bradford in this envelope. 

I am, dear Sir, your very faithful servant, 

Joseph Hunter. 



These letters were received on the 6th and 7th of April ; and 
a reply was immediately made and forwarded by the steamer 
of the 11th, with directions to have an exact copy of the manu- 
script made as soon as practicable. 



24 



MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



[April, 



Whereupon, on motion of Dr. Shurtleff, it was 
voted to ratify the doings of Mr. Deane in the premises, 
and that the Treasurer be directed to reimburse the ex- 
penses he may incur in procuring the copy. 




DEAN BERKELEY'S CHAIR. 



Mr. Winthrop, in response to a call on the Third 
Section for communications, said that he had been com- 
missioned by Mrs. Davis, the widow of our late esteemed 
and respected associate, Isaac P. Davis, Esq., to present 
to the Society an antique chair which had belonged to 
Dean Berkeley. He held in his hand an original letter 
to Mr. Davis, containing the history of the chair, which 
he proceeded to read as follows : — 



1855.] DEAN BERKELEY'S CHAIR. 25 

Middle Street, May 21, 1822. 
To Isaac P. Davis, Esq. 

My dear Sir, — Agreeably to your desire, I will inform 
you of what I know of the wooden chair which you purchased 
a few days since. It was bought by my father at an auction of 
the furniture of Timothy Cutler, D.D., the first rector of Christ 
Church in Boston. Dr. Cutler was a Congregational mini- 
ster at Stratford, in Connecticut. In the year 1719, he was 
removed to New Haven, as Rector of Yale College. He con- 
formed to the Church of England in 1723. The church was 
built in order to establish him in Boston, and he had a grant 
from England of seventy pounds sterling per annum. The 
price Dr. Eliot paid for the chair was one shilling sterling. 

When Dr. Cutler was in England to be invested with the 
holy orders for a priest, he bought the chair at an auction of 
Dean Berkeley's effects, and brought it to Boston. It was 
made in Rome under direction of the Dean, and modelled 
according to the form of the ivory chairs used by the Curule 
iEdiles, as Dr. Cutler used to state. It afterwards became the 
property of Dr. John Eliot. Until the present time, it seems 
to have been entailed upon the clergy, — say John Eliot, D.D. ; 
Andrew Eliot, D.D. ; Timothy Cutler, D.D. ; Dean Berkeley, 
who was also a D.D. probably. 

It is now near one hundred years since Dr. Cutler 

bought it. 

Yours with respect, 

# Ephraim Eliot. 

Whereupon, on motion of Mr. Winthrop, the Secre- 
tary was instructed to communicate the thanks of the 
Society to Mrs. Davis for her interesting gift. 

Dr. Webb, of the Third Section, being called on for 
communications, stated that — 

4 



26 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [APRIL. 

He had long been in search of a curious literary production 
of our Colonial times, written by Peter Folger, one of the early 
settlers of Nantucket. To most of the oldest inhabitants there, 
the work is, as it were, only traditionally known ; certain por- 
tions of it having been committed to memory, and thus handed 
down from generation to generation. No copy of it is to be 
found on the island, and it is not generally known that it was 
ever printed. Inquiry has also been made for it in vain else- 
where. 

Recently, Dr. Webb accidentally met with a gentleman, 
a descendant of Folger, who observed to him that he owned a 
small pamphlet which he thought might be worthy of exami- 
nation by those interested in historical matters ; but being the 
production of an ancestor, and the only copy in existence, to 
his knowledge, he felt reluctant to have it pass from his hands. 
Dr. Webb, however, by invitation, had the privilege of examin- 
ing it, and found to his gratification that it was the one for 
which he had hitherto made such fruitless inquiries. He had 
the pleasure of exhibiting it to the meeting. 

It is entitled, "A Looking Glass for the Times, or The 
Former Spirit of New England revived in this Generation." 
It is dated from " Sherbon Town [Nantucket], where now I 
dwell," April 23, 1676 ; at which time Folger was Clerk of the 
Writs, and Recorder to the Court. It seems not to have been 
printed until 1763; where, or by whom, it does not appear. 
It is a duodecimo, of fourteen pages, with two pages of appen- 
dix. It is written in verse, and was prompted by the troubles 
of the times ; namely, the Indian wars and the persecution of 
the Quakers. 

Whereupon, on motion of Mr. Ticknor, it was voted, 
that Dr. Webb be requested to ask permission of the 
owner of this tract that a copy thereof may be made for 



1855.] ANCIENT BILL OF LADING. 27 

the Society, and that such copy be referred to the Pub- 
lishing Committee. 

Dr. Webb also exhibited a Genealogical Chart of the 
Folger family, interesting as a means of tracing Benjamin 
Franklin's maternal ancestry ; he being a son of Abiah, 
the ninth and last child of Peter Folger. He exhibited 
also the genealogies of some of the principal families of 
that spot, whence so much light has been diffused 
throughout the land. Among the families may be men- 
tioned that of Coffin, which is here traced back to the 
time of William the Conqueror. 

The President presented to the Society an ancient 
Bill of Lading, London, 22d June, 1632, of which the 
following is a copy : — 

Shipped by the grace of God in good order and well condi- 
tioned by me ffrancis Kerby of London in and 
vpon the good Ship called the lion of London 
whereof is Master vnder God for this present voyage Wil- 
liam Peyrce and now riding at ankor in the riuer of 
Thames and by Gods grace bound for New England 
To say two dry fats of goods being marked & num- 
bred as in the margent, and are to be delivered in the like good 
order and well conditioned at the aforesaid Port of Matta- 
chnset bay (the dangers and adventures of the Seas only ex- 
cepted) vnto John Winthrop the yonger or to his assignes, 
he or they paying fraight for the said goods, at foure pounds 
pr ton with primage & avarage accustomed. In witnes 
wherof the Master or Purser of the said ship hath affirmed to 
three Bills of Lading all of this tenour & date, the one of which 
three Bills being accomplished, the other two to stand void. 



28 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [APRIL, 

And so God send the good ship to her desired Port in safety. 
Amen. 

Dated in London this 22th of June, 1622.* 

Pme Rob : Reeue. 

The President communicated from Ellis Ames, Esq., 
our associate, who was not present, a memorandum of 
the estate of William Sherman of Stoughton, the settle- 
ment thereof, the names of the children, — among whom 
was the celebrated Roger Sherman, one of the signers 
of the Declaration of Independence, — and a statement 
of the conveyance of the family estate by Roger Sher- 
man to Stephen Badlam of Dedham, by deed recorded 
Feb. 7, 1743, and dated Nov. 23, 1742, and the admis- 
sion of Sherman to the Rev. Mr. Dunbar's church, March 
14, 1742. 

Voted to refer this communication to the Publishing 
Committee for the next volume. 

Mr. Minot, from the Committee appointed at the 
last meeting to nominate officers for the ensuing year, 
reported the following list ; it having been announced 
to the Society, that the Hon. James Savage declined a 



* Erroneously dated for 1632. This Bill of Lading is indorsed, " Reced this 22th 
of June 1632 of Mr Francis Kerbey the som of six pounds and is in pt of payment for 
the fraight of thes goodes I say Reced in Pme Rob: Reeue" — and labelled, 
" Bill of lading pr Mr Peirse ship, Sept: 17, 1632." This latter date was the day after 
the arrival of the " Lynn" at Boston, as appears by Winthrop's Journal, vol. i. p. 90, 
under date of Sept. 16 ; " being the Lord's day. In the evening, Mr. Peirce, in the ship 
' Lyon,' arrived, and came to an anchor before Boston. He brought one hundred and 
twenty-three passengers, whereof fifty children, all in health ; and lost not one person 
by the way, save his carpenter, who fell overboard as he was caulking a port. They 
had been twelve weeks aboard, and eight weeks from the Land's End. He had five 
days east wind and thick fog, so as he was forced to come, all that time, by the lead ; 
and the first land he made was Cape Ann." 









1855.] ELECTION OP OFFICERS. 1^1 > 

re-election as President, and the Rev. J. B. Felt as 
Librarian : — 

President. 

Hon. ROBERT C. WINTHROP, LL.D Boston. 

Recording Secretary. 
JOSEPH WILLARD, Esq., A.M Boston. 

Corresponding Secretary. 
Rev. WILLIAM P. LUNT, D.D Quincy. 

Librarian. 
Rev. SAMUEL K. LOTHROP, D.D Boston. 

Treasurer. 
Hon. RICHARD FROTHINGPIAM, Jun Charlestown. 

Cab inet- Keeper . 
NATHANIEL B. SHURTLEFF, M.D Boston. 

Standing Committee. 

CHARLES DEANE, Esq Cambridge. 

Rev. LUCIUS R. PAIGE, A.M Cambridge. 

Rev. CHANDLER ROBBINS, A.M Boston. 

Hon. JOHN C. GRAY, A.M. . Boston. 

WILLIAM BRIGHAM, Esq., A.B Boston. 

Whereupon the Society proceeded to a ballot, and 
the above-named gentlemen were duly elected. 

On motion of Mr. Ticknor, — Resolved, That the 
members of this Society — mindful of the excellent 
services which, for fourteen years, the Hon. James 
Savage has rendered as its President, and of his pe- 
culiar fitness for that place, not only on all other 
grounds, but from his extraordinarily accurate know- 
ledge of whatever relates to the early history of New 
England — do now express their great regret at his 
resignation, and offer him their thanks for his long-tried 
and uniform fidelity to their interests. 



30 ' MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [APRIL, 

Mr. Savage feelingly responded to the sentiment of 
this resolve. 

Mr. Winthrop then took the chair, and spoke sub- 
stantially as follows : — 

I am highly honored, gentlemen, in being called on to pre- 
side over this Society, and sincerely grateful to those who 
have thought me worthy to occupy this ancient and venerable 
chair. I need hardly say that I am deeply sensible, also, how 
many others of our number — both of those who are present 
and of those who are absent to-day — are every way better 
entitled than myself to such a distinction. It seems, however, 
to have been thought fit, on this occasion of our annual or- 
ganization, to follow the analogies of the chosen emblem of 
our association, selected, I believe, by the late admirable 
Judge Davis, and now engraved on our corporate seal. I 
mean the beehive, where the busiest workers are not suffered 
to be called away from their cells for any mere formal purposes 
of administration. 

I cannot forget, however, that such has not always been 
the policy of the Society heretofore. Certainly it was not 
in the case of my immediate predecessor, who, retiring from the 
chair this day, to the regret of us all, after a service of twice 
seven years, has collected and stored up, for our benefit and 
for the benefit of posterity, as much of genuine historical honey 
as any one who has ever been connected with the Society 
since its foundation. Nor can we fail to remember that he has 
gathered it all from hills nearer and dearer to us than Hybla or 
Hymettus. If, gentlemen, I could hope to leave behind me 
at the end of my service, be it longer or shorter, one-half as 
grateful a memory as he now leaves in all our hearts for 
punctuality, industry, accuracy, and devoted fidelity in all 
that concerns the interests and objects of our association, I 
should feel less misgiving — I had almost said, less compunc- 
tion — in succeeding him. 



1855.] PROCEEDINGS OF MAY MEETING. 31 

I fear, however, that you are destined to miss not a little of 
that fulness of information, of that richness of reminiscence, 
of that raciness and pungency of remark and repartee, which 
have so often given the highest relish and the best zest to our 
monthly meetings, and which have seldom been more strik- 
ingly displayed than this very morning. Let us hope that 
what is lost to the chair may be gained to the floor ; and that 
Section No. 3, in which my friend and myself have now 
exchanged places, may henceforth be relied on to afford us a 
double measure of instruction and gratification. 

For myself, gentlemen, I can only assure you that no efforts 
shall be wanting on my part to contribute whatever may be in 
my power to your prosperity and honor. 

Voted to dissolve this meeting. 



MAY MEETING. 

The Society held their stated meeting this day, Thurs- 
day, May 10, at their Rooms in Tremont Street; the 
President, Hon. Robert C. Winthrop, in the chair. 

The Librarian announced donations from Fisher A. 
Kingsbury, Esq., Hon. Wm. C. Aylwin, Rev. Dr. E. W. 
Hooker, and Hon. Charles Sumner ; also from Messrs. 
Harris, Shurtleff, Sibley, Winthrop, and Webb, of the 
Society. 

Voted, That the thanks of the Society be presented 
to John Belknap, Esq., for the marble bust of Frederick 
Tudor, Esq., recently received. 

Charles S. Davies, Esq., of Portland, Me., was elected 
a Corresponding Member of the Society. 

Voted, That Messrs. Brigham and Shurtleff be a Com- 



32 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

mittee to make application forthwith to the Legislature 
of Massachusetts, now in session, for such an amend- 
ment of the charter of the Society as will admit of their 
holding property to an amount not exceeding the sum 
of one hundred thousand dollars. 

On motion of Rev. Dr. Lothrop, voted that the thanks 
of the Society be presented to the Rev. Joseph B. Felt, 
late its Librarian, for his faithful services in that office. 

Mr. Ticknor, from the Committee on the Treasurer's 
accounts, having reported in part at the April meeting, 
now further reported, "That the certificates of the stocks 
of the Appleton Fund had been examined and found to 
be in the Treasurer's hands, standing in the name of the 
Society." 



JUNE MEETING. 

The Society held their stated monthly meeting on 
Thursday, June 14, at noon, at their rooms in Tremont 
Street, Boston ; the President, Hon. Robert C. Win- 
throp, in the chair. 

The Librarian announced donations from the Mary- 
land Historical Society, the Rhode Island Historical 
Society, the State of New York, the Boston Mercantile 
Library Association, the American Philosophical So- 
ciety, the Committee of Arrangements on the Fiftieth 
Anniversary of the settlement of Rev. B. Emerson in 
Salem, Hon. Charles Sumner, James S. Loring, Esq., 
Rev. Dr. Wm. Allen, Dr. Edward Jarvis, E. C. Herrick, 
Esq., Dr. J. V. C. Smith, Dr. Martin Payne, and Rev. 



1855.] AMENDMENT OF CHARTER. 33 

John Stetson Barry; also from Messrs. Ames, Livermore, 
and Sibley, of this Society. 

The President placed upon the table photographic 
likenesses of a number of the members of the Society, 
taken in a group by Mr. John A. Whipple, and neatly 
framed, being a present from Mr. Whipple : whereupon, 
voted that the thanks of the Society be presented to Mr. 
Whipple for his kind gift. The names of these mem- 
bers of the Society are as follows : viz., Mr. Savage, 
late the President of the Society, in the chair, in the 
centre of the group ; Messrs. Adams, Appleton, Blagden, 
Deane, Ellis, Everett, Felt, P. Frothingham, jun., John 
C. Gray, Hillard, Jenks, Lothrop, Lawrence, Lunt, 
Prescott, Quincy, Pobbins, Sears, Shaw, ShurtlefT, 
Sparks, Ticknor, White, Winthrop, Willard. 

The Corresponding Secretary read a letter of accept- 
ance from Thomas Aspinwall, Esq. He also commu- 
nicated two letters from Dr. Franklin B. Hough, clerk 
in charge of the State Census of New York, stating in 
substance that there exist in the Secretary's office of the 
State of New York many curious and interesting unpub- 
lished documents relating to Nantucket and Martha's 
Vineyard, which were included within the grants to the 
Duke of York, and embracing the period between 1650 
or earlier, and 1700 or later. 

Voted to refer these communications to Mr. Sparks, 
to investigate the subject, and report thereupon. 

Mr. Brjgham, from the Committee appointed at the 
last meeting to make application to the Legislature for 
an amendment of the Charter of the Society, reported 
that they had attended to that duty ; and that the fol- 



34 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

lowing Act had been passed, signed, and approved by 
the Governor ; viz., — 

Commonfoealijj of gTassatjnt&eiia. 

IN THE TEAR OF OUR LORD ONE THOUSAND EIGHT HUNDRED AND FIFTY-FIVE. 

AN ACT IN ADDITION TO AN ACT TO INCORPORATE THE MASSACHUSETTS 
HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives in General 
Court assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows : — 

Sect. 1. — The Massachusetts Historical Society is hereby au- 
thorized to hold real and personal estate, in addition to its Library, to 
an amount not exceeding one hundred thousand dollars. 

Sect. 2. — This Act shall take effect from and after its passage. 

House of Eepresentatives, May 19, 1855. 
Passed to be enacted. 

Daniel C. Eddy, Speaker. 

In Senate, May 19, 1855. 
Passed to be enacted. 

Henry W. Benchley, President. 

Approved May 21, 1855. 

Henky J. Gardner. 

Thereupon Voted, That the foregoing Act be, and the 
same is hereby, accepted. 

Mr. Livermore presented in manuscript a narrative 
of two visits made by Father Gabriel Druillettes, a 
Jesuit missionary among the Abnaquois Indians, to 
Boston and Plymouth in 1650 and 1651, for the pur- 
pose of forming a colonial union proposed by the 
United Colonies, and accepted by the French of Canada, 
in the hope of procuring aid against the Iroquois who 
had just overthrown the Hurons, the early allies of 
the French. This narrative was found in the land-office 
in Canada East, and was translated from the French by 
John Gilmary Shea, Esq., of New York, prefaced by a 



1855.] PROVINCIAL RESOLVES. 35 

biographical sketch of the author. A few copies in the 
original French have been printed for private distribu- 
tion by James Lenox, Esq., of New York, in imitation 
of the old Jesuit Relations. 

Voted, That the thanks of the Society be presented to 
Mr. Shea for this very acceptable contribution, and that 
the manuscript be referred to the Publishing Com- 
mittee. 

Mr. Ames presented to the Society a printed copy of 
the Resolves passed by the last House of Representa- 
tives of the Province of Massachusetts Bay at Salem, 
June 17, 1774, and transmitted to the Selectmen of the 
several towns and districts in the Province, under 
the signature of Samuel Adams, Clerk of the House. 

The first Resolve concurred in by the Council, but 
negatived by Governor Gage, recommended the raising 
by the respective towns and districts the sum of £500, 
in designated sums, to enable the Committee, appointed 
to meet the Committees and Delegates of the other Colo- 
nies, " to discharge the important trust to which they 
are appointed." 

The second Resolve recommended the relief of the 
towns of Boston and Charlestown, " suffering under the 
hand of power by shutting up the harbor by an armed 
force." The third Resolve recommended to the inhabi- 
tants of the Province " to renounce altogether the 
consumption of Indian teas, &c. ; " to encourage the 
manufactures of America ; " and to suppress pedlers 
and petty chapmen, who are of late become a very great 
nuisance." 

This particular copy was transmitted to the Select- 

1128334 



36 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JlJLY, 

men of the town of Tisbury, who indorsed thereupon 
the collection of the sum assessed upon that town. 

Mr. R. Frothingham, jun., made some interesting 
remarks upon the expediency of publishing, in connec- 
tion with this paper, the Journal of the Committee of 
Donations of Boston, 1774, and the Resolves passed at 
a meeting of the Committee of Correspondence held in 
Faneuil Hall, Aug. 26, 1774. 

Col. Aspinwall exhibited an ancient copy of the 
Colonial Records, beginning with the first meeting of 
the Governor and Company in London, and ending Aug. 
6, 1645. This copy was formerly in the possession of 
Governor Hutchinson, and was obtained from his grand- 
son by Col. Aspinwall, and is of considerable importance, 
as it supplies several deficient leaves in the original 
Record. 



JULY MEETING. 

The Society held their stated monthly meeting on 
Thursday, July 12, at noon, at their rooms in Tremont 
Street, Boston ; the President, Hon. Robert C. Win- 
throp, in the chair. 

The Librarian announced donations from the State of 
New York, the Trustees of the New-York State Library, 
the City of Cambridge, the Connecticut Association, 
Rev. John Brown, John Bartlett, Esq., Charles J. 
Hoadly, Esq., Timothy A. Paine, Esq. ; also from 
Messrs. Robbins, Sears, Shurtleff, and Winthrop, of 
this Society. 






1855.] PROCEEDINGS OP AUGUST MEETING. 37 

James Lenox, Esq., and John Gilmary Shea, Esq., 
of New York, were elected Corresponding Members of 
the Society. 

Judge Shaw exhibited a map of the dominions of the 
King of Great Britain on the continent of North 
America, by Herman Moll, geographer, 1715. This 
map contains the lines of proposed military stations, or 
" the barrier scheme," as drawn by Captain Jeffrey Grey, 
extending from Boston to Pennacook on the Merri- 
mack, and thence in a direct line to Bay Chaleur. Also 
a map of Boston and the surrounding country in 1775. 
"James Urquhart, Town Major." Also "the Scotch 
Victor," representing three British soldiers attacking an 
unarmed man, designed to caricature the Earl of Bute, 
represented by the figure of a boot, and dedicated to the 
earl by " Lucius Junius Brutus." 



AUGUST MEETING. 

The Society held their stated monthly meeting on 
Thursday, Aug. 9, at noon, at their rooms in Tremont 
Street, Boston ; the President, Hon. Robert C. Win- 
throp, in the chair. 

The Librarian announced donations from the Ameri- 
can Antiquarian Society ; the American Tract Society ; 
the Department of State, Washington ; the Connecticut 
Historical Society; the Albany Institute; the Young 
Men's Association, Milwaukie ; Dr. John C. Warren, 
Messrs. John Bartlett and Charles W. Bartlett ; also 
from Hon. William Willis, and John G. Shea, Esq., 



38 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [AUGUST, 

Corresponding Members ; and from Messrs. Deane, 
Washburn, and Webb, resident members of the Society. 

Mr. F. C. Gray made an explanation of the historical 
facts connected with the Bute caricature exhibited at 
the last meeting, and was requested to reduce the same 
to writing for preservation by the Society. 

The Eight Reverend Samuel Wilberforce, D.D., 
Bishop of Oxford, was elected a Corresponding Member 
of this Society. 

Mr. Ames, from the First Section, presented a printed 
copy of the " Address of the Gentlemen and Principal 
Inhabitants of the Town of Boston," of the " Address 
of His Majesty's Council," and of the " Address of 
the Gentlemen who were driven from their Habita- 
tions in the Country to the Town of Boston," offered to 
General Gage, together with his answers to the same, 
Oct. 6, 1775. 

Mr. Brigham, from the First Section, exhibited a deed 
of a pew in Brattle-street Church, dated March 22, 1708, 
as showing the mode at that time of paying the minister's 
salary by a weekly contribution assessed upon each pew. 

Mr. Deane communicated a letter from Rev. Mr. 
Hunter, London, July 14, 1855, accompanying the copy 
of Bradford's History, and bearing testimony to the 
" very satisfactory manner " in which " the transcriber 
had done his work." With the letter, Mr. Deane exhibit- 
ed a portion of the copy, and remarked upon the great 
value of the part he has examined, in verifying what we 
already possess, and by the addition of new and inte- 
resting facts. A memorandum in the handwriting of 
Prince shows how he became possessed of the original 



1855.] PROCEEDINGS OF SEPTEMBER MEETING. 39 



manuscript, and how it became a part of the New Eng- 
land Library. 

Resolved, That the thanks of the Society be presented 
to the Rev. Joseph Hunter, F.A.S., of London, for the 
promptitude with which he responded to the request 
made to him to examine the manuscript in the Fulham 
Library, now ascertained to be Governor Bradford's 
" History of Plymouth ; " and for his valuable services 
in superintending the copy of the same made for the 
Society. 

Resolved, That the thanks of this Society be present- 
ed to the Right Reverend Charles James Bloomfield, 
D.D., Bishop of London, for his liberality and kindness 
in permitting a copy to be made, for their use, of Gov- 
ernor Bradford's manuscript " History of Plymouth," 
recently ascertained to be in the Fulham Library, and 
for placing the original in the hands of Mr. Hunter, of 
London, for that purpose. 

Voted, That the Standing Committee, with the assist- 
ance of Mr. Ames, be directed to arrange, collate, 
prepare for binding, and cause to be bound, for the 
Library of this Society, the Journals of the House of 
Representatives of the Province of Massachusetts Bay. 



SEPTEMBER MEETING. 






The Society held their stated monthly meeting on 
Thursday, Sept. 13, at noon, at their rooms in Tremont 
Street, Boston ; the President, Hon. Robert C. Win- 
throp, in the chair. 



40 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [SEPT. 



The Librarian announced donations from the United- 
States Patent Office, the Smithsonian Institute, the 
Directors of the Blackstone Monument Association, 
Hon. Wm. Appleton, Hon. S. H. Walley, Rev. James 
Means, Dr. Samuel A. Green, Dr. S. Punderson, Messrs. 
J. S. Loring, Charles B. Norton, and Hezekiah S. Chase ; 
also from Richard Almack, Esq., Corresponding Mem- 
ber, and Dr. ShurtlefT, Resident Member. 

The President communicated the donation of the 
" History of the Family of Menou," by Count Jules 
de Menou. 

The Cabinet-Keeper stated that Father Ralles' 
" strong box," which was deposited in the cabinet in 
September, 1845, by the late R. R. Waldron, Esq., and 
again by Nathaniel Sheafe Waldron, Major in the Marine 
Corps, Aug. 16, 1850, is now called for by Major Wal- 
dron, by a written order ; and that the box will be 
delivered in pursuance thereof. 

Mr. F. C. Gray proposed the following votes, which 
were read, and unanimously adopted ; viz., — 

Voted, That we deeply lament the death of our late 
associate, Abbott Lawrence, who was distinguished ever 
in this community by manliness of character and by lofty 
integrity, enlarged views, intelligent enterprise, and 
persevering energy, and was among the foremost in pro- 
moting every project for the public good, by wise 
counsels and personal efforts, as well as by pecuniary 
aid ; who, with the most kindly feelings towards all 
men, and the utmost readiness to serve all, took special 
pleasure in helping the young, giving them not only 
prompt assistance, but good advice and hearty encourage- 






1855.] PROCEEDINGS. 41 

ment, and teaching them how to help themselves ; and 
who, while his hand was ever open to relieve the wants 
of the sick and the needy, and to give abundant support 
to all our charitable institutions, had the practical saga- 
city to perceive that the bounty which is judiciously 
directed to the social, moral, and intellectual improve- 
ment of men, is at once the most elevated in its character 
and the most extensive and most lasting in its influence, 
and the large heart to contribute munificently to this 
noblest object of enlightened benevolence. 

Voted, That the Hon. Nathan Appleton be requested 
to prepare a Memoir of Mr. Lawrence, to be published 
in our Collections. 

Voted, That the President communicate these votes 
with the expression of our sincere sympathy to the 
family of our late associate. 

Mr. Livermore, from the Second Section, read an 
interesting letter from Governor Hutchinson, dated 
Milton, Aug. 11, 1758, to Colonel Williams ; also an 
interesting letter written by Governor Belcher when 
in England, in 1740, to the Rev. Dr. Column. 

Voted, That the Standing Committee, in connection 
with the Librarian, be a Committee to make such 
disposition of duplicates in the library, by way of 
exchange or otherwise, as they may deem beneficial 
to the Society. 

Voted, That Messrs. Ames, Shurtleff, and Brigham 
be a Committee to ascertain what books and documents 
the Society is entitled to receive from the Common- 
wealth, and procure the same for the library. 



42 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 



OCTOBER MEETING. 

The Society held their stated monthly meeting on 
Oct. 11, at noon, at their rooms in Tremont Street, Bos- 
ton ; the President, Hon. Robert C. Winthrop, in the 
chair. 

The Librarian announced donations from Milo Lewis, 
B. Homer Dixon, and Thomas Balch, Esquires ; Dr. 
Samuel A. Green ; Dr. William Otis Johnson ; and from 
Messrs. Everett, Sibley, and Winthrop, of this Society. 

Mr. Appleton, from the Committee appointed at the 
January meeting, 1851, on the subject of enlarged 
accommodations for the Society, made a further report, 
in part, as follows, viz. : — " That they have received 
from Mr. Wainwright, of the Provident Institution for 
Savings, a proposition for leasing to the Society the 
second story of the building in Temple Place, and came 
to the conclusion that the premises are not well suited 
to the purposes of this Society ; and that, in their 
opinion, the Society would not be benefited by a removal 
from their present location." 

Accompanying this report was the written proposi- 
tion made by the Provident Institution, which is placed 
on file. 

Voted to accept the foregoing report as a report in 
part. Also — 

Voted, That the Standing Committee, together with 
Messrs. F. C. Gray, Adams, R. Frothingham, jun., and 
Shurtleff, ten in number, be a Committee to examine 
the church-building in Freeman Place, and any other 






1855.] PROCEEDINGS OP NOVEMBER MEETING. 43 

buildings or places fit for the Society's use, — holding 
consultations with the existing Committee, — and make 
report to the Society of the result of their examina- 
tions. 

On the subject of the documents, &c, concerning 
Nantucket and Martha's Vineyard in the New-York 
Archives, referred to in the letters of Dr. Hough, com- 
municated at the last June meeting, Mr. Sparks reported 
that he had had an interview with Dr. Hough; that they 
are original papers, in his opinion worth possessing ; and 
that copies can be obtained, if wished. He further 
reported that Dr. Hough had been in correspondence 
with the Secretary of this Commonwealth upon the sub- 
ject. Thereupon voted to refer the whole matter to the 
Standing Committee. 



NOVEMBER MEETING. 

The Society held their stated monthly meeting on 
Nov. 8, at noon, at their rooms in Tremont Street, Bos- 
ton ; the President, Hon. Robert C. Winthrop, in the 
chair. 

The President read a letter from the Recording Secre- 
tary, who stated that his engagements at court would 
make it inconvenient for him to attend the meeting; 
whereupon Rev. Chandler Robbins was appointed Sec- 
retary pro tern. 

The Librarian announced donations from Mr. John 
F. Eliot, the Regents of the University of New York, 
and from Mr. Sibley of this Society. 



44 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [NOV. 

The Corresponding Secretary read a letter from the 
Bishop of Oxford, dated " Wilton House, Oct. 10, 1855," 
thanking the Society for their consideration in electing 
him an Honorary Member, and signifying his accept- 
ance. 

He also presented a communication from Dr. Frank- 
lin B. Hough, in relation to documents concerning 
Nantucket and Martha's Vineyard found among the 
archives in the Secretary's office of the State of New 
York, as represented at our last June meeting ; with 
the additional information of the discovery of papers 
containing new and interesting facts relating to King 
Philip's war, and giving a list of all the papers men- 
tioned in both communications, with dates. 

Voted to refer these several communications to the 
Standing Committee. 

The President stated that he had received a letter 
from Mr. Sparks, relating to the subject of Dr. Hough's 
communication. Voted to refer the same to the Stand- 
ing Committee. 

Rev. John Stetson Barry, of Roxbury, and John 
Amory Lowell, Esq., of Boston, were elected Resident 
Members. 

The President, from the Committee of Ten appointed 
at the last meeting with reference to enlarged accommo- 
dations for the Society, reported that they had visited 
and examined the chapel in Freeman Place, and had 
consulted with the Committee of Three to whom the 
subject had been previously referred, but are not pre- 
pared to recommend an abandonment of the present 
premises. Meanwhile, the Committee have the pleasure 



1855.] HISTORICAL TRUST FUND. 45 

of submitting to the Society a trust-instrument, by 
which the sum of two thousand dollars is placed at the 
disposal of the Society, to aid in securing the whole of 
the estate of which they are now owners in part, or 
for obtaining any other suitable site for our library 
halls. 

This instrument is in the words and figures follow- 
ing : — 

Historical Trust Fund. 

Know all men by these presents, that I, David Sears, 
of Boston, in the County of Suffolk and Commonwealth of 
Massachusetts, Esquire, from my desire to increase the use- 
fulness of the Historical Society of Massachusetts, and in 
consideration of five dollars paid by them to me, — and more 
especially in consideration of their assenting to and agreeing, 
and undertaking to perform, the several conditions, and exe- 
cute the several trusts, hereinafter mentioned and recited, — 
do hereby give and pay over to said Historical Society the 
sum of two thousand dollars, the receipt of which they do 
hereby acknowledge ; and do make, constitute, and appoint 
said Society, and their successors, my Trustees, in the estab- 
lishment and management of a trust-fund, for the objects and 
upon the conditions hereinafter written. That is to say, to 
have and to hold the same to the said Massachusetts Histori- 
cal Society and their successors, in trust, for the following 
uses and purposes : In the first place, the said Trustees will 
immediately invest said two thousand dollars in some funded 
or public stock, or in mortgage of productive real estate, or 
in notes with undoubted collateral security, or in real estate, 
or in such other manner as shall guarantee said Trustees from 
loss ; and the same, with its accumulations and income, again 
so invest, and keep invested, to establish and constitute a per- 



46 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Nov. 

manent fund, under the name and style of the " Massachusetts 
Historical Trust Fund." 

And the annual income of said fund is to be added to the 
principal annually, between the months of July and January, 
to form a new capital of said fund ; and, when invested, is not 
afterwards to be used or expended, except as hereinafter pro- 
vided : it being understood, that, in any year before said 
annual income is so invested, said Historical Society and its 
successors may, under a recorded vote, draw forth and receive 
said past year's income, to be expended in such objects as to 
them may be desirable. And when hereafter the accumula- 
tions of said fund — by its investments of income; by additions 
made to it ; by gifts, bequests, or otherwise — shall amount to 
a sufficient sum, in aid of other means, to purchase or secure a 
suitable site for the library and halls of said Historical 
Society, or to enable said Society to appropriate and improve 
the whole of their present premises, — then, and in either of 
the cases, the said Trustees may, under a recorded vote of au- 
thority of the Society, draw out and receive the whole, or any 
part, of said accumulations of said fund, to be expended by 
them in the above-named purposes. And also, further, when- 
ever the accumulations of the trust shall amount to a sufficient 
sum, in aid of other means, to purchase or provide for desirable 
objects, appurtenant to the library or halls of the Society ; 
either for embellishments or alterations, or for paintings, 
including portraits of distinguished citizens and deceased 
members; or for works of art, &c, — then, and in either of 
these cases, the said Trustees may, under a recorded vote 
of authority of the Society, draw out and receive the whole, 
or any part, of said accumulations of said fund, to be ex- 
pended by them in either or any of the above-named purposes. 
Provided always, that in no case whatever shall the original 
trust-sum be encroached upon or diminished. 

In testimony whereof, I, the said David Sears, have here- 



1855.] PROCEEDINGS. 47 

unto set my hand and seal, this fifteenth day of October, in 
the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and fifty- 
five. 

David Sears. [Seal.] 

Signed, sealed, and delivered in presence of 

James S. Amory. 
L. B. Bailey. 

Boston, ss., Oct. 16, 1855. — Then personally appeared the 
above-named David Sears, and acknowledged the foregoing 
instrument, by him signed, to be his free act and deed ; and 
requested that the same, as such, might be recorded. 

Before me, James S. Amory, Justice of the Peace. 



The foregoing deed of trust having been read and 
considered, on motion of the Standing Committee, 
offered by Mr. Deane, — 

Resolved, That the Society entertain a deep sense of 
the thoughtful liberality of the Hon. David Sears, in 
laying this foundation of a trust-fund for the purposes 
named in the instrument just read ; and that they grate- 
fully accept the timely donation, and the conditions of 
the trust. 

On motion of Mr. Ticknor, — Voted, That the Libra- 
rian be instructed to report in writing, at each monthly 
meeting, the name of every book that has been out of 
the library for a longer term than is permitted by the 
By-laws. 

Mr. Appleton, from the Committee on the subject of 
the enlarged accommodations for the Society, reported 
verbally that they had held a conference with the trus- 
tees of the Savings Bank, and that they had named to 



48 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Dec. 

them such terms of purchase as they hoped would be 
satisfactory. He further reported, that the Committee 
could furnish for the Society the sum of six thousand 
dollars, inclusive of Mr. Sears's donation, towards the 
desired fund of ten thousand dollars. 

On motion of Mr. Deane, — Voted, That the Commit- 
tee of Three be fully empowered to purchase so much 
of the estate now occupied by the Society as belongs to 
the Provident Institution for Savings, at such price as 
to them shall seem warranted by the financial condition 
of the Society. 

On motion of Dr. Shurtleff, — Voted, That the Com- 
mittee of Ten be authorized and instructed to obtain 
such additions to the trust-fund now established as may 
be in their power, by appealing to the liberality of 
those interested in the Society, whether as members or 
friends, 



DECEMBER MEETING. 

The Society held their stated monthly meeting on 
Thursday, Dec. 13, at noon, at their rooms in Tremont 
Street, Boston ; the President, Hon. Robert C. Win- 
throp, in the chair. 

The Librarian announced donations from the Royal 
Society of Northern Antiquaries, through the Smith- 
sonian Institution ; the Library Committee of the Lon- 
don Traders' Tokens ; the Wisconsin Historical Society ; 
Hon. William Appleton ; Dr. Samuel A. Greene ; Lieut. 
J. M. Gillis, U.S.N. ; Yale College ; the Selectmen of 



1855.] PROCEEDINGS. 49 

Medford ; L. Grosvenor and Charles Hosmer, Esqs. ; 
and from Messrs. Savage and Winthrop, of this So- 
ciety. 

The Librarian reported the name of each book which 
had been out of the library for a longer term than is 
permitted by the by-laws. 

The President, in the absence of the Corresponding 
Secretary, read letters of acceptance from Rev. John S. 
Barry, and John A. Lowell, LL.D. 

The Treasurer communicated a letter from Mr. Sears, 
of Nov. 12 last, enclosing a note for two thousand dol- 
lars, — the foundation of the " trust-fund," — payable 
on the first day of January next. 

The President, for the Committee of Ten, reported, 
in part, that they have made satisfactory progress in the 
work assigned them, as follows : — 

In addition to the $2,000 originally contributed by Mr. Sears, 
the Committee have obtained subscriptions to the amount of 
$5,750 ; making $7,750 in all. They have also assurances 
of additional subscriptions to the amount of $1,200. 

The Committee are of the opinion that the sum originally 
suggested — viz., $12,000 — will be sufficient for the pur- 
poses proposed ; and they have the best hopes that the 
remaining $3,000 of the $12,000 will be secured in season for 
the negotiation which is understood to be pending for the pur- 
chase of such portion of our present building as does not 
already belong to us, or to accomplish the object in some other 
way. 

The Committee will take some future opportunity for call- 
ing the attention of the Society to the liberality of the 
gentlemen, both out of the Society and in it, to whom it is 
indebted for the progress thus made. 

7 



50 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Jan. 



JANUARY MEETING. — 1856. 

The Society held their stated monthly meeting on 
Thursday, Jan. 10, 1856, at noon, at their rooms in 
Tremont Street, Boston ; the President, Hon. Robert C. 
Winthrop, in the chair. 

Donations were announced by the Librarian from the 
American Antiquarian Society ; the Essex Institute ; 
Dr. Usher Parsons, of Providence, ILL, Corresponding 
Member; Lieut. J. M. Gillis, U.S.N. ; Rev. Luther Farn- 
ham ; Lucius M. Sargent, John P. Foote, and J. "White, 
Esqs. ; and from Messrs. Ames, Brigham, Clifford, 
Sparks, and Wheatland, of this Society. 

The Librarian reported that all the books heretofore 
noticed as kept out beyond the time have been re- 
turned, and also reported as to other books kept out 
beyond the time. He also exhibited the form prepared 
by him for acknowledging donations to the Society's 
library. 

The President communicated letters from Hon. James 
T. Austin and Rev. Dr. Charles Lowell, severally 
resigning their membership. 

Winthrop Sargent, Esq., of the city of Philadelphia, 
was elected* a Corresponding Member. 

Mr. Sparks presented a copy of the statement of a 
claim made by Connecticut for lands lying within the 
bounds of Pennsylvania, as under the grant of the 
Council of Plymouth to Lord Say and Seal, March 19, 
1631, together with the counter-statement of Pennsyl- 
vania, respectively argued before the Court of Commis- 



1856.] MR. TUDOR'S LETTER ON THE ICE-TRADE. 51 

sioners at Trenton, 1782, with the decision of the 
Commissioners in favor of the latter State. 

He also presented " Definitions of Words in four 
Indian Languages," — a partial collection, made through 
the instrumentality of Washington, at the request of the 
Empress Catharine of Russia, who was desirous of pro- 
curing a complete vocabulary of the American Indian 
languages. 

The request of Rev. C. A. Bartol, for leave to copy 
and publish any extracts from the correspondence of 
Rev. William Hooper, first minister of the West Church 
in Boston, in the possession of the Society, was granted 
under the rules. 

Mr. Sears, from the Third Section, presented to the 
Society a letter written by Frederic Tudor, Esq., Jan. 
22, 1849, to the agent of Mr. Wiggin, of London ; 
being a full and interesting history of the ice-trade, 
commenced by Mr. Tudor, showing its early difficulties, 
its gradual progress, and its final and well-assured success. 
This letter is placed on the files with the following 
condition ; viz., " Boston, Jan. 9, 1856. To be placed 
on the files of the Massachusetts Historical Society; 
but not to be printed during the lifetime of Frederic 
Tudor, Esq., without his consent. — David Sears." 



[Peculiar circumstances connected with the history 
of the ice-trade have induced Mr. Tudor to consent to 
the publication, without further delay and without the 
change of a word, of this letter, written nearly ten years 
ago, and intended to have been withheld, at least during 
his lifetime : — 



52 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Jan. 

Boston, Jan. 22, 1849. 
Robert Hooper, Esq., 

President Boston Bank, and Agent of an assigned claim of T. Wiggin, Esq. 

Dear Sir, — I have now accomplished the payment to yon, 
of the claim upon me of Mr. Wiggin, in full. I have paid 
you principal, $96,000 ; and interest, 153,547.59 : total, 
$149,547.59. The interest, after 1843, was six per cent. 
It had been, before that time, five per cent per annum. 

I hope you, and those you represent, will be willing to 
read a letter I shall write them on this subject. 

In 1832 and 3, I found myself so separated from the mer- 
cantile community in which I had been brought up, in conse- 
quence of my exclusive pursuit of a new trade, which I had 
myself founded, that it became necessary to resume some 
other business of a mercantile nature, in order that I might 
renew my suspended intercourse and action with other mer- 
chants ; thus give a greater extension to my ice-business than 
I could otherwise effect. The result was, that, in thus ex- 
tending all my business, I extended one, which I best under- 
stood, profitably, and lost heavily by the other. At the 
opening of 1835, it was ascertained I had lost 1210,094.20. 
The debts were to Mr. Wiggin ; the Barings ; Parish and Co. ; 
J. K. Mills and Co. ; Nottebohm and Co. ; C. I. Cazenove and 
Co., &c, — all respectably large. 

The suddenness and extent with which this state of things 
was arrived at was mainly caused by Mr. C. I. Cazenove, the 
agent of Mr. Wiggin, to whom (Mr. Wiggin) I was indebted 
nearly three times as much as to any other individual house. 
It was the commencement of poor Cazenove' s insanity. It 
was found " the bottom had fallen out of the peck-measure." 
I had a business beginning to be profitably extensive, but no 
match for such losses. There was in it, at that time, little 
that was worth much ; and although this state of it changed, 
in subsequent years, by the accession of a large amount of 
real estate, this did not then exist. In examining the state 



1856.] MR. TUDOR'S LETTER ON THE ICE-TRADE. 58 

of my affairs, it was perceived there was no means of enfor- 
cing payment, and that all, or nearly all, was lost. I had paid 
as long as I could. It was proposed to me, that I should 
carry on my ice-business, as the agent of the creditors ; should 
restrict and limit my personal expenses to a given sum, &c, &c. 
To this I objected wholly. I said to the agents, " Allow me to 
proceed, and I will work for you better than I can under any 
restriction. Give me the largest liberty, and I will pay the 
whole, in time, with interest." This was agreed. 

I set out to produce the whole amount required, — say, two 
hundred and ten thousand dollars as principal, with about ten 
thousand dollars annually for interest. I hoped I could do it. 
I had, in the mean time, extended my business to the East 
Indies. Two years after I commenced to make this large 
sum, I was deprived of my principal concern of profit in my 
business by the loss of Havana for a market, by the fraud 
of an agent long in my employ, and whom I had raised from 
a poor condition of life. If this had not happened, I should 
have been able to have completed before now what I had 
undertaken. This loss was grievous. There was some con- 
siderable money also lost in the endeavor to recover it. I 
thought it unwise, however, to waste much energy in seeking 
to recover what was so lost, but rather to apply myself to a 
closer .pursuit of my business in other directions. 

The plan w r hich I had about this time adopted in my ice- 
trade was not to act the monopolist, but to give the ice to the 
consumer, in all the southern regions, at a low price ; con- 
sidering, that, in so doing, I was dealing more justly with the 
consumer, and best assisting the progress of the business. 
Thus, in Jamaica, the ice is sold at half the price, and, in 
Calcutta, at a less price, than it is sold in London. Going to 
the East Indies, it has to be four or five months at sea ; to go 
through sixteen thousand miles of salt water, and cross the 
equator twice ; after its arrival, to be housed in expensive 
buildings, and delivered to the consumers, in the small quan- 



54 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Jan. 

tities they want it in, for use. This policy of cheap selling 
was met by the English inhabitants of Calcutta with the most 
open-handed and generous liberality. They made me a sub- 
scription and a present of a fine fire-proof building uncondi- 
tionally ; and this example was followed, nearly in the same 
way, at Madras and Bombay. All these things strengthened 
me. I had made considerable impression upon my debts up 
to the commencement of 1839 ; but the loss of Havana 
I then felt greatly. I was urged to payment faster than I 
could go. 

A new feature in my business was now discovered ; which 
was, that larger accommodation of buildings became necessary 
for increased demand. The demand had not gained in the 
East Indies, where the consumption was confined to the Eng- 
lish residents, — a very limited number. Ice to the natives 
long continued a nine-days' wonder. Their use of it is still 
very small, although it is constantly supplied, without inter- 
ruption, from year's end to year's end. There has been no 
interruption for a single day, in Calcutta, for five years past. 
The winter of 1842, having failed in producing ice in Massa- 
chusetts, produced its effect, in 1843, by some months' inter- 
ruption. It hurt me greatly, and delayed payments. I 
expended $30,000 in Maine to secure partial and poor sup- 
plies ; but 1843 was a losing year to me. You and others 
received but little more than your interest. 

Better years produced better results : but it was found a 
large investment in real estate, of the most expensive kind, 
had become necessary ; that is, estates in the centre of cities, 
and of course very costly, for the erection of the depositories. 
Although the business had not increased in the more distant 
possessions, it had nearer home. For several years, a single 
cargo of ice would supply New Orleans, and the same in 
Charleston, S.C. : but the demand rapidly and suddenly in- 
creased in those two places, particularly in New Orleans, 
where I have now to ship thirty cargoes ; and a like quantity 



1856.] MR. TUDOR'S LETTER ON THE ICE-TRADE. 55 

is shipped by others. Five estates, in central situations in 
New Orleans, were purchased, and one large one in Charles- 
ton, S.C., and costly and permanently strong buildings erected 
upon them. In Jamaica, a wharf and properties in Kingston 
were purchased, and a fine building of brick erected on this 
and all the others ; a heavy expenditure. The extension of 
the business, also, demanded the purchase of estates here ; 
which, in all cases, was considerable and unavoidable. In 
New Orleans, about 1107,000 of the profits of the business 
was invested in real estate. In the neighborhood of Boston, 
on the shores of Fresh Pond, Spot Pond, Walden Pond, and 
Smith's Pond (all sheets of water, in England called lakes), 
it became necessary to secure a large portion of the shores in 
order to command the ice made on their waters. There were 
purchased a hundred and fifty acres, on which were two 
dwelling-houses, fifty-two acres, three acres, and thirty-eight 
acres, on these several shores. It was done before prices of 
such lands had advanced. If complaints have been made 
of such investments, the answer is, that they were unavoida- 
ble. They may be likened to the seed necessary to the har- 
vest. If the purchase of them had not been made, the 
business could not have been continued. If delay in extin- 
guishing the principal of the debts is considered as caused by 
such investments, the answer is, that, had they not been made 
at home and abroad, the business could not have gone on ; 
the creditors would not have received principal or interest. As 
it was, they have had, all along, some portion of the principal, 
and all the interest. Also, with these acquirements of mine, 
I hastened to give them security to the full, and more than 
the full, for the debts, by mortgages on the property ; which 
debts were not secured before. You have held, at various 
times, mortgages on my New-Orleans and Fresh-Pond pro- 
perty ; so with Messrs. J. K. Mills and Co. ; so with Parish 
and Co. 

The ice-trade — which I originated, in 1805, by the ship- 



56 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Jan. 

ment of a single cargo of a hundred and thirty tons, in a brig 
belonging to myself, to the Island of Martinique — excited the 
derision of the whole town as a mad project ; but the ability of 
transporting it successfully had been fully calculated, and the 
result justified the calculation. The first cargo arrived in a 
most perfect condition. It has taken a course of years for 
the business to extend. It has been extended ; but I was not 
able to push it to the East Indies for twenty-nine years after 
I had carried it successfully to the West Indies. Its extension 
to the distant places was thought too absurd to be entertained. 
I had proposed it; but I could not obtain the means until 
1833-4. 

I give this detailed history in order that I may justify my 
course to you and others, which has been brought in question, 
and to show that the delay of payment has been as necessary 
as the continuance of the business, upon the success of which 
I could alone procure the means of doing you justice. 

The ice-trade, from contempt and derision, began to grow 
most rapidly ; and if I had not secured the several ponds, and 
lands on their banks, at the moment I did, I should in all pro- 
bability have been cut off from my means of supply of ice, — 
now amounting, on the average, to sixty cargoes annually, — as 
others have taken up the business extensively. Ice now goes 
from Boston in a very large way. I ship, probably, not more 
than a quarter part. The possession of the sources of supply 
has been sought for. Railroads have been built (one of them 
solely for the transportation of ice) ; water on the shores of 
ponds is now leased, and is nearly as valuable, in convenient 
localities, as the land itself. The astonishing growth of Bos- 
ton — now the centre of four cities, in consequence of the 
railroads — has caused these lands, which I have purchased, 
to rise in value. I gave for my Fresh-Pond farm $130 the 
acre ; Spot Pond, $80 an acre ; Smith's Pond, $130 the acre, 
<fcc, — prices thought at the time to be high : but I have been 
asked if I would take $2,000 an acre for twenty-five of my 



1856.] MR. TUDOR'S LETTER ON THE ICE-TRADE. 57 

hundred and fifty acres at Fresh Pond. On the shores of 
Spot Pond (where I have fifty-two acres), lands have recently 
sold at |800 the acre : this cannot, however, be considered 
their just value. 

While I have been thus procuring the means of continu- 
ing the business, and giving security for the balance of debts, 
I have the satisfaction to see, without having so intended, I 
have been gaining the means of being comfortable and well off 
in my older period of life, and that I shall not leave my family 
and children penniless. It is indeed a satisfaction to my mind 
to perceive, that in fulfilling my just obligations to others, who 
were my creditors, but are so no longer, I relieve a somewhat 
extensive property in real estate, acquired while I have been 
engaged in doing justice to others, the undertaking of which, 
in 1835, I considered, as you did, almost a forlorn hope. I 
had neither plan or intention of doing any thing but work 
hard and long to pay off ; thereafter to proceed for my own 
benefit. The manner in which the two things have been 
necessarily combined is explained above. * 

The way I have been assisted to success in the East Indies 
has arisen from the generous confidence and means afforded 
by the residents there. It must be said, and may be often 
repeated, that there is often a magnanimity found in English- 
men, which it gives me pleasure to bear testimony to : in my 
own case, I may say, it is mainly to that that I have been 
indebted for a great portion of the success which, after great 
hazards and great losses, has attended my operation in ice in 
the East Indies. It is this generosity accorded to me that has 
enabled me to do, at last, what I have been so long in accom- 
plishing. That branch of my business has not advanced 
much, but is steady, and is defended in various ways from 
competition. I repose upon a constant and reasonable profit 
from low prices. 

In Jamaica I have a wharf and extensive brick buildings, 
bought low, and which by the business yields some profit, not- 



58 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Jan. 

withstanding the ruined condition of the island ; in New 
Orleans, five estates in different parts of the city, covered with 
permanent buildings, yielding me ten per cent upon $125,000 ; 
in Charleston, S.C., there is a good property — nearly one- 
third of an acre — in the centre of the city, with permanent 
buildings ; and my Nahant property, of two dwelling- 
houses and nearly a hundred acres of land. Of this last 
property, it has been said, I have been adding. My reply is, 
that I have done nothing not agreed for in the outset. Nearly 
every tree which I have set out there was a tree, on that pen- 
insula, when I became embarrassed : its removal to the place 
designed for it was planned, and its execution needed, for the 
well-doing of that property. My creditors had an interest in 
the due preservation of the property, and it has been improved 
and benefited. 

With respect to my household and private expenses, they 
have been for many years less than they were in 1835 ; but it 
had been agreed I should be free, in this respect and in all 
others, in the management of my business and property. I 
think I have not violated the agreement. 

On the subject of interest, I wish to say, by the various 
operations of purchase and resale of different real estates, I 
have been obliged to pay the debt to Mr. Wiggin with six per 
cent interest ; whereas the Baring, Parish, and J. K. Mills 
debts were paid at five per cent. 

Thus I have used fourteen years of my life, and accom- 
plished the payment, at last, of principal of debt, as before 
stated 1210,094.20 

Paid interest to close of 1848 70,060.39 

1280,154.59 

It appears I have paid the claims of 1835, and fully liqui- 
dated the sum — principal and interest — of two hundred and 
eighty thousand dollars ; that, having used a large part of the 
active portion of my life, I enter the period of sixty-five with 



1856.] MR, TUDOR'S LETTER ON THE ICE-TRADE. 59 

a good property in real estate, with the business attached to it. 
I commenced and founded the ice-trade when I was twenty-two 
years old ; and through the great disaster of a great loss in 
other business, and a great one in Havana in the business 
itself, I have relieved myself, with no man to say I have been 
unjust to him, as I hope, as I think, as I believe. 

It may be asked whether I do not regret that I engaged in 
other business, which long absence of mercantile habits ren- 
dered me incompetent to do well. The answer I have already 
given. If I had not engaged in other business, I should not 
have been able to have accomplished what I have done in the 
principal business. I was restrained by not being amongst 
merchants in business, and in the accommodations which 
business affords, — these all known to be numerous. Without 
them, no extensive operations can be performed : therefore I 
may say most truly, I cannot regret operations concluded 
apparently with so much loss. I never misused any of the 
credits given me by agents of foreign houses. Their facilities, 
and especially those of Mr. Wiggin, were forced upon me, as 
I have explained to you verbally : I did not ask for them. 
When their use became obviously ruinous, I refused them. I 
determined to stop such business, to meet the question of my 
losses, and to pay the whole. It is true, I did not expect it 
would have taken me so long, or that I should have to wade 
through fourteen years of doubted credit. Perhaps I should 
not have been willing to have shouldered the load. As it has 
turned out, there is not a doubt my having gone through this 
trouble is the source of the swelling extension of the ice-trade; 
and that I have lived to establish it in the East Indies, where 
I had for a long time endeavored in vain to extend it. I 
began this trade in the youthful hopes attendant on the age 
of twenty-two. I have followed it until I have a head with 
scarcely a hair which is not white. 

I have not spoken of the Tudor' s-Building Estate, yielding 
seven thousand dollars a year. Although you now discharge 



60 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Jan. 

the mortgage upon it, there is another which I may be said to 
have inherited, and on which I have to pay three thousand 
six hundred dollars annually. The complete cleansing of 
this property will take me another eighteen months to effect. 
I now begin again my Havana business, of which I have 
been ten years deprived ; the first cargo for which departs 
to-morrow. But, with respect to the debts of 1834-5, they 
are now all discharged, principal and interest. I hope those 
who were my creditors are willing to thank me, and will join 
with me in the satisfaction I feel in the accomplishment. 

Being very truly your obedient servant, 

Frederic Tudor.] 



Mr. Savage, from the Third Section, communicated 
the following paper ; viz. : — 

At Albany, in 1855, was published a " Plan for Seizing, and 
Carrying to New York, Coll. Wm. Goffe, the Regicide, as set 
forth in the Affidavit of John London, April 20, 1678, pub- 
lished from the original in the office of the Secretary of State 
of New York ; with other documents on the same subject 
among the State papers of Connecticut." By this deposition, 
purporting to be of 20th April, 1678, wherein he calls himself 
about fifty years old, the witness, who was not, however, sworn 
until 20th April, 1680, is made to prove, that Captain Jos. Bull, 
of Hartford, hath, for several years past, privately kept Colonel 
Goffe at his own house, or his son's, and still doth keep him 
for aught the witness knows, he (Colonel G.) going by the name 
of Mr. Cooke ; that Whalley lived and died at Hadley in 
those parts, and was buried in the burying-place there ; that, 
in May last, the deponent, with Robert Howard of Windsor, 
which was also the residence of deponent, went to the house 
of said Bull, and saw said Goffe, having formerly known him in 



1856.] MR. SAVAGE ON GOFFE', THE REGICIDE. 61 

England ; as did said Howard, who first discovered Goffe's 
being there. That he did then contrive how to apprehend 
him, supposing that Mr. Richards, the chief man at Hartford, 
would not countenance him, <fec. ; and so he must have assist- 
ance of others to seize and bring said Goffe to New York ; and 
so he disclosed to his neighbor, Thomas Powell, who first pro- 
mised assistance, but forthwith went down to Hartford on 
Saturday, and informed against London by telling Major 
Talcott and Secretary Allen ; while London had his horse 
ready on Monday to surprise Goffe, and carry him away. But 
Powell came back on Sunday morning, with the marshal in 
his company, to take him to Hartford, where Talcott and Allen 
examined him ; the deponent objecting to the charges, that 
the proof was only of a single witness, his neighbor Powell, an 
idle, drunken fellow. That he, the deponent, told Talcott and 
Allen and others that he knew that they concealed Goffe, 
and he could, when he pleased, lay his hand on his shoul- 
der ; and much other such stuff is sworn to. But though 
this evidence was taken by Mat. Nicolls, the Secretary of 
the Province of New York, on 20th April, 1680, and, we may 
hardly doubt, was in very few hours exhibited to his master 
the Governor, yet the Governor's letter to Connecticut was 
not written before 18th May following, and is very like a mere 
formal paper, expecting no beneficial result. 

On receipt of that letter, 10th June, warrant was forthwith 
issued by the Governor and Council of Connecticut ; and the 
very next day they give reply to Andross, regretting that his 
Honor had not given them the name of the informers, and 
suggesting the possibility that it was the informers' object to de- 
lude his Honor, and cast reproach upon Hartford people. The 
suspicion naturally arises, that Andross did not believe the 
information, but only acted to prevent charges against himself. 

Possibly the affair was all contrived by the Connecticut gen- 
tlemen, after the death of Goffe at Hadley had reached them, 
to raise a false reputation for loyalty, without the slightest 



62 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Jan. 

injury to the cause of the Regicides, the elder of whom had 
been dead some years, and his son-in-law recently gone to his 
reward, not by an earthly tribunal. After so many years' 
escape from pursuit, the government of Charles II. could have 
little desire to obtain the fugitives ; certainly had no expecta- 
tion that the New-England people would betray their hiding. 
In 1661, they might have been in some peril of falling under 
arrest by Kellond and his copartner, in Endicott's warrant of 
May ; but the letter of Sir Thomas Temple in August after, 
speaking to his Majesty's Secretary of State relative to the 
" secret design " of himself, Mr. Pincheon, and Captain Lord, 
" to apprehend and secure their persons," — which is printed 
in volume viii. of our last series, — left no encouragement. 
If those three gentlemen could not detect the place of refuge, 
it was not probable that any others would gain the knowledge ; 
or, if they were resolved to mystify the government, — which 
seems not unlikely, — hardly any other person in New England 
would feel so eager for the punishment of the Regicides as to 
endanger his own safety by instrumentality in their capture 
and extradition. No doubt Matchless Mitchell expressed the 
sentiment of most of the cool people of our country, where he 
says, since he " had opportunity to look a little into that 
action for which these men suffer, I could never see that it was 
justifiable." But probably the majority of New-England men 
had not then attained that degree of coolness ; and not one of 
a hundred of those who doubted, whether the deed were justi- 
fiable, could wish to surrender the fugitives, who had partaken 
our hospitality, to the extreme punishment of the law. When 
they read, Vengeance belongeth unto the Lord, they might sa- 
tisfy their consciences with overlooking the treason. 

Whether London acted under instruction of the chief peo- 
ple of Hartford, or proceeded on his own suggestions in the 
bungling contrivance, — that he was a fit instrument in such 
machinery we may easily determine by what we find in the 
acts of the Connecticut Council of War, as appears in Trum- 



1856.] PROCEEDINGS OF FEBRUARY MEETING. 63 

bull (Col. Rec, ii. 396). In January, 1676, the Council 
committed him to prison for coming from the army without 
license, calumniating the officers of the army, and reporting 
many notorious lies, to the great prejudice of the Colony. 

Jas. Savage. 

10th January, 1856. 



FEBRUARY MEETING. 

The Society held their stated monthly meeting on 
Thursday, Feb. 14, at noon, at their rooms in Tremont 
Street, Boston ; the President, Hon. Robert C. Win- 
throp, in the chair. 

The Librarian announced donations from the Direc- 
tors of the Western Lunatic Asylum ; the Regents of 
the University of the State of New York ; the Ameri- 
can Philosophical Society ; the Minnesota Historical 
Society ; the Commissioners for erecting the Public 
Library in Boston ; George D. Manypenny, Esq., Com- 
missioner of Indian Affairs ; the New-Jersey Historical 
Society ; Thomas G. Cary, Esq. ; Rev. Frederic A. Whit- 
ney; Rev. Charles Brooks; Dr. Henry Bond, Corre- 
sponding Member; and Messrs. Prescott, Sibley, and 
Winthrop, Resident Members. 

The Corresponding Secretary communicated the pro- 
ceedings of the Georgia Historical Society on the occa- 
sion of the death of Hon. John Macpherson Berrien, 
a distinguished member of that Society, and a Corre- 
sponding Member of this Society. 

Voted, That the Corresponding Secretary be requested 
to acknowledge the receipt of these proceedings in a 
communication to the Georgia Society. 



64 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Feb. 

Earl Stanhope was unanimously elected an Honor- 
ary Member of the Society. 

The Standing Committee reported that they have been led 
to consider the expediency of providing for a series of monthly 
social meetings of tbe Society, in addition to the monthly stated 
meetings. These latter are held in the forenoon, when many 
of our members find it impossible to escape from their pro- 
fessional or business engagements. The hour or two allotted 
to them, moreover, is almost always mainly occupied with a 
mere routine of records, reports, and elections ; and but little 
encouragement is given to members to prepare communica- 
tions for the Society. 

It has been thought, that, while the stated monthly meet- 
ings should be still adhered to for purposes of business, there 
may be greater interest and greater variety given to the 
proceedings of the Society by a series of monthly evening 
meetings, to be held at private houses, and to be devoted to 
discussions and communications connected with the objects of 
our Association. 

This system has been recently adopted, and pursued with 
great satisfaction and success, by the American Academy of 
Arts and Sciences, and by other associations of a kindred 
character ; and a strong desire has been expressed by many 
of our members, that the experiment should be tried by this 
Society. 

The Standing Committee accordingly report the following 
resolution : — 

Resolved, That the Standing Committee be authorized to 
make arrangements for a series of monthly evening meetings, 
in addition to the stated monthly meetings of the Society. 

The report was accepted, and the resolution adopted 
by the Society. 

On motion of Mr. Appleton, — Voted, That the 



1856.] PROCEEDINGS OF MARCH MEETING. 65 

Treasurer be authorized to execute to the Suffolk Sav- 
ings Bank for Seamen and others a mortgage of the 
premises belonging to this Institution, after the execu- 
tion of the deed from the Provident Institution for 
Savings, in the town of Boston, to this Society, under 
the direction of the Committee who have that subject 
in charge ; said mortgage not to exceed the sum of 
thirty thousand dollars. 

Also Voted, That the Treasurer be authorized to 
execute a lease of such part of the premises as shall be 
authorized by said Committee, at the rate of twenty-two 
hundred dollars per annum, for the term of fifteen years. 

Mr. Felt, from the First Section, read a copy of 
the grant of the Narraganset Territory made by 
Warwick and others to the Colony of the Massachu- 
setts, in December, 1643, as showing the right of the 
Massachusetts government to banish Gorton from that 
Territory. 



MARCH MEETING. 

The Society held their stated monthly meeting on 
Thursday, March 13, at noon, at their rooms in Tre- 
mont Street, Boston ; the President, Hon. Robert C. 
Winthrop, in the chair. 

The Librarian announced donations from Rev. Edwin 
M. Stone ; Rev. Dr. Sprague, of Albany ; Dr. Samuel A. 
Green ; Dr. Thomas S. Kirkbride ; the Young Men's 
Mercantile Library Association, Cincinnati ; Richard 
Pease, Esq. ; Messrs. William H. Whitmore and G. W. 

9 



66 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [MARCH, 

Babcock ; and from Messrs. Deane, Lothrop, Savage, 
Webb, Washburn, and Winthrop, of this Society. 

The Corresponding Secretary read a letter from 
Winthrop Sargent, Esq., accepting his election as a 
Corresponding Member ; also a letter from Rev. Dr. 
Palfrey, intending to embark for England with a view 
to make some investigations relating to our early New- 
England history, and tendering any service by which he 
may be made useful to the Society. 

Mr. Appleton, from the Committee on the subject of 
providing additional accommodations for the Society, 
made the following report, which was read, accepted, 
and ordered to be recorded, and a copy to be furnished 
to the Treasurer ; viz. : — 

The Committee appointed for the purpose of providing 
increased accommodations for the Society, Report that they 
have purchased, of the Provident Institution for Savings, their 
entire right and title to the land, and the building thereon, 
occupied by them and this Society, for the sum of thirty-five 
thousand dollars, as per their deed executed on the twenty-ninth 
day of February last ; and that they have leased, for the term of 
fifteen years, that part of the building lately occupied by said 
Institution, to the Suffolk Savings Bank for Seamen and others, 
for the annual rent of twenty-two hundred dollars, payable 
quarterly. 

They have also caused to be executed by the Treasurer of 
this Society, agreeably to their vote, a mortgage of the entire 
property to the said Suffolk Savings Bank, for the payment of 
the sum of twenty-seven thousand five hundred dollars in fif- 
teen years, with interest semi-annually, and such amount of 
principal as, with the interest, shall amount to the sum of at 
least two thousand dollars per annum ; said mortgage and lease 
both bearing date the first day of the present month of March. 



1856.] PROCEEDINGS. > 67 

The payment to the Provident Institution for Savings has been 
made by adding to the amount received for said mortgage the 
further sum of seven thousand five hundred dollars, being a 
part of the subscriptions of sundry individuals for the benefit of 
the Society. 

The floor over that occupied by this Society is under a ver- 
bal lease, at will, to the Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic 
Association, at a rent of three hundred dollars per annum. 
All which is respectfully submitted. 

N. Appleton. 

David Sears. 
Boston, March 8, 1856. Geo. TlCKNOR. 

Lucius Manlius Sargent, Esq., of Roxbury ; Profes- 
sor Cornelius C. Felton, of Harvard University ; and 
Richard Hildreth, Esq., of Boston, — were severally 
elected as Resident Members ; and Hon. William C. 
Rives, of Virginia, as a Corresponding Member. 

Messrs. John C. Gray and John A. Lowell were 
appointed a Committee to examine the Treasurer's 
accounts. 

The Treasurer submitted a special report of his acts 
and receipts as Treasurer, consequent upon the purchase 
from the Provident Institution for Savings ; which 
report being read, — 

Voted to refer the same to the Committee this day 
appointed to examine the Treasurer's accounts. 

Messrs. F. C. Gray, Ellis, and Deane were appointed 
a Committee to nominate officers for the ensuing year. 

Mr. Appleton stated that he had prepared a Memoir 
of the late Hon. Abbott Lawrence, pursuant to the vote of 
the Society at the last September meeting ; and the 
same having been read by the author, — 



68 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [MAECH, 

Voted, That the interesting Memoir of our late dis- 
tinguished associate, Hon. Abbott Lawrence, which has 
just been read by Mr. Appleton, be referred to the 
Publishing Committee, to be published by them in 
any form agreeable to the wishes of the author. 

It is here reprinted from vol. iv. of the Fourth Series 
of the Collections. 



MEMOIR OF HON. ABBOTT LAWRENCE. 

BY HON. NATHAN APPLETON. 

The duty of preparing a Memoir of Abbott Lawrence for 
the Massachusetts Historical Society, agreeably to their ap- 
pointment, is undertaken, as a sad but pleasing labor of love, 
by one who, during a large part of his life, was not only 
engaged in similar pursuits, but was on terms of the greatest 
personal intimacy with him. 

Mr. Lawrence was, by profession, a merchant, — a profes- 
sion which is not often associated with the higher exhibitions 
of intellect. It is true, it is often, accompanied with great 
wealth ; and wealth alone carries with it power, and a certain 
degree of distinction. 

The merchant is at the head of the numerous family who 
live by trade, — in the distribution, on a smaller or larger 
scale, of the commodities which supply the wants and fancies 
of life. The whole family is actuated immediately and di- 
rectly by the selfish principle in its application to property. 
The sole object of trade is profit, — gain to the trader. Other 
occupations and professions, whilst tied down by the common 
necessity of providing for the wants of life, are associated 
with other aims which command the higher places in the 
world's estimation. 



1856.] MEMOIR OF ABBOTT LAWRENCE. 69 

Notwithstanding the eloquent expostulations of the friends 
of peace, the world continues to assign the foremost rank to 
the successful warrior who fights for glory as well as patriot- 
ism. A Napoleon or a Wellington always commands the 
applause of his day and generation. Even Washington won 
his glory as a warrior before he was known as the statesman. 
In the learned professions, in the various departments of 
science, and in the higher walks of art, it is the love of fame 
which is the spur to excellence, rather than any pecuniary 
acquisition. The same principle will apply, in a considerable 
degree, to the mechanic arts. It is true that some modifica- 
tion of the selfish principle may be said to lie at the root of 
all human action ; but nowhere is it so naked and undisguised 
as in the profession of the merchant, whose direct and avowed 
object is the getting of gain. At the same time, the world 
has always given honor to merchants. We are told in Holy 
Writ, that " the traffickers of Tyre were the honorable of the 
earth ; " and the same character has been freely bestowed in 
all succeeding ages. It is to be taken for granted, however, 
that it has always been the use made of the wealth acquired in 
trade, which has been the object of commendation and honor, 
rather than the success in its accumulation. 

The merchant makes no claim to benevolence or patriotism 
as his ruling motive in trade : all he professes is absolute and 
undeviating justice. The morals of trade are of the strictest 
and purest character. It is not an uncommon opinion, that 
there is a laxity in the mercantile code, which looks with 
indulgence on what are called the tricks of trade. It is 
not so. Whilst the direct object of all trade is gain, indivi- 
dual benefit, not the slightest prevarication or deviation from 
truth is allowable. There is no class of men with whom the 
Christian rule, of doing to others what we expect or require 
in return, is more strictly demanded than amongst merchants. 
Mercantile honor is as delicate and fragile as that of a woman. 
It will not bear the slightest stain. The man in trade who 



70 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [MARCH, 

has been found to equivocate or falter in his course becomes a 
marked man. He is avoided. It is thus found, by experience, 
that integrity is almost as uniformly the accompaniment of 
success as it always is of character. It is true, that, in the 
manifold operations of trade, there are opportunities and 
temptations to acts of dishonesty, more frequent than in other 
occupations ; and it is not to be denied, that, in many instances, 
poor human nature is found to yield to them. What we insist 
on is the rigidity of the rule which controls the action of the 
honorable merchant, and under which alone he can claim that 
name. 

But, whilst the selfish principle lies at the foundation of 
trade, there is no reason why the trader himself should not 
be active in benevolence and all the Christian virtues. There 
is no occupation which has a tendency to liberalize the mind 
more than that of the merchant. His intercourse is wide with 
men of all opinions and of all countries. He perceives that 
integrity, virtue, and honor are not confined to a narrow 
circle or to one country. We accordingly find a full propor- 
tion of men engaged in trade among the patrons and managers 
of our charitable and benevolent institutions. They are also 
amongst the most liberal supporters of enterprises undertaken 
for the public good. It is, perhaps, natural that men, accumu- 
lating their own fortunes, should have less hesitation in ad- 
venturing property in new enterprises than those holding 
property by inheritance. The fact appears to be so. These 
general views of the mercantile profession may serve as an 
appropriate introduction to the life of one who was so eminent 
an ornament of that profession, and whose whole career was an 
illustration of the integrity, liberality, and public spirit, which 
are indispensable elements in the character of the great and 
good merchant. 

Abbott Lawrence was born in the town of Groton, Mass., 
Dec. 16, 1792. He was the fifth son of Deacon Samuel Law- 



1856.] MEMOIR OP ABBOTT LAWRENCE. 71 

rence, a respectable farmer, who did good service as a soldier 
during the Revolutionary war, in which he rose to the rank of 
major, and was highly esteemed by his fellow-citizens. The 
ancestor, John Lawrence, one of the early Puritan emigrants, 
settled at Watertown in 1635, and removed to Groton in 1660. 
He came from Wissett in Suffolk, where, and in the neighbor- 
ing parish of Rumburgh, the family had been long settled. It 
was of great antiquity ; Sir Robert Lawrence having been 
knighted by Richard Coeur de Lion, in 1191, for his bravery 
in scaling the walls of Acre. The early education of the 
subject of this Memoir was at the district school during the 
winter, and for a few months at the academy which now bears 
his name. This was the narrow foundation on which he 
himself added the superstructure which has qualified him to 
fill with honor the various places for which he was destined. 
With this, the common outfit of every New-England boy, 
he came to Boston, in 1808, as an apprentice to his brother 
Amos, who was already established in business, and who thus 
speaks of him in his Diary : " In 1808, he came to me, as my 
apprentice, bringing his bundle under his arm, with less than 
three dollars in his pocket ; and this was his fortune. A first- 
rate business lad he was, but, like other bright lads, needed 
the careful eye of a senior to guard him from the pit-falls that 
he was exposed to." He is reported to have been most as- 
siduous and diligent in his duties, and to have devoted his 
evenings to supply the deficiencies of his early education. 
The business of the elder brother was prosperous ; and when 
Abbott came of age, in 1814, a copartnership was formed be- 
tween them, which continued until terminated by death. 
Their business was the importation and sale of foreign manu- 
factures, in which the firm stood at the head of that class of 
merchants, and, by their industry and enterprise, acquired a 
large fortune. Under the tariffs of 1816 and 1824, the manu- 
facture of cottons and woollens was extensively introduced ; 
and the house of A. and A. Lawrence entered largely into 



72 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [MARCH, 

their sales on commission. It was not until the year 1830 
that they became interested in the cotton-mills at Lowell. 

On the establishment of the Suffolk, Tremont, and Law- 
rence Companies, as well as subsequently in other corporations, 
they became large proprietors. From this time, their business 
as selling-agents was on the most extensive scale, and their 
income from all sources large in proportion. As a man of 
business, Mr. Lawrence possessed talents of the very first 
order. Prompt, energetic, with an intuitive insight into the 
characters of men, with sound judgment, and an openness 
of character which won favor on the slightest acquaintance, 
he acquired the confidence of the community in the highest 
degree. For many of the last years of his life, he was largely 
interested in the China trade, the source of a good deal of 
profit ; but his mind was not confined to the numerous details 
and ramifications of his business, extensive as it was. He took 
a deep interest in all matters of public concern, — in politics, 
political economy, finance. He was amongst the most zealous 
advocates of the protective system before he was himself in- 
terested in manufactures ; and was one of the delegates from 
Massachusetts to Harrisburg in 1827, where he took an active 
part in the deliberations of that assembly. In 1834, he was 
elected a member of the twenty-fourth Congress for the dis- 
trict of Suffolk. He was placed at once on the Committee of 
Ways and Means, where his acquaintance with mercantile 
affairs gave him much deserved influence. He won the favor 
of all parties by his general intelligence, and by his genial and 
affable manners. Without making set speeches for display, 
he spoke well, on proper occasions, on the matters of business 
before Congress. He declined a re-election at the end of the 
term ; but in 1839, in consequence of a vacancy, he was with 
difficulty persuaded to allow himself to be a candidate for the 
twenty-sixth Congress, to which he was triumphantly elected. 
His usefulness in this position was, however, soon brought to 
a close, by a severe attack of fever, in March, 1840 ; on his 



1856.] MEMOIR OP ABBOTT LAWRENCE. 73 

recovery from which, he considered it necessary to resign the 
office. 

In 1842, he was appointed, on the part of Massachusetts, a 
commissioner on the subject of the north-eastern boundary, 
which had become a most dangerous and difficult question, 
intrusted on the part of the British government to Lord Ash- 
burton. It is the belief of the writer, who was then in Con- 
gress, and in daily confidential communication with him, that 
to Mr. Lawrence, more than to any other individual, is due 
the successful accomplishment of the negotiation, which re- 
sulted in the important treaty of Washington. Lord Ash- 
burton was himself a merchant of an open, straightforward 
character. He had accepted the office of ambassador with the 
especial purpose of settling this vexed question. Mr. Law- 
rence accepted the office of commissioner with much the 
same feeling. They were both of opinion, that any terms of 
settlement which involved no sacrifice of honor were better 
than that this portentous question should remain unsettled, 
liable at any moment to break out into a regular war. They 
soon came to an understanding with each other. Lord Ash- 
burton communicated freely to Mr. Lawrence the utmost limits 
to which his instructions would allow him to go ; and Mr. 
Lawrence was thus enabled to bring his somewhat intractable 
colleagues to the final happy issue. He was at last, at the 
close of the negotiation, called in to satisfy the scruples of 
President Tyler, who had found a difficulty in his own mind 
with some of the details, which Mr. Webster, the Secretary of 
State, was unable to remove. 

In the presidential campaign of 1840, he took an active part 
in favor of the election of General Harrison. In September, 
1842, he was President of the Whig Convention, which nomi- 
nated Henry Clay for President on the part of Massachusetts. 
He was a delegate to the Whig National Convention in 1844 ; 
and, in the same year, one of the electors at large for the 
State. In the presidential canvass of 1848, the name of Mr. 

10 



74 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [MARCH, 

Lawrence was prominently associated for the office of Vice- 
President with that of General Taylor for President ; and, at 
the convention in Philadelphia, he wanted but six votes of 
being nominated for that office. This result was owing to the 
peculiar and unexpected course of some of the delegates of 
his own State. He was disappointed, but never allowed his 
equanimity to be disturbed. He had, with extreme delicacy, 
forborne to allow his name to be brought forward by his 
friends until the last moment ; and he did not allow any 
personal feeling to affect his course. He presided at a ratifi- 
cation-meeting in Faneuil Hall to sustain the nomination of 
Taylor and Fillmore. As a presiding officer, on this and simi- 
lar occasions, he appeared to great advantage. He was, in 
fact, a self-made but very successful and forcible public 
speaker. This was shown effectively, during this campaign, 
in what are called caucus-speeches, in which he was always 
happy. He was urgently solicited, in various quarters of the 
country, to address his fellow-citizens, but confined himself to 
a few of the most important points, in which he was eminently 
successful. 

Immediately after the inauguration of General Taylor, he 
was summoned to Washington, and urged to take a seat in the 
cabinet. But the two highest places had been disposed of ; 
and those which remained were not to his taste, and were 
declined. A higher position was soon after offered him, — 
that of the representative of the United States at the court 
of Great Britain. This is a station of the highest honor, 
which has been filled by some of the most eminent men of the 
country, requiring sound discretion as the necessary founda- 
tion, and in which the highest and the most varied information 
upon all subjects will find full exercise. This place, after 
some hesitation, he accepted, and, with Mrs. Lawrence, em- 
barked for England in September, 1849. It is difficult to 
find greater contrasts in the life of any man than those 
presented by his first and last visits to England, — the first as 






1856.] MEMOIR OF ABBOTT LAWRENCE. 75 

a novice, confined to the operations of trade at Manchester 
and Leeds ; and the last introducing him directly to Queen 
Victoria and the British court, and giving him free inter- 
course with the most distinguished statesmen of the land. 
This position he occupied not merely respectably, but with the 
highest honor, not only to himself, but to his country. He 
did not attempt to pass for what he was not ; but his general 
information, especially upon matters relating to trade, com- 
merce, and finance, caused his opinions to be sought in the 
highest quarters, whilst his peculiar urbanity and gracious 
manners made him a favorite with all with whom he came in 
contact. The possession of an ample fortune enabled him to 
support a style of hospitality more in accordance with the 
higher European embassies than is usual under the somewhat 
niggardly allowance of our own government. All this, how- 
ever, he did without overstepping the bounds of the strictest 
propriety and decorum. On public occasions, and at the nume- 
rous festivals which he attended, he acquitted himself in the 
happiest manner ; and his speeches may well compare with 
those made by statesmen of the highest education. 

Having had an opportunity of examining copies of his 
diplomatic correspondence, a small portion only of which has 
been published, the writer has no hesitation in characterizing 
it as exceedingly able, both in matter and manner, and as 
comparing well with the best specimens of that species of 
composition. It is very evident that he inspired the deepest 
respect in the different functionaries with whom he came in 
contact. 

One of the first objects requiring his attention was the 
project of a ship-canal from the Caribbean Sea to the Pacific 
Ocean, which had been brought forward by his predecessor, 
Mr. Bancroft. The assent and guaranty of both the United 
States and Great Britain were necessary to effect this object. 
An obstacle existed in the claim set up by Great Britain to 
the protectorate of the Mosquito Territory, on a part of which 



76 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [MARCH, 

the eastern terminus of the canal must be made. This sub- 
ject was one which received his immediate attention; and as 
early as December, 1849, he obtained from Lord Palmerston 
a disavowal, on the part of Great Britain, of any intention 
" to occupy or colonize Nicaragua, Costa Rica, the Mosquito 
coast, or any part of Central America." His mind was very 
much occupied with this matter, in the expectation that it 
would devolve on him to negotiate a treaty with the British 
government. In a letter of Dec. 14, 1849, to Lord Palmer- 
ston, he presents a view of the important advantages to 
result from such a canal, and of the obstacle interposed by 
the claim in behalf of the Mosquito Indians as an inde- 
pendent sovereignty. In the mean time, he set himself to 
work in collecting information in illustration of the con- 
nection of the British government with the Mosquito Indians, 
out of which their claim to certain peculiar rights as their 
protectors was founded. In this he was entirely successful. 
He became possessed of some very important manuscript 
documents which had never been published, consisting of the 
Yernon and Wager manuscripts, which he characterizes as 
" a collection embodying, in the original, official as well 
as private, letters of the Duke of Newcastle, of Sir Charles 
Wager, of Admiral Yernon, of Sir William Pulteney, of 
Governor Trelawney, of Mr. Robert Hodgson, and many 
others, a mass of authentic information never published, and 
not existing anywhere else, unless in Her Majesty's State 
Paper Office." 

He was arranging all these matters into a legal argument 
and historical document, when, in April, 1850, he received 
notice from Mr. Clayton, Secretary of State, that " these 
negotiations were entirely transferred to Washington, and 
that he was to cease altogether to press them in London." 
This was naturally a severe disappointment ; but he at once 
set about changing the character of this document from a 
letter to Lord Palmerston to a despatch to our own Secretary 



1856.] MEMOIR OP ABBOTT LAWRENCE. 77 

of State. It bears date 19th April, 1850. It covers eighty-five 
folio pages of manuscript. It discusses the question of the 
title of the Mosquito Indians to the sovereignty of the country 
claimed for them by Great Britain. It states very clearly 
the law established by the different nations of Europe in 
reference to their own rights, and that of the savages inhabit- 
ing the continent and islands of America. " The Christian 
world have agreed in recognizing the Indians as occupants 
only of the lands, without a right of possession, without do- 
main, the sovereignty being determined by priority of discovery 
and occupation." 

In the historical review of the question, he states that Spain 
established her rights on the Mosquito Territory in the fifteenth 
century, which were recognized in the treaty of 1672 by Sir 
William Godolphin. He quotes, from the documents before 
mentioned, abundant evidence of the tampering of the Gov- 
ernor of Jamaica, and of the Admiral on that station, with 
the Mosquitoes, during the war which broke out with Spain 
in 1739. The treaty of 1763, as well as that of 1783, would 
seem to admit the sovereignty of Spain in the fullest degree. 
This whole question is argued with great ability. It is unfor- 
tunate, that, whilst this document was on its passage to 
Washington, a treaty was actually signed by Mr. Clayton and 
Sir Henry L. Bulwer, out of which a serious misunderstanding 
has arisen. This could hardly have happened, had this docu- 
ment been communicated to the British government as the 
American view of the question. 

Mr. Lawrence's own view of the subject was, " that, when- 
ever the history of the conduct of Great Britain shall be 
published to the world, it will not stand one hour before the 
bar of public opinion without universal condemnation."* 



* This document was published on a call from the Senate, Feb. 9, 1853. Senate 
Doc. 32d Congress, 2d session, No. 27. 



78 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [MARCH, 

A question was left unsettled by Mr. Bancroft in relation 
to the postal rates on the transit of letters across England, to 
which Mr. Lawrence devoted a good deal of time. Not 
being able to induce the Postmaster-General to adopt rates 
more reasonable than the existing ones, he recommended to 
our government to give notice to annul the convention of 
1848, as they had a right to do, as the only means of bring- 
ing about a more equitable arrangement. 

Another matter which Mr. Lawrence pressed upon the 
British government with earnestness and ability was the in- 
justice of her light-house system, by which foreign tonnage 
is taxed to support sinecure officers, whilst our own light- 
houses are free to all the world, without any tax whatever. 
These despatches, which were never satisfactorily answered, 
were made public by vote of the House of Commons, on 
motion of Mr. Hume. 

A delicate but spirited correspondence took place between 
Mr. Lawrence and Lord Granville in relation to the outrage 
committed by H. M. ship " Express " on the steamer " Pro- 
metheus," for which an ample apology was made. 

In August, 1852, England was thrown into intense excite- 
ment, in consequence of a letter written by Mr. Webster on 
the subject of the new ground taken by Great Britain in 
reference to the fisheries. This, led to several interviews 
between Mr. Lawrence and Lord Malmesbury, the result of 
which was such a modification of the instructions to the ves- 
sels on the station as prevented any collision. His attention 
was unremitted in reference to the very numerous private 
claims upon the British government which required his care. 
A joint commission was afterward appointed to decide de- 
finitively upon this description of cases. 

In September, 1851, Mr. and Mrs. Lawrence made a tour 
in Ireland, of which he gives an interesting account in a 
despatch under date of 2d December. They visited Dublin, 
Galway, Limerick, Killarney, Cork, &c. In many of these 



1856.] MEMOIR OF ABBOTT LAWRENCE. 79 

places he was met by deputations, and received the most flat- 
tering and respectful attentions. His accounts of the present 
state of Ireland, and his remarks upon it, are in the highest 
degree interesting and instructive. 

On the whole, it may be doubted whether, since the mis- 
sion of Dr. Franklin, any minister of the United States has 
accomplished a diplomatic success greater than must be 
awarded to Mr. Lawrence. This was the result of his pecu- 
liar endowments, — quick apprehension, sagacity, retentive 
memory, power of reaching the pith of a matter, tact, kind- 
ness of heart, and perfect truthfulness. 

His residence in London, mingling freely in society, did 
much in producing a change in public opinion favorable to 
his own country. The writer thought he saw good evidence 
of this at a dinner, at which he was present, given by Mr. 
Westhead, member of Parliament for Knaresborough, at the 
Clarendon Hotel, to a party of about fifty, consisting equally 
of English and Americans. This gentleman had met Mr. 
Lawrence during a visit which he made to Manchester and 
Liverpool, and was so much pleased with him that he requested 
permission to give him such a dinner, which it would have 
been ungracious to refuse. It was a compliment to Mr. Law- 
rence and his country, graced by the presence of distinguished 
members of the British cabinet, and such Americans as 
happened to be in England. It was opened by a neat speech 
from Mr. Westhead, to which Mr. Lawrence replied in his 
happiest manner. Speeches followed by Lord Palmerston, 
Mr. Gladstone, Earl Powis, Mr. Cardwell, and others. They 
were beautiful specimens of dinner-speeches ; but what was 
particularly striking was the amiable manner in which they 
tendered the right hand of fellowship to their American 
brothers. There seemed to be a general desire to express the 
feeling that brother Jonathan had proved himself a worthy 
chip of the old block, and was entitled to their kindest 
regards. There was an air of sincerity and cordiality on the 



80 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [MARCH, 

occasion which could not be mistaken. Unfortunately, re- 
porters were excluded, so that these speeches were never given 
to the public. 

After three years' service, Mr. Lawrence obtained leave to 
return to his country ; which he did in October, 1852. On 
this occasion he was invited to a public dinner ; but, happening 
at a period when the whole community were deeply affected 
by the recent death of Mr. Webster, he declined it. He 
arrived, in fact, barely in time to attend the funeral of that 
lamented statesman. 

Mr. Lawrence was always ready and foremost in supporting 
measures which promised benefit to the public. He was a large 
subscriber to the various railroads projected for the concentra- 
tion of trade in Boston ; and this from a feeling of patriotism, 
rather than the expectation of profit. His subscriptions for 
public objects of charity or education were always on the most 
liberal scale ; but the crowning act of this character was the 
establishment of the Scientific School at Cambridge, con- 
nected with Harvard College, for which he gave fifty thousand 
dollars in 1847, and left a further like sum by his will. His 
letter to Mr. Eliot, the Treasurer of the College, accompanying 
the donation, was a proof how completely his mind was im- 
bued with the subject, and how fully and accurately he had 
investigated it. This institution supplied a great want in our 
system of education, in the application of science to the arts. 
He left a further sum of fifty thousand dollars for the pur- 
pose of erecting model lodging-houses, the income of the 
rents to be for ever applied to certain public charities. He 
received, in 1854, the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws 
from Harvard College, and also from that of Williams. 

Viewing his character phrenologically, it was the symmetry 
and beauty of the whole organization which constituted its 
excellence, without the peculiar prominence or exaggeration 
of particular organs which give the highest power of genius 
in their manifestation. In other words, his intellectual and 



1856.] MEMOIR OP ABBOTT LAWRENCE. Hi 

moral powers were in due and admirable proportion, with no 
deficiency, and with no excess. In his person he was at the 
same time commanding and prepossessing, with a suavity, 
and air of benevolence and sincerity, which indicated the per- 
fect gentleman. 

In his social relations he was eminently happy. Early in 
life, he married Katharine, the daughter of the Hon. Timothy 
Bigelow, long known and distinguished as the Speaker of the 
House of Representatives of Massachusetts. She aided in 
his labors with devoted fidelity, and shared in his honors with 
becoming dignity. He lived to see a numerous family of 
children well married, and settled in life. His eldest son 
married the daughter of the eminent historian Prescott. 

In June, 1855, he was attacked with alarming symptoms 
of disease. These continued to increase; and his life was 
brought to a close on the eighteenth day of August, in the 
sixty-third year of his age. He was, in principle and practice, 
during life, .a sincere and pious Christian. He met death as 
becomes a Christian to die. At this comparatively early age, 
with every thing about him calculated to make the close of 
life a period of calm and tranquil enjoyment, in the con- 
sciousness of a life well spent, he resigned his spirit to the 
God who gave it, without a murmur or expression of any thing 
but gratitude for the blessings he had experienced. 

There was no circumstance of his life more remarkable 
than the demonstration of public feeling during his sickness 
and after his death. During the last few lingering days of 
his life, there seemed to be but one topic on the public mind. 
Was there any hope ? Is he to die ? Seldom has the death 
of an individual, holding no public office, called forth such 
an expression of deep feeling. Faneuil Hall, on a short 
notice, was spontaneously crowded by our citizens, in order to 
give vent to their grief. Speeches were made by several of 
our most distinguished men. It was the loss of a friend, 
of a general benefactor, of a good man, which called forth 

11 



82 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [APRIL, 

this universal expression of sorrow. The government of 
Harvard College and a great number of societies held special 
meetings, and adopted resolutions to attend his funeral. The 
Rev. Dr. Lothrop, 'his pastor, in a funeral discourse, did jus- 
tice to his religious character. He says, " The benevolence 
of Mr. Lawrence, and all the virtues of his life, had their 
strong foundation and constant nourishment in religious faith. 
He believed in his heart on the Lord Jesus Christ, and re- 
ceived him as the promised Messiah, and Saviour of the world. 
He was truly catholic in his feelings, loving all who love our 
Lord Jesus Christ in sincerity and truth ; and extended the 
helping hand of his charities to the enterprises of various 
Christian denominations." 

Mr. Lawrence's connection with our own Society was brief, 
his election having taken place in December, 1853 ; but he 
entered deeply into the spirit of our pursuits, and contem- 
plated making some valuable contributions to our archives. 
His name will be always cherished as one of the most distin- 
guished upon our rolls. 



SPECIAL MEETING, April 3. 

A special meeting of the Society, called by the Stand- 
ing Committee, was held at the house of the President, 
in Pemberton Square, Boston, on Thursday evening, 
April 3, at seven and a half o'clock, when, on account 
of the occurrence of the Annual Fast on the regular day 
for the stated meeting, — 

On motion of Mr. Savage, it was Voted, That the 
Standing Committee be directed to appoint the time and 
place for holding the annual meeting ; and that the Re- 



1856.] PROCEEDINGS OF SPECIAL MEETING. 83 

cording Secretary, in issuing the notices for the meeting, 
state the reason for the change in time, and also the 
change in place, should the meeting be called at any 
other place than the Society's rooms. 

Voted, That the Standing Committee be authorized to 
consider and propose any alterations in the By-laws, 
to be submitted by them at a future meeting. 

The President, from the Committee of Ten, reported 
sundry doings of the Committee, together with the pro- 
posed alteration of the stairs in the first story, according 
to Mr. Sneli's plan, to be made at the charges of the 
Suffolk Savings Bank for Seamen and others. As this 
alteration involves the necessity of alterations in the 
second flight of stairs, with some further changes, at an 
expense of one hundred and fifty dollars, according to 
Mr. Sneli's plan, it was further — Voted, That the same 
Committee be authorized to have this work done. 

Voted, That the Committee be empowered to make 
such alterations and improvements in the rooms of the 
Society — including lighting, heating, &c., together 
with providing a safe — as in their judgment may be 
best, and with due regard to economy. 

Voted, That the Standing Committee be authorized to 
reprint vol. viii. of the First Series of the Collections, 
whenever they shall deem it expedient, having due 
regard to the financial condition of the Society. 

Voted, That the Standing Committee take into their 
consideration the subject of obtaining an insurance of 
the books and other treasures of the Society, with full 
power to take all such measures in the premises as they 
may deem best for the interests of the Society. 



84 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [APRIL, 

Mr. Sabine offered to the Society sundry interesting 
and valuable papers connected with the war with 
Tripoli in 1803, including letters from Commodores 
Preble, Bainbridge, and other officers of the squadron. 
The Society gratefully accepted Mr. Sabine's liberal 
offer. 

The following preamble and vote were unanimously 
passed : — 

Whereas, the Hon. Jonathan Phillips and Hon. Wil- 
liam Appleton have been liberal benefactors to the 
Society, in aiding the Society in their recent purchase 
of the real estate occupied by them, — 

Voted, That the Society will present to each of those 
gentlemen, in grateful acknowledgment of their libera- 
lity, a copy of every printed volume of the Collections, 
as the same shall be published. 



ANNUAL MEETING, April 24, 1856. 

Pursuant to the vote passed at the special meeting of 
the Society, held on the third instant, the Standing 
Committee appointed April 24, at noon, at the Society's 
rooms in Tremont Street, Boston, as the time and 
place for the annual meeting. Notices were issued, 
and the meeting held accordingly ; the President, Hon. 
Robert C. Winthrop, in the chair. 

The Librarian announced donations from the Regents 
of the University of the State of New York ; the Prison- 



1856.] ANNUAL MEETING. 85 

Discipline Society ; Drs. William F. Charming and 
Samuel A. Green ; Thomas Lawson, Surgeon-General 
U.S.A. ; John Clark, J. N. Carrigan, J. Wingate Thorn- 
ton, E. H. Derby, and John M'Mullen, Esqs. ; and 
from Messrs. Appleton, Sibley, Winthrop, and Worces- 
ter, of this Society. 

The Committee appointed at the March meeting to 
examine the Treasurer's accounts for the year ending in 
April, made the following report ; viz., — 

" The undersigned, a Committee appointed to examine the 
accounts of Richard Frothingham, jun., the Treasurer of 
the Massachusetts Historical Society, have attended to that 
duty ; and report, that the accounts are properly vouched and 
correctly cast, and that there is in the hands of their Treasurer 
the following balances ; viz.,— 

On the general account, seventy-two dollars and thirty cents . $72.30 

On account of the Appleton Fund, seven hundred and sixty- 
eight dollars and forty-two cents 768.42 

On account of the Massachusetts Historical Trust Fund, 

thirty-two dollars 32.00 

On account of the sales of the Society's Collections, two 

hundred sixty -three dollars and twenty -five cents . . 263.25 

Signed, 

John C. Gray. 
J. A. Lowell. 

Mr. Ellis, from the Committee appointed at the 
March meeting to nominate officers for the ensuing year, 
reported the following list; and the persons therein 
named were elected; viz., — 



86 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [April, 

President. 

Hon. ROBERT C. WINTHROP, LL.D Boston. 

Recording Secretary. 
JOSEPH WILLARD, A.M - . Boston. 

Corresponding Secretary. 
Rev. WILLIAM P. LUNT, D.D Quincy. 

Librarian. 
Rev. SAMUEL K. LOTHROP, D.D Boston. 

Treasurer. 
Hon. RICHARD FROTHINGHAM, Jun Chaklestown. 

Cabinet-Keeper. 
NATHANIEL B. SHURTLEFF, M.D Boston. 

Standing Committee. 

Rev. CHANDLER ROBBINS, D.D Boston. 

Hon. JOHN C. GRAY, A.M Boston. 

WILLIAM BRIGHAM, A.B Boston. 

FRANCIS PARKMAN, A.B Boston. 

GEORGE LIVERMORE, A.M Cambridge. 

Mr. Deane, from the Standing Committee, made a 
verbal report in relation to the unbound pamphlets, &c, 
— that about ten thousand pamphlets had been arranged 
and pretty minutely classified, and put into four hun- 
dred and fifty-seven cases ; that, of the loose manuscripts, 
there are three volumes of the Otis papers, one of the 
Hollis papers, and that there will be from five to 
seven miscellaneous volumes, extending from the time 
of the first charter to the middle of the last cen- 
tury ; that the Massachusetts State papers are nearly 
complete, and that the list is with Dr. Shurtleff to per- 
fect the same ; that, of the Collections, there are five 
thousand five hundred and forty-eight copies, varying 
from three copies of a volume to four hundred and fifty. 



1856.] ANNUAL MEETING. 87 

Mr. Deane also reported, that Dr. Appleton, the 
Assistant Librarian, had submitted to the Standing Com- 
mittee the following statement : — 

Since the annual meeting in April, 1855, there have been 
added to the library, by donation, one hundred and forty bonnd 
volumes of books ; seven hundred and five pamphlets ; one 
bound and eight unbound volumes of newspapers ; three 
manuscripts ; four maps, plans, &c. 

The books belonging to the library have been more exten- 
sively used by members and others during the year, both for 
consultation at the rooms, and as to the number of books taken 
out, amounting to a hundred and forty-four volumes, all of 
which have been returned in good order. At the date of the 
last annual meeting, twenty-seven volumes were charged upon 
the loan-book of the Librarian, some of which had been retained 
for several years by the persons taking them from the library. 
These books have all been recovered, and, together with many 
which had been removed from their proper location in the 
library-room, have been replaced upon the shelves. 

It is believed that every volume belonging to the library is 
now in place, with the exception of those which have been 
long missing, and are probably irrecoverably lost. 

In addition to the ordinary duties of the Librarian, pro- 
gress has been made in the preparation of the new Catalogue, 
which was commenced on the 18th of April last. Since that 
date, all the volumes upon the shelves in the library-room, 
together with the manuscripts and other volumes in the cabi- 
nets, and the United-States documents in the ante-room, 
have been catalogued, and the proper cross-references added. 

The work will be completed by cataloguing the remaining 
volumes in the ante-room, with the bound volumes of news- 
papers and unbound pamphlets. 



88 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [May, 



MAY MEETING. 

The Society held their stated monthly meeting on 
Thursday, May 8, at noon, at their rooms in Tremont 
Street, Boston ; the President, Hon. Robert C. Win- 
throp, in the chair. 

The Librarian announced donations from the Depart- 
ment of State ; Dr. Samuel A. Green ; Rev. Cyrus A. 
Bartol ; Henry White and Charles Hale, Esqs. ; and 
Messrs. Shattuck, Sibley, and Winthrop, of this So- 
ciety. 

The Librarian having discovered a copy of Burnet 
on the Prophecies, in the garret of the Brattle-street 
Parsonage, — Voted, That the Librarian return the 
volume to the New-England Library of the Old South, 
to which it belongs ; it not pertaining to the class of 
works in that library deposited with this Society. 

Hon. John R. Bartlett, of Providence, R. I., was 
elected a Corresponding Member. 

The Standing Committee reported that they have con- 
tracted for reprinting vols. viii. and ix. of the First Series 
of the Society's Collections ; also that they have effected 
insurance upon the Society's books and pamphlets, in the 
sum of five thousand dollars, at three-fourths of one per 
cent, for the term of one year ; also that they have fixed 
forty dollars as the price of a set of the Collections, and 
one dollar twenty-five cents per single volume. 

It was also announced that the new volume of the 
Collections, containing Bradford's History, is printed, 
and will be ready for delivery in a few days. 



1856.] PROCEEDINGS OF SPECIAL MAY MEETING. 89 

Messrs. R Fro thin gharri, jun., Aspinwall, Sabine, 
and Livermore, were appointed a Committee to prepare 
and publish the fourth volume of the Fourth Series of 
the Collections. 

On motion of Mr. Shattuck, — Voted, That a Com- 
mittee be appointed to prepare a circular to be sent to 
the town-clerks of the several towns in the State, solicit- 
ing copies of all printed books, documents, and papers 
relating to the town or to matters therein, to be depo- 
sited in the archives of this Society ; and also soliciting 
information concerning the history, extent, and present 
condition, of the records of the towns. And thereupon 
Messrs. Shattuck, Shurtleff, and Ames were appointed 
on the Committee. 

Mr. Barry read a letter from his brother, Rev. Wil- 
liam Barry, dated Chicago, April 28, 1856, in relation to 
the establishment of the Chicago Historical Society, for 
historical inquiry, collection, and publication, for Illi- 
nois and the North-west; showing their wide field of 
investigation, their wants and prospects. 

Voted to refer this communication to the Standing 
Committee. 



SPECIAL MEETING, Mat 22. 

A special meeting of the Society, called by the Stand- 
ing Committee, was held at the house of Hon. Nathan 
Appleton, in Beacon Street, Boston, on Thursday even- 
ing, May 22, at seven and a half o'clock ; the President, 
Hon. Robert C. Winthrop, in the chair. 

12 



90 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [May, 

After the reading of the record of the last meeting, 
Mr. Deane, from the Committee on the third volume, 
Fourth Series, reported verbally, that, while the Com- 
mittee were making collections for a third volume, the 
discovery of Governor Bradford's manuscript "History of 
Plymouth Colony " induced them to suspend their pro- 
ceedings, and to obtain, and prepare for the press, a 
copy of this history ; that, accordingly, they have 
prepared for the press, and published, five hundred 
copies of Bradford's History, with the Memoir of the 
late Samuel Appleton prefixed, and five hundred copies 
of Bradford alone, all at the expense of about eleven 
hundred and fifty dollars, exclusive of the cost of obtain- 
ing the copy in England, and amounting, in the whole, 
to fourteen hundred and seven dollars ; that the price 
per volume had been fixed at two dollars and twenty-five 
cents, the publishers accounting at the rate of two dollars 
and twelve cents per copy on their sales. 

Mr. Deane further stated, that the full Index to 
the volume was prepared by Mr. Sibley, — a service 
wholly gratuitous on his part. 

Whereupon, on motion of Mr. Ellis, — Voted, That 
the thanks of the Society be presented to our associate, 
Mr. Charles Deane, for his laborious and zealous efforts, 
now crowned with such complete success, in procuring 
and editing Bradford's History. 

Voted, That the thanks of the Society be presented 
to Mr. Sibley for the excellent Index to Bradford's 
History, just published, which he prepared free of 
charge to the Society ; and that a copy of that volume 
be sent to him. 



1856.] SPECIAL MEETING. 91 

The President communicated a letter from Mr. Hyde 
Clarke, of London, dated " 42, Basinghall Street, 28th 
April, 1856," accompanying the donation to the Society 
of a copy of Washington's letter to " Mr. Charton," dated 
" Mount Vernon, 20th May, 1786," supposed never to 
have been published, in answer to Mr. Charton's let- 
ter from Philadelphia of May 5, stating the terms on 
which he would be willing to dispose of his lands, 
situated on the Big Kenhawa and on the Ohio, between 
the two Kenhawas. He also communicated a letter 
from Mr. Sparks, who states that " there seems no rea- 
son to doubt the genuineness of the Washington letter," 
and makes reference to the list of the Kenhawa lands 
attached to Washington's will, with which the list in 
the letter corresponds. 

Voted to refer the copy of the Washington letter to 
the Publishing Committee of vol. iv., and that the Pre- 
sident be requested to acknowledge the donation. 

The President read a letter from Mr. W. H. Whit- 
more, in behalf of the " Library Committee of the New- 
England Historic-Genealogical Society," proposing an 
exchange of the " Register " — of which vol. x. is now 
printing — for this Society's Collections. 

Voted to refer this communication to the Standing 
Committee. 

On motion of Mr. Deane, — Voted, That copies of 
the new volume be presented by the President, in 
the name of the Society, to the Fulham Library, from 
whose archives the manuscript of Bradford's History 
was procured ; also to the Bishop of London and the 



92 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [MAY, 

Bishop of Oxford, to whose courteous interest the 
Society is greatly indebted for the possession of its 
copy of that valuable work. 

It having been announced, by the Standing Commit- 
tee, that Mr. Whitmore had presented the Winslow 
papers to the Society, — Voted, That the thanks of the 
Society be given to Mr. William H. Whitmore for his 
valuable donation to the library of two volumes of the 
Winslow papers, together with extracts from the ar- 
chives of the State of Massachusetts illustrating the 
same ; and also that the first three volumes of the 
Fourth Series be presented to the same gentleman, as 
a slight acknowledgment of his generosity. 

Voted, That a copy of the new volume be presented 
to Peter C. Brooks, Esq., and John Eliot Thayer, Esq., 
as a token of the Society's thanks for their generous 
contribution in aid of its funds. Also voted to send 
the volume to all societies which furnish their publica- 
tions to this Society in exchange. 

Voted that authority be given to the Standing Com- 
mittee to institute a system of exchanges of our pub- 
lications with such literary and historical institutions, 
domestic or foreign, as they may think advisable. 

Mr. Ames presented to the Society, on large parch- 
ment, a letter of attorney, dated Oct. 29, 1779, signed 
by Alexander Hood, Esq., Treasurer of the Greenwich 
Hospital, empowering Mr. Henry Newton to receive, 
to the use of the hospital, " forfeited and unclaimed 
shares of prize and bounty money," under the Act of 
Parliament prohibiting trade and intercourse with the 



1856.] PROCEEDINGS OF JUNE MEETING. 93 

Colonies; and authorizing the seizing, and making 
prizes, of vessels, &c, under the circumstances named in 
the Act. 

Voted to refer this document to the Publishing Com- 
mittee of vol. iv., for their consideration. 



JUNE MEETING. 

The Society held their stated monthly meeting on 
Thursday, June 12, at noon, at their rooms in Tremont 
Street, Boston ; the President, Hon. Robert C. Win- 
throp, in the chair. 

The Librarian announced donations from the Ala- 
bama Historical Society, the Maine Historical Society, 
the Mercantile-Library Association, the Library Company 
of Philadelphia ; Dr. Martyn Paine, New York ; Hon. 
Joshua N. H. Chase, Manlius, N.Y. ; Hon. Thomas G. 
Cary, Prof. Longfellow, Hon. Judge Theron Metcalf, 
Messrs. Wm. H. Whitmore and J. S. Loring ; and 
from Messrs. Parkman, Savage, and Winthrop, of this 
Society. 

The President, in the absence of the Chairman of 
the Standing Committee, and in behalf of the Com- 
mittee, read the following report ; viz. : — 

Mr. Arnold has finished his task of arranging the Trumbull 
papers, &c, and pasting them into substantial volumes, which 
have been uniformly lettered, and placed in one of the cabi- 



94 MASSACHUSETTS 'HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

nets. His services being at present unnecessary, he has been 
paid and discharged. His labors have been assiduous and 
valuable. 

The Chairman has examined and assorted the miscellaneous 
manuscripts, some of which are of great interest. They have 
been tied up in strong packages, and labelled. 

Several valuable copies in manuscript of early charters 
have been put together to be bound in one volume. 

A few large old manuscripts are under examination, with a 
view to binding, if it shall be deemed expedient. 

Directions have been given for the binding of the ancient 
state and town maps, the charts and historical engravings, 
belonging to the Society, some of which are very rare, and of 
great value. 

Loose printed sheets, and such engravings as do not belong 
to the class last named, are to be preserved in portfolios. 

A plan has been made for the neat and compact disposal 
of the maps on rollers. 

Orders have been given for the repair of the roof of the 
building, which was found to be leaky in several places ; also 
for painting the window-sills, which are beginning to decay. 

The hall in the third story is nearly ready to receive that 
part of our library and of the portraits which the Committee 
design to arrange there. Bookshelves have been put up 'on 
the sides, made out of old materials belonging to the Society, 
at as small expense as was consistent with neatness and con- 
venience ; and it is hoped, that, at the next stated meeting, 
the members will find that apartment of our building in 
complete order. 

The Committee have considered the request of the Historic- 
Genealogical Society for an exchange of publications, and 
have voted to accede to it under certain limitations, which, 
on inquiry, have been found to be satisfactory to the peti- 
tioners. 

The communication from the Historical Society of Chicago 



1856.] PROCEEDINGS. 95 

has been placed in the hands of Mr. Francis Parkman, pre- 
paratory to the final action of the Standing Committee, who 
will probably be able to make their report at this meeting of 
the Society. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Chandler Robbins, Chairman. 

On motion of Mr. Parkman, — Voted, That such 
volumes of the Society's publications as can be spared, 
without detriment, shall be given to the Historical 
Society of Chicago ; and that, in accordance with their 
request, a person be named to open a correspondence 
with that Society upon the early missions and explora- 
tions in Illinois. 

Mr. Sparks presented to the Society an account of 
the " Destruction of the Tea in the Harbor of Boston, 
Dec. 16, 1773," embracing the following papers: viz., 
1. Letter of Dr. Cooper to Dr. Franklin, Dec. 17, 
1773; 2. Letter of the Committee of the House of 
Representatives of the Province of Massachusetts Bay 
to Arthur Lee, Agent of the Province, Dec. 21, 1773; 
3. Letter of John Scollay, one of the Selectmen of 
Boston, to Arthur Lee, Dec. 23, 1773; 4. Dr. Wil- 
liamson's Examination before the King's Council in 
London. 

After some interesting remarks and explanations 
made by Mr. Sparks, it was voted to refer these papers 
to the Publishing Committee of vol. iv. 



yb MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [June, 

SPECIAL MEETING AT CAMBRIDGE. 

June 26. 

A special meeting of the Society, called by the 
Standing Committee, was held at the house of George 
Livermore, Esq., Dana Hill, Cambridge, on Thursday 
evening, June 26, at seven and a half o'clock ; the Presi- 
dent, Hon. Robert C. Winthrop, in the chair. 

In the absence of the Recording Secretary, Rev. Dr. 
Robbins was appointed Recording Secretary pro tem. 
A letter from Rev. Mr. Barry, of the Chicago Historical 
Society, was read, acknowledging with expressions of 
gratitude the generous interest manifested by this 
Society towards the young and enterprising institution 
on whose behalf he had previously solicited a dona- 
tion of our publications. 

A letter from Dr. E. B. O'Callaghan, attached to 
the office of the Secretary of State of New York at 
Albany, requesting a set of the Society's Collections 
in exchange for a complete set of his numerous publi- 
cations, was read ; and it was voted unanimously, that, 
in consideration of Dr. O'Callaghan's valuable historical 
labors and accomplishments, this Society will accede to 
his request. 

Mr. Livermore produced a trunk containing a large 
collection of manuscripts formerly belonging to Hon. 
Judge Davis, and more recently to Isaac P. Davis, 
Esq., late esteemed associates of this Society ; which, 
in compliance with the expressed wish of the latter, 
had been committed to Mr. Livermore' s charge by 
Mrs. Davis, and Hon. William Sturgis, executor, to be 






1856.] PROCEEDINGS OP JULY MEETING. 97 

examined and assorted previously to their being de- 
posited in the library of the Massachusetts Historical 
Society. 

Mr. Livermore stated that he had partially inspected 
the papers, and found some of them to be of great value. 

Voted, That Messrs. Livermore, Deane, and Bowen 
be a Committee to arrange and prepare the manuscripts, 
according to the views of the donor, for the library. 

On motion of Dr. Bobbins, — Voted, That the thanks 
of the Society be presented to Mrs. I. P. Davis, and 
also to the Hon. William Sturgis, for the valuable 
and interesting collection of manuscripts — formerly 
the property of the Hon. Judge Davis — recently given 
by them to the Massachusetts Historical Society, in 
furtherance of the generous purpose of the late Isaac 
P. Davis, Esq. ; and that the President be requested to 
communicate a copy of the above resolution to Mrs. 
Davis and to Mr. Sturgis. 

The President read several interesting old papers 
from his private collection. 



JULY MEETING. 

The Society held their stated monthly meeting on 
Thursday, July 10, at noon, at their rooms in Tremont 
Street, Boston ; the President, Hon. Robert C. Win- 
throp, in the chair. 

The Librarian announced donations from the City of 
Boston ; the Essex Institute ; the Mercantile-Library 
Association, New York ; J. O. Halliwell, Esq., F.R.S. ; 

13 



98 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JULY, 

Daniel Goodwin and Chas. J. Hoadly, Esqs., Hartford ; 
Hon. Theron Metcalf; Dr. O'Callaghan, of Albany; 
and from Messrs. Barry and Deane, of this Society. 

A letter from Dr. O'Callaghan was read, acknow- 
ledging the receipt of the Collections ; also from 
the American Antiquarian Society, acknowledging the 
receipt of volume third, of the Fourth Series. 

The President announced that he had forwarded 
copies of Bradford's History to the Bishops of Oxford 
and London, and to Rev. Joseph Hunter; and read an 
interesting letter from Mr. Hunter, dated London, June 
24, 1856, in relation to this volume. 

The President read a letter from Samuel Eliot, Esq., 
dated June 24, 1856, resigning his place as a Resident 
Member; he being about to remove from the Common- 
wealth. 

Dr. Jenks, in connection with a Thanksgiving ser- 
mon preached on the taking of Quebec, stated that it 
appeared that Montcalm was in Scotland in the Rebel- 
lion in 1745. He also communicated a letter from 
Colonel Read to the Town Council of Plymouth, in 
behalf of General Washington, asking for a supply of 
powder for vessels to be sent in pursuit of the enemy ; 
also Stephen Moylan's letter to William Watson, Esq., 
of Plymouth, dated Cambridge, Dec. 13, 1775, express- 
ing his Excellency's thanks for the attention which had 
been paid to his request. 

Mr. R. Frothingham, jun., read a copy of a letter 
taken from an old letter-book at the State House, con- 
taining the doings of the Assembly, July 3, 1776, in 
relation to the letter of instructions to the delegates. 






1856.] PROCEEDINGS. 99 

Dr. Webb, from the Third Section, read an interest- 
ing letter from William Ellery, one of the signers of the 
Declaration of Independence, written to Mr. Henry 
Marchant, a merchant in Newport, June 20, 1775, con- 
taining details of the early reports of Bunker-Hill 
battle, accompanied with a copy of a letter from Gene- 
ral Greene to Lieutenant-Governor Cook, of Rhode 
Island. 

Judge Shaw, from the same section, narrated an 
interesting interview he had many years ago (when 
visiting, with a friend, the battle-ground of Bunker Hill) 
with a man who was one of the working-party sent to 
the hill on the night of the 16th June to work upon the 
fortifications ; by which it appeared, that, although 
the working party was at entire liberty to leave 
when the troops came and took possession, this party 
voted to a man to stay and fight out the battle. 

Dr.HoBBiNS, from the Standing Committee, gave an 
account of the arrangement of books, the hanging of 
the pictures, &c., in the room in the third story of the 
Society's building. 

Voted, That the Publishing Committee be requested 
to prepare and publish sketches of those persons whose 
portraits are in the Society's rooms, completing the brief 
biographical notices prepared and published in a former 
volume of the Society's Collections. 



100 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [AUG. 



SPECIAL MEETING, Aug. 5. 

A special meeting of the Society, called by the 
Standing Committee, was held this day at their rooms 
in Tremont Street, Boston ; the President, Hon. Robert 
C. Winthrop, in the chair. 

The President stated the object for which this meet- 
ing was called, as follows : — 

The Society has been specially convened on this occasion to 
receive an announcement of a most interesting character. An' 
addition of the highest value and importance has been made 
to its treasures, and one which calls for immediate and most 
grateful acknowledgment. 

No lover of literature in our community, or indeed through- 
out our country, can have remained ignorant of the existence 
of the splendid private library of Mr. Thomas Dowse, of Cam- 
bridge. This noble collection of rich and rare works has been 
gradually accumulated, with great care and at great cost, 
during a period of more than half a century ; and now con- 
tains at least five thousand volumes, beautifully bound, and in 
the best possible preservation, and many of them of the highest 
historical interest. It has long been one of the most interest- 
ing objects in our neighborhood ; and distinguished strangers 
of our own and of other countries have been eager to visit 
it as among the objects most worthy of their attention. 

Its venerable and excellent owner, now more than fourscore 
years of age, — but, though oppressed by physical infirmities, 
still in the enjoyment of that clear, practical intelligence, and 
of that prompt decision of character, which have eminently 
distinguished him through life, — has desired to make some 
provision, before his final summons should arrive, for securing 






1856.] GIFT OP MR. DOWSE'S LIBRARY. 101 

a safe guardianship for this precious collection. It has so long 
been a source of pleasure and of pride to himself, that he is 
unwilling to leave it, as he soon must, without providing that 
it shall be safely and sacredly preserved, to afford pleasure and 
profit to others. And, after mature and deliberate considera- 
tion and consultation, he has decided finally to commit it to 
the custody of the Massachusetts Historical Society ; present- 
ing it to them as a gift, upon the simple and judicious condi- 
tions that it shall be kept together in a single and separate 
room for ever, and that it shall only be used in that room. 

Our worthy friend and fellow-member, Mr. George Liver- 
more, the immediate neighbor and confidential friend of Mr. 
Dowse, has been the medium of communication between 
Mr. Dowse and myself on this subject ; and the Society are 
under great obligations to him for his considerate and faithful 
intervention. On Saturday, the 26th of July, he informed me 
confidentially, and for the first time, of Mr. Dowse's inten- 
tions, and inquired if 1 were willing to take the responsibility 
of saying that the Society would accept the donation, and 
conform to the conditions under which it was to be made. I 
could not hesitate a moment, but proceeded at once to put my 
reply in writing by addressing the following note to Mr. Liver- 
more, to be used at his discretion : — 

Boston, July 26, 1856. 

My dear Mr. Livermore, — I have considered with the deepest 
interest the suggestions which you made to me this morning in regard 
to the proposal of your venerable friend Mr. Dowse. I ought to have 
said our venerable friend ; for I shall always remember the kindness 
and cordiality with which he received me into his library. That li- 
brary would indeed be an inestimable treasure to our Historical So- 
ciety, and one which they could not guard too sacredly, should it be 
committed to their keeping. I feel the utmost assurance in saying, 
that the Society would gladly conform to any views which Mr. Dowse 
might have upon the subject, and would take pride and pleasure in 
preserving his library in a room by itself, where it might be viewed 



102 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [AUG. 

in all time to come, entirely separate from all other books, and as a 
memorial of the enlightened munificence of its original collector. 

Pray present my kindest regards and best respects to Mr. Dowse, 
with my hope that he may still enjoy many days of comfort and hap- 
piness. 

Believe me, dear Mr. Livermore, very sincerely your friend, 

Robert C. Winthrop. 

George Livermore, Esq. 



To this letter, the following reply was received : — 

Boston, July 28, 1856. 

My dear Mr. Winthrop, — I called on our venerable friend 
Mr. Dowse, on Saturday evening, and read to him your letter respect- 
ing his proposal for giving his library to the Massachusetts Historical 
Society. He expressed himself very much gratified that you had 
received his proposition so favorably; and remarked, in substance, 
that, as he had long been familiar with the character of the Society, 
and was personally acquainted with many of the members, he felt 
sure, that, in their keeping, his books, which had been for many years 
his choice and cherished friends, would be carefully preserved and 
properly used according to the conditions which he had named, and 
which I communicated to you. He desired me to have a paper drawn 
up in due form, conveying all his books to the Historical Society ; and 
witnesses were summoned to be present at the signing of the same, 
this morning. But Mr. Dowse found himself so weak, and his hand 
so stiff, that he could not hold a pen. At his request, I read aloud to 
him and to the witnesses — Dr. W. W. Wellington, Messrs. S. P. 
Hey wood and O. W. Watriss — your letter, and the paper conveying 
the library to the Society. Mr. Dowse then stated to the witnesses 
above named, that, being unable to write his name, he then, in their 
presence, gave outright to the Massachusetts Historical Society all the 
books composing his library named in the catalogue now in the press 
of Messrs. J. Wilson and Son. 

I take great pleasure in communicating to you, as President of the 
Massachusetts Historical Society, the fact of this valuable gift. As 
Mr. Dowse has for several years past honored me with his friendship, 
and communicated to me freely his plans and purposes in regard to 
his property, I can assure you that the disposition which he has been 



1856.] GIFT OF MR. DOWSE'S LIBRARY. 103 

pleased to make of his library is the deliberate decision to which he 
has come, after having for a long time considered the subject. 

You will please make such an acknowledgment, as President of 
the Society, to Mr. Dowse, and take such steps towards carrying out 
his views, as you may think proper. I hope to see you in Boston on 
Wednesday or Thursday, and will then confer with you relative to 
having the books insured in behalf of the Historical Society. 

I have written in great haste ; but I could not delay for a moment 

conveying to you information which I knew would be as gratifying to 

you as it is to 

Your sincere friend, 

George Livermore. 

Hon. Robert C. Winthrop, 

President of the Massachusetts Historical Society. 

A day or two after the date of this letter, Mr. Livermore, 
with the concurrence of Mr. Dowse and myself, had a policy 
of insurance upon the library made out at the Merchants' 
Insurance Office in the name of our Society, and for the sum 
of twenty thousand dollars, — a sum greatly below the value of 
the books, but in such a proportion to that value as is cus- 
tomary in similar cases. 

Still another step remained to be taken to fulfil the carefully 
considered views of our munificent benefactor. At his request, 
I waited upon him at his own house on the afternoon of Wed- 
nesday, the 30th ult., when, with a willing spirit, though with 
feeble steps and failing breath, he met me in the presence of 
those " choice and cherished friends " of which Mr. Livermore 
so beautifully speaks ; and there, after pointing out to me one 
after another of his Baskerville's or other beautiful editions, — 
every one of which he knew at a glance, — he delivered to me 
this noble volume, which I now present to the Society, with 
the following duly attested inscription : — 

Cambridge, July 30, 1856. 
This volume, " Purchas his Pilgrimes," — being numbered 812 in 
the Catalogue now in the press of Messrs. John Wilson and Son, — is 
delivered by me, on this thirtieth day of July, 1856, to the Honorable 



104 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [AUG. 

Robert C. Winthrop, President of the Massachusetts Historical So- 
ciety, as an earnest and evidence of my having given the whole of my 
library to said Massachusetts Historical Society ; the books to be pre- 
served for ever in a room by themselves, only to be used in said room. 

Thomas Dowse. 
In presence of — 

0. W. Watriss. 
George Livermore. 

It only remains for me to say, that the Society has now been 
called together to receive official announcement of what has 
occurred, that they may have the earliest opportunity of rati- 
fying the action of the President in accepting this magnificent 
donation, and of offering to the venerable donor such an ac- 
knowledgment as the occasion calls for. 

The foregoing communication having been read by 
the President, Mr. Everett spoke substantially as fol- 
lows : — 

I rise, Mr. President, to express the satisfaction which, I am 
sure, we all feel at the very important and interesting commu- 
nication just made from the chair. After what has been so 
well said and so judiciously done by yourself and the gentle- 
man (Mr. Livermore) to whose friendly offices the Society is 
so much indebted on this occasion, I do not feel as if any thing 
further were necessary than to confirm your proceedings. At 
any rate, sir, I did not come to the meeting prepared to take 
the lead in reference to any measures which it may be thought 
proper for the Society to adopt. I had been led to suppose 
that that duty would devolve upon a distinguished gentleman 
(President Quincy), to whom, on account of his longer ac- 
quaintance with Mr. Dowse and his noble library, it more 
appropriately belongs. Deprived as we are of his presence, I 
rise with great cheerfulness to submit the only motion to you 
which seems to be required by the occasion. Before doing so, 



1856.] GIFT OF MR. DOWSE'S LIBRARY. 105 

sir, I will observe, that I have for more than thirty years had 
the good fortune to enjoy the friendship of Mr. Dowse, and to 
be well acquainted with the riches of his library. Twenty-five 
years ago, I stated, in a public address, that I considered it, 
for its size, the most valuable library of English books with 
which I was acquainted. A quarter of a century has since 
passed, during the greater part of which Mr. Dowse has con- 
tinued to increase the number of his books and the value of 
his library by new acquisitions ; and it now amounts, as our 
President informs us, to about five thousand volumes. Many 
of these are books of great rarity, such as are usually found 
only in the collections of the curious. A still greater number 
— in fact, the great proportion — are books of great intrinsic 
value, which is by no means sure to be the case with biblio- 
graphical rarities. In one word, sir, it is a choice library of 
the standard literature of our language. Most of these books, 
where there was more than one edition, are of the best edition. 
They are all in good condition, — that has ever been a rule with 
Mr. Dowse, — and very much the larger part of them are in 
elegant, some in superb, bindings. It is, in truth, a collection 
reflecting equal credit on the judgment, taste, and liberality 
of its proprietor. 

Sir, we have a guaranty for the value of his library in the 
inducement which led Mr. Dowse, very early in life, to com- 
mence its formation, and which has never deserted him. His 
interest in books is not, like that of some amateur collectors, 
limited to their outsides. He has loved to collect books 
because he has loved to read them ; and I have often said that 
I do not believe there is a library in the neighborhood of Bos- 
ton better read by its owner than that of Mr. Dowse. 

Mr. Dowse may well be called a public benefactor, sir ; and 
especially for this, that he has shown, by a striking example, 
that it is possible to unite a life of diligent manual labor with 
refined taste, intellectual culture, and those literary pursuits 
which are commonly thought to require wealth, leisure, and 

14 



106 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [AUG. 

academical education. He was born and brought up in nar- 
row circumstances. He had no education but what was to be 
got from a common town-school, seventy years ago. He has 
worked all his life at a laborious mechanical trade, and never 
had a dollar to spend but what he had first earned by his own 
manual labor. Under these circumstances, he has not only 
acquired a handsome property, — not an uncommon thing 
under similar circumstances in this country, — but he has 
expended an ample portion of it in surrounding himself with 
a noble collection of books ; has found leisure to acquaint 
himself with their contents ; has acquired a fund of useful 
knowledge ; cultivated a taste for art, and thus derived hap- 
piness of the purest and highest kind, from those goods of 
fortune which too often minister only to sensual gratification 
and empty display. 

I rejoice, sir, that our friend has adopted an effectual 
method of preventing the dispersion of a library brought 
together with such pains and care and at so great an expense. 
Apart from the service he is rendering to our Society, — which, 
as one of its members, I acknowledge with deep gratitude, — he 
is rendering a great service to the community. In this way, he 
has removed his noble collection from the reach of those vicis- 
situdes to which the possessions of individuals and families 
are subject. There is no other method by which this object 
can be obtained. I saw the treasures of art and taste collected 
at Strawberry Hill during a lifetime, by Horace Walpole, at 
untold expense, scattered to the four winds. The second best 
private library I ever saw (Lord Spencer's is the best) was 
that of the late Mr. Thomas Grenville, the son of George Gren- 
ville of Stamp Act memory. He intended that it should go to 
augment the treasures of taste and art at Stowe, to whose pro- 
prietor (the Duke of Buckingham) he was related. In a 
green old age, — little short of ninety, — he had some warn- 
ing of the crash which impended over that magnificent house ; 
and by a codicil to his will, executed but a few months before 



1856.] GIFT OP MR. DOWSE'S LIBRARY. 107 

his death, he gave his magnificent collection to the British 
Museum. In the course, I think, of a twelvemonth from that 
time, every thing that could be sold at Stowe was brought to 
the hammer. 

Mr. Dowse has determined to secure his library from these 
sad contingencies, by placing it in the possession of a public 
institution. Here it will be kept together, appreciated as 
it deserves, and conscientiously cared for. While it will add 
to the importance of our Society, and increase our means 
of usefulness, it will share that safety and permanence to 
which the Massachusetts Historical Society, under the laws of 
the Commonwealth, is warranted in looking forward. 

Finally, sir, I rejoice that our friend has taken this step 
when he has and as he has, and thus put it in our power to 
convey to him the assurance of our heartfelt gratitude ; of our 
high sense of the value of his gift ; and of the fidelity with 
which, regarding it as a high trust, it shall be preserved and 
used, so as best to promote the wise and liberal objects of the 
donation. 

In taking my seat, sir, I beg leave to submit the motion, 
that a Committee of Five be appointed by the Chair to consider 
and report immediately what measures it may be expedient for 
the Society to adopt in reference to the communication from the 
President. 

After some conversation, this resolution was adopted ; 
and the following persons were named of the Commit- 
tee : — Hon. Edward Everett, Chief-Justice Shaw, Hon. 
Judge White, Hon. Nathan Appleton, and the Libra- 
rian, Rev. Dr. Lothrop. 

The Committee retired, and, after a short time, re- 
ported the following resolutions : — 

Whereas it has this day been announced to the Massachu- 
setts Historical Society by the President, at a special meeting 



108 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [AUG. 

of said Society convened for that purpose, that the venerable 
Thomas Dowse, of Cambridge, has, during the past week, pre- 
sented to the Society his whole noble collection of rare and 
valuable books (a catalogue of which was at the same time 
laid upon the table by the President), upon the single condition 
that they shall be preserved together for ever in a separate 
room, and shall only be used in said room : Now, therefore, — 

Resolved unanimously by the Massachusetts Historical 
Society, That they highly approve of the acts of the Hon. 
Robert C. Winthrop, their President, in his conferences and 
dealings with our distinguished benefactor, Mr. Dowse, in 
reference to this munificent donation ; and do adopt, ratify, 
and confirm all his assurances and acts in receiving the said 
donation in the name and for the use and benefit of the 
Society ; that the said donation is gratefully accepted by the 
Society upon the terms prescribed by the liberal and en- 
lightened donor; and that said collection shall be sacredly 
preserved together in a room by itself, tp be used only in said 
room. 

Resolved, That the collection of books thus presented and 
accepted shall be known always as the Dowse Library of the 
Massachusetts Historical Society ; and that an appropriate 
book-plate be procured, with this or a similar inscription, to be 
placed in each volume of the collection. 

Resolved, That this Society entertain the deepest sense of 
the liberality and munificence of Mr. Dowse in making such a 
disposition of the library, which he has collected with such 
care and at such cost during a long lifetime, as shall secure it 
for the benefit of posterity, and for the honor of his native 
State ; and that they offer to Mr. Dowse, in return, their most 
grateful and heartfelt acknowledgments for so noble a mani- 
festation of his confidence in the Society, and of his regard for 
the cause of literature and learning. 

Resolved, That the Massachusetts Historical Society re- 
spectfully and earnestly ask the favor of Mr. Dowse, that he 






1856.] PROCEEDINGS OF AUGUST MEETING. 109 

will allow his portrait to be taken for the Society, to be hung 
for ever in the room which shall be appropriated to his Library, 
so that the person of the liberal donor may always be associ- 
ated with the collection which he so much loved and cherished, 
and that the form as well as the name of so wise and 
ardent and munificent a patron of learning and literature may 
be always connected with the result of his labors, at once as a 
just memorial of himself, and an animating example to others. 
Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions, duly attested by 
all the officers of the Society, be communicated to Mr. Dowse 
by the President, with the cordial wishes of every member that 
the best blessings of Heaven may rest upon the close of his 
long, honorable, and useful life. 

After some remarks from Mr. J. C. Gray, Mr. Geo. 
Liyermore, Chief-Justice Shaw, and Mr. Everett, the 
foregoing resolutions were unanimously adopted ; the 
members rising simultaneously in their seats, in token 
of assent, when the question was put from the chair. 

Letters from President Quincy, Hon. James Savage, 
and Hon. David Sears, were read, expressing the high 
sense entertained by those gentlemen of the liberality 
of Mr. Dowse, and of the value and importance of his 
donation. 



AUGUST MEETING. 

The Society held their stated monthly meeting on 
Thursday, Aug. 14, at noon, at their rooms in Tremont 
Street, Boston ; the President, Hon. Robert C. Win- 
throp, in the chair. 



110 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [AUG. 

The Librarian announced donations from Winthrop 
Sargent, Esq. ; the Essex Institute ; the Trustees of the 
New-York State Library; the Connecticut Historical 
Society ; Yale College ; the American Philosophical 
Society; Rev. Erastus Scranton ; Henry Stevens, Esq., 
Corresponding Member ; and Messrs. Quincy, ShurtlefT, 
and Washburn, Resident Members. 

The President announced that he had communicated 
to Mr. Dowse a certified copy of the Resolves, w 7 ith the 
names of all the officers, and that Mr. Dowse had, with 
some reluctance, consented to sit for his portrait. And 
thereupon Voted, That the Standing Committee stand 
charged with the subject of a portrait. 

Voted, That the thanks of the Society be presented to 
our Corresponding Member, Henry Stevens, Esq., for 
his gift of the Camden Society's Publications, in fifty 
volumes. 

Hon. Peter Force, of Washington City, was duly 
elected a Corresponding Member. 

Rev. Dr. Lowell's request for permission to copy 
two letters addressed by Rev. Dr. Colman to Rev. 
William Hooper — Feb. 13 and 15, 1739-40 — was 
granted under the rules. 

On motion of Mr. Ames, — Voted, That a Committee of 
Three be appointed to collect and arrange all such acts 
of Parliament as relate to the Colonies in general, and 
to Massachusetts Colony in particular. Messrs. Ames, 
Shattuck, and Brigham were appointed. 



1856.] PROCEEDINGS OF SEPTEMBER MEETING. Ill 



SEPTEMBER MEETING. 

The Society held their stated monthly meeting on 
Thursday, Sept. 11, at noon, at their rooms in Tremont 
Street, Boston; the President, Hon. Robert C. Win- 
throp, in the chair. 

The Librarian announced donations from the Depart- 
ment of State of the United States ; Dexter C. Thomp- 
son, Esq., of Halifax, Mass. ; Henry Stevens, Esq., of 
London ; James S. Loring, Esq. ; and from Messrs. 
Adams, Felt, Lincoln, and Quincy, of this Society. 

The Corresponding Secretary read a letter from the 
Hon. John E. Bartlett, of Providence, R.I., accepting 
his election as a Corresponding Member of the So- 
ciety. 

The Treasurer reported that he had received from the 
Hon. Josiah Quincy a check for one thousand dollars, 
being the amount contributed by him for altering and 
repairing the building of the Society ; and that he had 
paid out the amount for the purpose specified, by order 
of the Standing Committee. 

An invitation from the Committee of Arrangements 
on the inauguration of the statue of Benjamin Frank- 
lin, for the Society to unite in the ceremonies on the 
17th instant, was read by the President. Whereupon it 
was voted to accept the invitation ; and Mr. Savage was 
appointed by the President specially to represent the 
Society on the occasion. 

The President read a letter from Mr. William J. 
Hammersley, of Hartford, Conn., accompanying a piece 



112 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

of the " Charter Oak," and " The Life of Captain Na- 
than Hale, the Martyr Spy of the American Revolution, 
by J. W. Stuart," both of which are presented to 
the Society by Mr. Stuart. Whereupon Voted, That the 
thanks of the Society be presented to Mr. Stuart for his 
acceptable gifts. 

The President also read a communication from Mr. 
Joseph Mills, of Needham, accompanying a specimen of 
British bread used by a portion of the American army 
during the Revolutionary war. 

Voted to refer this subject to the Standing Com- 
mittee. 



OCTOBER MEETING. 

The Society held their stated monthly meeting on 
Thursday, Oct. 9, at noon, at their rooms in Tremont 
Street, Boston ; the President, Hon. Robert C. Win- 
throp, in the chair. 

The Librarian announced donations from the Regents 
of the University of the State of New York ; Dr. E. B. 
O'Callaghan ; J. W. Stuart, Esq. ; and from Messrs. 
Adams and Winthrop, of this Society. 

The President announced a donation from the Boston 
Board of Trade of " a copy, in bronze, of a gold medal 
which was presented to Commodore M. C. Perry, in 
commemoration of his successful mission to Japan in 
the years 1853-4." 

The President stands charged with the acknowledg- 
ment of this interesting gift. 



1856.] PROCEEDINGS OF SPECIAL MEETING. 113 

The Corresponding Secretary communicated a letter 
from Richard Hildreth, Esq., declining his election as 
a Resident Member, having decided to take up his resi- 
dence in New York. 

Dr. George Derby, through the President, presented 
two letters : the first from John Walley Langdon, in 
behalf of Jonathan Thompson, to the Right Hon. Lord 
Mountjoy, at Dublin, dated " Boston or Charlestown, 
Nov. 18, 1792;" the second from Thompson to Lord 
Mountjoy, dated Wiscasset, Dec. 20, 1792. 

Mr. Ellis presented, from Professor Parsons, a copy 
of the maps and subscription-list, in quarto, which 
accompanied the first edition of Marshall's " Life of 
Washington ; " also a letter from Theodore Parsons, 
— brother of the late Chief Justice, — Newburyport, 
Dec. 12, 1777, addressed to Captain James Gray in 
Colonel Scammell's regiment, in which he speaks very 
hopefully of the final success of the American cause; 
and a previous letter from Gray to Parsons, Albany, 
July 14, 1777, giving an account of some skirmishes 
on the advance of General Burgoyne. 

Voted to refer these letters to the Publishing Com- 
mittee. 

The President exhibited a large eye-glass, formerly 
the property of Franklin, now belonging to Mr. G. C. 
Rippon, and read Mr. Rippon's interesting letter upon 
the subject. On the case are the following inscriptions : 
viz., on one side, " Dr. Franklin, of America, D.D., 
to James Rule, York ; " and, on the other, " R. Ramsay, 
of Dumfries, 1811, to T. Bennett, York." Also " Poor 
Richard's Almanac" for 1734, 1737, 1738, 1739, 1740, 

15 



114 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Nov. 

the property of Mr. John F. Eliot, and formerly belong- 
ing to his kinsman, the late Rev. Andrew Eliot, D.D. 
Also prints of Generals Arnold and Pntnam. 

J. Lothrop Motley, Esq., of Boston, was chosen 
a Resident Member, vice Samuel Eliot, removed from 
the State. 

Professor Samuel Eliot, of Hartford, in the State of 
Connecticut, and late a Resident Member, was elected 
a Corresponding Member. 



NOVEMBEE MEETING. 

The Society held their stated monthly meeting on 
Thursday, Nov. 13, at noon, at their rooms in Tremont 
Street, Boston ; the President, Hon. Robert C. Win- 
throp, in the chair. 

The Librarian announced donations from the Smith- 
sonian Institution ; the Congress of the United States ; 
the Department of State of the United States ; the 
State Historical Society of Wisconsin ; Yale College ; 
Henry A. Whitney, Esq., of Boston ; Hon. John R. 
Bartlett, of Providence, R.I. ; John W. Barber, Esq., of 
New Haven ; Mrs. Mary M. Dyer, of Enfield, N.H. ; 
Mr. Isaac Hersey, of Abington ; John Appleton, M.D. ; 
J. Dean, Esq. ; Rev. Caleb D. Bradlee ; and J. H. 
Mitchell, Esq ; and from Messrs. Ames, Winthrop, and 
Worcester, of this Society. 

The Corresponding Secretary communicated letters 
of acceptance from Messrs. Motley and Eliot; also a 



^ 




^ 



^^7^U/ 




1856.] DECEASE OF MR. DOWSE. 115 

letter from Hon. John P. Bartlett, communicating his 
gift of a copy of the Colonial Records of Rhode 
Island. 

The President then made the following communi- 
cation : — 

It is already well known to the members of this Society, 
that the venerable Thomas Dowse, to whose munificence we 
have so recently been indebted for a very large and valuable 
addition to our library, has passed away since our last stated 
meeting. He died on Tuesday, the 4th of November, at about 
eleven o'clock, a.m., at the age of eighty-four years, and was 
buried on the following Thursday. The interval between the 
time at which information of his death was received and the time 
fixed for his interment was not sufficient to allow of any formal 
meeting of the Society, and the responsibility was assumed by 
the President of notifying the members to attend the funeral 
without further ceremony. The result was all that could have 
been desired. A very large proportion of such of our number 
as live within reach of so short a notice assembled at the 
mansion of the deceased at the appointed time, and, after 
attending the religious services of the occasion, accompanied 
his relatives and friends to Mount Auburn. Gathered there, 
between the imposing shaft which Mr. Dowse had recently 
erected at his own expense to the memory of Franklin and 
the humbler stone which he had prepared to designate his own 
tomb, the officers and members of our Society united in paying 
the last tribute of respect and gratitude to his remains. 

It has seemed fit that an official announcement of these cir- 
cumstances should be made at this our earliest meeting since 
they occurred, in order that it may find its appropriate place 
upon our records, and that such further measures may be 
adopted in honor of the memory of our largest benefactor 
as may commend themselves to the deliberate sense of the 
members. 



116 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Nov. 

The event which has indissolubly connected the name of 
Thomas Dowse with the Massachusetts Historical Society has 
occurred too recently to require any detailed recital. The 
formal presentation of the rich and costly library, which it had 
been the pleasure and the pride of his whole mature lifetime 
to collect, was made known to us on the fifth day of August 
last ; and the circumstances of that occasion are still fresh in 
the remembrance of us all. 

Though he had long been suffering more or less acutely 
from the disease which has at length brought his remarkable 
and honorable career to a close, Mr. Dowse was still, at that 
time, in perfect possession of his faculties, and took the deepest 
and most intelligent interest in all the details of the trans- 
action. At his own request, I called upon him repeatedly 
after the gift was consummated, and was a witness of the satis- 
faction and pleasure which he experienced in having secured 
what he was pleased to regard as so trustworthy and so dis- 
tinguished a guardianship for his most cherished treasures. 
He seemed to feel that the great object of his life had at length 
been happily provided for, and that he was now ready to be 
released from the burdens of the flesh. It cannot be doubted 
that the gratification afforded him, both by the act itself and 
by the manner in which it was accepted and acknowledged, 
did much at once to prolong his life beyond his own expecta- 
tion or that of his friends, and to impart comfort and serenity 
to his last days. 

He lived long enough, after every thing had been arranged, 
to lend a modest but cordial assent and co-operation to the ful- 
filment of the proposal which accompanied our acceptance of 
his munificent donation ; and a noble portrait of him is here 
with us to-day to adorn the room in which his library shall be 
ultimately placed. The books themselves, with the single 
exception of the memorable volume which he delivered into my 
hands as an earnest of the gift, were left to the last to be the 
solace of his own closing scene. 



1856.] DECEASE OP MR. DOWSK. 117 

It is for others, who have known him longer and better than 
myself, to do justice to the many striking qualities of head and 
heart which characterized this remarkable self-made man, 
and to give due illustration to a career and an example which 
must ever be freshly honored, not by this Society only, but by 
all who take an interest in the advancement of literature, 
learning, and the arts. 

It would hardly be excused if these opening remarks were 
brought to a conclusion this morning without an allusion, in 
a single word, to another dispensation of Divine Providence, 
which has come home even nearer to these halls, since our last 
monthly meeting. I need hardly say that I refer to the death 
of our late esteemed and distinguished associate, the Honorable 
Samuel Hoar, of Concord, which occurred on Sunday morning, 
the 2d inst. There are those here better entitled than myself 
to deal with the character and services of this excellent and 
eminent son of Middlesex. His familiar and welcome presence 
at our meetings will be missed by us all ; for he was among our 
most punctual members. And it may justly be said of him, 
that few men have been connected with this Society, or with 
any other society, who will have left upon the historic page of 
Massachusetts a purer and brighter example of that firm and 
inflexible integrity, and of that persevering devotion to every 
personal obligation and every professional or public duty, 
which are the crowning glories of a Christian life. 

The President then stated that the meeting was open 
for such suggestions as might be thought appropriate 
to the occasion; whereupon Hon. Edward Everett 
addressed the Chair substantially as follows : — 

The event to which you have alluded, Mr. President, in 
such feeling and appropriate terms, calls upon the Historical 
Society to perform the last duty of respect and gratitude to our 
most distinguished benefactor, as you have justly called him. 



118 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Nov. 

Since we last met in this place, he has paid the great debt of 
nature ; and it now devolves upon us to pay the last debt to his 
memory by placing upon our records a final and emphatic 
expression of the deep sense we entertain of the excellent 
qualities of his character, the liberality and refinement of his 
pursuits, and especially of the munificence and public spirit 
evinced in the disposal of his library. You have already, Mr. 
President, said all that the occasion requires ; and I am not 
without fear that I may seem to overstep the limits of pro- 
priety in doing more than lay upon your table the resolution 
which I hold in my hand. I have so recently spoken to you 
on the subject of Mr. Dowse, that I may seem to monopolize 
that pleasing office to which so many gentlemen present are 
fully competent to do justice. But it is many years — an entire 
generation — since my acquaintance and my friendly relations 
with him began. I saw the progress of his library, not 
certainly from its commencement, for that took place sixty 
years ago (he told me himself that he devoted his first earn- 
ings to the purchase of books), but from a time when it had 
not reached half its present size. In earlier life I passed many 
happy, perhaps I may venture to say profitable, hours in it, 
consulting choice volumes not elsewhere accessible to me at 
that time ; and I cannot repress the desire, before this occa- 
sion is swept down the current of human affairs, to dwell a 
moment on the recollection. 

But I will not take up again the train of remark which 
occupied our thoughts when the Society was called together 
on the 5th of August. I shall ever look back to that meeting, 
at which Mr. Dowse' s intention to bestow his library upon 
the Historical Society was announced to us, as one of the 
interesting occasions of my life. This collection had for at 
least sixty years been in progress of formation. For half that 
period, its value had been known to the public. Mr. Dowse's 
personal career and history awakened interest. There was an 
approach to romance in the manner in which he acquired his 



1856.] DECEASE OF MR. DOWSE. 119 

beautiful gallery of paintings. His persistence in increasing 
his library, the uncommonly select character of his books, — 
these were circumstances, which at least, for a quarter of a 
century, had given his library a certain celebrity. It was an 
object of curiosity. It was justly deemed a privilege to have 
access to it. Strangers were taken to see it ; and the inquiry, 
" What will Mr. Dowse, being childless, do with his library ? " 
had, I imagine, passed through the mind of most persons who 
knew its value. But, amidst all the conjectures as to the mode 
in which it would be disposed of, I presume that it never oc- 
curred to any one that he would dispossess himself of it while 
he lived. If ever there was a " ruling passion," it actuated him 
in reference to his books ; it led him, impelled him, to devote 
his spare time, his thoughts, his means, to the formation of his 
library ; and in obedience to that law of our nature, by which, 
according to poets and moralists, — 

" We feel the ruling passion strong in death," 

no one, I presume, ever thought for a moment, that Mr. Dowse, 
while he lived, would divest himself of his property in his 
library. No one doubted that he would cling to that, with a 
pardonable intellectual avarice, with his dying grasp ; and that, 
when he was gone, it would perhaps be told of him, that he 
had exclaimed in his last moments, — 

" ' Not that; I cannot part with that! ' and died." 

But Mr. Dowse felt and acted otherwise. Endowed in many 
respects with superior energy of character and firmness of pur- 
pose, we beheld him in the course of the last summer, his 
bodily strength indeed failing, but in the full enjoyment of his 
mental powers, calmly divesting himself of the ownership of 
this much-loved library, — the great work of his life, the scene 
of all his enjoyments, ■ — and placing it, without reserve, under 
the control of others. He had reason, no doubt, sir, as you 
have intimated, to feel confident, that, while he lived, the deli- 
cacy and gratitude of the Society would leave it in his 



120 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Nov. 

undisturbed possession. But lie made no stipulation to that 
effect : he gave it in absolute and immediate ownership to 
tlie Society. 

But I believe, sir, our friend and benefactor reaped, even 
during the short remainder of his life, the reward of this noble 
effort. I had the privilege of an interview with him a few 
days after the donation was consummated ; and my own obser- 
vation confirmed the testimony of our much-valued associate, 
Mr. Livermore, who saw him daily, and your own impression, 
that he seemed to find relief, to derive strength, from the 
completion of this arrangement, and that, in a state of health 
in which continued existence hangs upon a thread, it had very 
possibly added some weeks of tranquil satisfaction to his life. 
I have not seen him for years in a happier frame of mind than 
he appeared to me that day. 

I availed myself of the favorable moment respectfully to 
urge upon him a compliance with the request of the Society, 
to which you, sir, have alluded, expressed in one of the resolu- 
tions of the 5th of August, that he would sit for his portrait. 
I recommended to him strongly the highly promising youthful 
artist, Mr. Wight, for whom I had had the pleasure, a few 
years ago, of procuring an opportunity to paint the portrait of 
the illustrious Humboldt. Mr. Dowse consented with the hesita- 
tion inspired by his characteristic diffidence and humility ; and 
the result does the highest credit to Mr. Wight's artistic skill 
and taste. He has produced an admirable portrait of our 
friend and benefactor ; and it is certainly a pleasing coinci- 
dence, that there is a resemblance approaching to family 
likeness between this portrait and that of the Baron Hum- 
boldt. 

And so, Mr. President, his work on earth being accom- 
plished, calmly and without hurry or perturbation even at the 
last ; that industrious and thoughtful existence divided equally 
between active labor and liberal intellectual culture ; lonely 
as the world accounts solitude, but passed in the glorious com- 



1856.] DECEASE OF MR. DOWSE. 121 

pany of the great and wise of all ages and countries, who live 
an earthly immortality in their writings ; a stranger at all 
times to the harassing agitations of public life ; undisturbed by 
the political earthquake which that day shook the country, — 
our friend atid benefactor, on the 4th instant, passed gently 
away. As I saw him two days afterwards, lying just within 
the threshold which I had never passed before but to meet his 
cordial welcome ; as I gazed upon the lifeless but placid fea- 
tures, white as the camellias with which surviving affection had 
decked his coffin ; as I accompanied him to his last abode on 
earth, — the " new sepulchre" (if without irreverence I may 
use the words) which he had prepared for himself, " wherein 
was never man yet laid ; " as I saw him borne into that quiet 
dwelling where the weary are at rest, within the shadow of the 
monument to Franklin to which you have alluded, lately 
erected at his sole expense and care on the higher ground 
which overlooks his own tomb, that even in death he might 
sleep at his great master's feet ; as, in company with you all, 
gathered bareheaded round his grave at Mount Auburn at 
that bright autumnal noon, while the falling leaves and naked 
branches and sighing winds of November announced the dying 
year, I listened to the sublime utterances of the funeral ser- 
vice breathed over his dust, I felt that such a closing scene of 
such a life came as near as human frailty permits to fill the 
measure of a hopeful euthanasy. I ask leave, sir, to offer 
the following resolutions : — 

Whereas it has pleased Divine Providence to remove from this life, 
in a serene old age, Mr. Thomas Dowse, of Cambridge, the largest 
benefactor of the Massachusetts Historical Society, — 

Resolved, That the Members of the Society, filled with gratitude at 
the recollection of his late munificent donation, desire to renew, on this 
occasion, the expression of their deep sense of obligation for that most 
important addition to their library, and their thankfulness for so dis- 
tinguished a proof of the confidence of Mr. Dowse in the character and 
stability of the Society. 

16 



122 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Nov. 

Resolved, That the Members of the Historical Society contemplate 
with peculiar satisfaction the example set by their late honored and 
lamented benefactor, of a long life devoted with singular steadiness to 
a course of intelligent, liberal, and successful self-culture, in the hours 
of leisure and repose from the labors of an active occupation, and 
closed by a noble act of public spirit and thoughtful care, to render his 
precious literary accumulations available for the benefit of the com- 
munity. 

Resolved, That a Committee of be appointed by the Chair to 

prepare for the Records of the Society such a commemorative notice 
of Mr. Dowse as shall do justice to the feelings of gratitude and respect 
which the Members of the Society unanimously cherish for his 
memory. 

These resolutions, having been seconded, were unani- 
mously passed. X ne blank in the last resolution was 
filled with " one ; " and Mr. Everett was appointed by 
the Chair to prepare a Memoir of Mr. Dowse, in con- 
formity with the resolution. 

The resolutions in relation to Mr. Dowse having thus 
been disposed of, Governor Washburn rose, and, after a 
few appropriate remarks, offered the following resolu- 
tion : — 

Resolved, That this Society have learned with deep 
regret the death of their late-respected associate, the 
Hon. Samuel Hoar ; and that Hon. William Minot, 
his classmate, be requested to prepare the customary 
Memoir for our Collections. 

The resolution was seconded and sustained, in brief 
tributes to the character of Mr. Hoar, by Hon. James 
Savage and Hon. Daniel A. White, the latter of 
whom spoke of himself as having been a tutor of Mr. 
Hoar at Harvard College, and of having thus known 
him from his youth upwards. 



1856.] GIFT OF A CHAIR: RELIC OF WASHINGTON. 123 

The resolution was unanimously adopted. 

The President communicated the following letter 
from Benjamin R. Winthrop, Esq., of New York, ac- 
companying the gift of a chair, beautifully wrought " of 
timber taken from the house in which Washington 
dwelt " (in the city of New York) " at the period of his 
inauguration as first President of the United States." 

New York, October 14, 1856. 

My dear Sir, — I have this day forwarded to your address 
a chair intended as a gift to the Massachusetts Historical 
Society. The inscription which it bears will inform you that 
it has been constructed of timber taken from the house in which 
Washington dwelt at the period of his inauguration as first 
President of the United States. 

You will excuse me for adding a few words to this brief 
legend. The house in question was a spacious family mansion, 
erected by Walter Franklin somewhere about the year 1750. 
It stood at the junction of Pearl and Cherry Streets, facing the 
open triangular space called by a customary New- York license 
Franklin Square. 

Names of universal philanthropy are always fitly applied to 
objects of public utility. Doubly appropriate is this association 
of Franklin's memory with a spot of ground over which fall 
the shadows of an edifice of gigantic proportions, of which the 
world can show no equal, dedicated to typographical art. 

At the time of the erection of the Franklin mansion, and for 
a generation or two afterwards, this portion of our city, now 
devoted to the busy pursuits of the merchant and the artisan, 
was principally occupied by the residences of wealthy and 
fashionable citizens. The situation was unsurpassed for beauty 
in that day. On commanding ground, with an open square in 
front, and the view of the East River and the distant hills 
of Nassau, unobstructed by the walls of brick and the forests of 



124 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Nov. 

masts which now obscure the intervening space, it had all the 
charms of suburban scenery. 

It was here that the courtesy, dignity, and grace, which 
marked the official and private hospitality of our first President, 
won the affectionate regards of all who came within its sphere. 

Time and change have done their work on this hallowed 
spot. Where the mansion once stood now runs a broad ave- 
nue, open to the ever-rushing current of active life. Few who 
pass it in the eager pursuit of gain, or in the daily struggle for 
bread, will ever call to mind the history which lies buried 
beneath their feet. 

There is, to many of our citizens, an interest also, in which 
I feel you will participate, associated with the object of this 
change in our city map. The new street thus opened to the 
heart of the southern section of the city will hereafter form a 
continuation of the Bowery, so long known as the spacious 
avenue which extended through the eastern suburbs, and ter- 
minated at Chatham Row. The origin of the name given to 
this avenue is not so well known as it deserves to be. 

Governor Stuyvesant, whose many virtues and indomitable 
spirit so well illustrated the character of the old Dutch dy- 
nasty, held an estate of large dimensions, beautifully located 
on the shores of the East River, a few miles beyond the 
boundaries of the city of his day. In his fondness for this his 
favorite retreat, where he enjoyed relaxation from the cares of 
public life, he gave it the name of his " Bouerie." This name 
it bore during his lifetime, and for many years after his death. 
The country road which led from the Stuyvesant Mansion 
into the city came thus to be known as the " Bouerie Lane." 
Finally, in the progress of time, as the growing city disturbed 
the deep solitudes of the country, and the insatiate demands of 
commerce usurped the Stuyvesant domain, out of this quiet 
lane grew the well-known Bowery of our day, which now finds 
its termination at the spot where Washington, in civic glory, 
consummated a renown that is to live through all time. 



1856.] PROCEEDINGS. 125 

Passing accidentally the premises to which I have thus 
alluded, while they were in process of demolition, it was my 
good fortune to rescue the material which forms the relic I 
now place in your charge. 

If the Massachusetts Historical Society will consent to 
accord to this chair a place in their library, I shall regard 
their acquiescence as a favor to be gratefully remembered. 

I am, my dear sir, ever faithfully 

Your friend and cousin, 

B. R. Winthrop. 
Hon. Robert C. Winthrop, Boston, Mass. 

Voted, That the thanks of the Society be presented 
to Mr. Winthrop for this interesting and acceptable 
donation, and that the Corresponding Secretary stand 
charged with the acknowledgment thereof. 

Professor Felton, of the First Section, exhibited a 
copy of Madame Piozzi's Travels, containing various 
annotations in her handwriting, of an entertaining and 
peculiar character, some of which he read. 

These volumes were presented by her to her special 
friend, Conway the player, and are now the property of 
Mr. Pell, of New York. 

Voted, That the Librarian, with Messrs. Deane and 
Shurtleff, be a Committee to make all necessary arrange- 
ments for the reception of the books belonging to the 
Library of the late Mr. Dowse, and for the disposition 
of the same upon the shelves prepared for them. 



126 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Dec. 



DECEMBER MEETING. 

The Society held their stated monthly meeting on 
Thursday, Dec. 11, at noon, at their rooms in Tremont 
Street, Boston ; the President, Hon. Robert C. Win- 
throb, in the chair. 

The Librarian announced donations from the Trus- 
tees of the Boston Public Library ; Charles Homer, Esq., 
of Hartford, Conn. ; Rev. Dr. Sprague ; Moses Kimball, 
William B. Shedd, and William V. Wells, Esqs. ; and 
from Messrs. Savage, Sibley, Washburn, and Winthrop, 
of this Society. 

The President presented to the Society a copy of the 
portrait of John Winthrop, jun., Governor of Connec- 
ticut, and eldest son of the Governor of Massachusetts. 

Whereupon, on motion of Rev. Dr. Lothrop, the 
thanks of the Society were offered to the President for 
this very acceptable gift. 

A donation was received from Captain Cassius Dar- 
ling, of a representation of a Chinese funeral and a 
Javanese wedding. 

Voted, That the thanks of the Society be presented 
to Captain Darling for this donation. 

Dr. Lothrop, from the Committee on the " Dowse 
Library," reported as follows ; viz. : — 

The Committee, in conjunction with Mr. Livermore, one of 
the executors, have visited the library, and taken measure- 
ments of the space which it now occupies in the late residence 
of Mr. Dowse. They find that it is too small to fill exclusively 



1856.] THE DOWSE LIBRARY. 127 

either of the three large rooms of the Society, and too large to 
be placed in either of the two small rooms. 

The provision of the gift, that the books shall " be preserved 
for ever in a room by themselves, to be used only in said room," 
may admit, perhaps, of two interpretations, — one more limited, 
less absolute, than the other. It may be regarded as simply 
intended to prevent the books being separated, scattered, 
mixed up with the other books of our library, — placed upon 
different shelves, in several rooms, in such way as taste, con- 
venience, or judgment, might dictate; and, upon this idea, its 
strict legal requirements would be met, provided the books 
were kept together in one room, in a compact form, in cases, 
distinctly marked the "Dowse Library," without, however, 
excluding other books from the same room. Or the provision 
in the gift may be regarded as absolute, requiring that the 
books shall be preserved by themselves in a room from which 
all other books are excluded. 

Your Committee think the latter interpretation is the one 
to be adopted ; or, rather, they think that the Society owe 
it to themselves and the memory of Mr. Dowse, that his splendid 
gift should be so placed and arranged as that its full extent, 
value, and importance can be at once seen and appreciated, 
and in a room made attractive, agreeable, and interesting, — 
a room in which we should have some pride in exhibiting it to 
strangers, and into which we should not be ashamed to intro- 
duce Mr. Dowse himself, were he to return to earth, or had we 
the power to show him the disposition we had made of the 
treasures, so precious to himself, which he had intrusted to our 
care. 

Your Committee think that this can be done without any 
great alteration in existing arrangements, or any permanent 
inconvenience to the Society, if the inner or back room of 
the second story be taken for the Dowse Library. If this 
room be fitted up with cases containing six shelves, the library 
would just cover the several sides of the room. In these cases, 



128 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Dec. 

beneath the consulting shelf, might be compartments, in which 
might be kept the choice manuscripts, the important papers, 
of the Society, and various articles belonging to its cabinet. In 
the centre of the room, opposite the door, might be placed the 
portrait of Mr. Dowse ; and around the walls, in the space 
above the cases, might be arranged some of the best or most 
appropriate pictures now in possession of the Society. In due 
time, busts would be placed here and there on the top of the 
cases ; and thus the Dowse-Library room of the Massachusetts 
Historical Society would be an agreeable, impressive, and 
instructive apartment, where all visitors, and the members of 
the Society themselves, would be taught a noble lesson, — a 
lesson of more value, perhaps, than any thing contained in the 
books themselves. 

Thus fitted up, the room could be used, if thought desirable, 
for the monthly meetings of the Society, and thus the library 
proper be left free, at those times, for the use of the members 
or others who may be consulting it. 

The Committee would respectfully recommend that the 
Library of the late Thomas Dowse — his noble gift to the Mas- 
sachusetts Historical Society — be, on its removal from his late 
residence, placed in the inner back room of the second story. 

They add, in conclusion, that they are permitted to say, that 
there is every probability that the cost of fitting up the room 
for the reception of the library, &c, will not be a charge upon 
the funds of the Society. 

The foregoing report having been read, it was voted 
to adopt the same. 

Nathaniel Ingersoll Bowditch, Esq., was elected a 
Resident Member, vice Mr. Hildreth. 

William Paver, Esq., of York, England, was elected 
a Corresponding Member. 

On motion of Mr. Savage, — Voted, That Thomas C. 



1856.] SPECIAL MEETING. 129 

Amory, jun., Esq., being engaged in preparing a bio- 
graphical memoir of his grandfather, James Sullivan, 
first President of this Society, and afterwards Governor 
of Massachusetts, be allowed by the Librarian to make 
use of any manuscript in our rooms, under the rules 
of the Society ; and that he may consult any volumes in 
the library, with liberty to borrow any of the latter 
which members would be permitted to take, giving re- 
ceipt therefor ; and this indulgence shall extend for 
one year from this date. 

Dr. Webb read sundry passages from the sheets of a 
work now in press, being the " Life of the late John 
Howland," written by Rev. Edwin M. Stone. 



SPECIAL MEETING, Dec. 22. 

A special meeting of the Society, called by the Stand- 
ing Committee, was held at the house of the Recording 
Secretary, Joseph Willard, Esq., No. 60, Pinckney Street, 
Boston, on Monday evening, Dec. 22, at half-past seven 
o'clock ; the President, Hon. Robert C. Winthrop, in 
the chair. 

The President, as the result of his examination of the 
Records of the Society touching the number of times 
the Society had celebrated the anniversary of the land- 
ing of the Pilgrims, reported, — That there had been 
various propositions to that effect, but that there had 
been only one such celebration ; viz., on Dec. 22, 1813, 

17 



130 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Jan. 

at King's Chapel in Boston, when the services were, — 
prayer by Rev. Dr. Freeman, discourse by Judge Davis, 
prayer by Rev. Dr. Holmes, and an appropriate hymn 
composed for the occasion by Mr. N. L. Frothingham. 
Mr. Quincy and Mr. Savage are the only members still 
living who were present on that occasion. 

The President communicated, as a donation from 
Colonel Benjamin Loring, a curious manuscript copy 
of Keating's History of Ireland in the Irish tongue. 

The thanks of the Society were voted to Colonel 
Loring for this gift. 

Voted, That the Standing Committee be instructed to 
consider the best mode of preserving and perpetuating 
the Records of the Society ; also that they be instructed 
to procure a copy of the portrait of the late Samuel 
Appleton, our munificent benefactor. 



JANUARY MEETING. — 1857. 

The Society held their stated monthly meeting on 
Thursday, Jan. 8, at noon, at their rooms in Tremont 
Street, Boston ; the President, Hon. Robert C. Win- 
throp, in the chair. 

In the absence of the Recording Secretary, Mr. Brig- 
ham was chosen Recording Secretary pro tern. 

The Corresponding Secretary, Rev. Dr. Lunt, being 
absent from the country, Voted; That the Recording 
Secretary be requested to act as Corresponding Secre- 
tary until the further order of the Society. 



1857.] PROCEEDINGS OF FEBRUARY MEETING. 131 

The President announced the death of the Hon. 
Francis C. Gray, and made a few appropriate remarks 
on the character and public services of the deceased ; 
and, on motion of Mr. Savage, Voted, That the Society 
entertain a deep sense of the loss which it has sustained 
in the death of Mr. Gray; and that the President be 
requested, at some future meeting, to nominate a suit- 
able person to prepare a Memorial of the deceased for 
publication. 

George R. Russell, Esq., was elected a Resident 
Member in the place of Hon. Samuel Hoar, deceased. 

The Standing Committee, through their Chairman, 
made a report relative to the preservation of the records 
of the Society, and to the fitting-up of the room for the 
Dowse Library. 

A letter was read from the executors of the will of 
Mr. Dowse, proposing an appropriation of three thou- 
sand dollars for the purpose of fitting up and furnishing 
the room for the Dowse Library. 

Mr. Ames exhibited for examination the day-book of 
Dr. Joseph Warren, containing entries of his profes- 
sional charges, nearly up to the time of his death. 



FEBRUARY MEETING. 

In consequence of the unprepared state of the rooms, 
in the heating apparatus, the Standing Committee voted 
to omit the day-meeting at the rooms, and accept the 
invitation of Hon. Charles Francis Adams to meet at his 



132 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Feb. 

house in the evening. Accordingly, the Society held 
their stated monthly meeting on Thursday evening, 
Feb. 12, at half-past seven o'clock, at the house of Mr. 
Adams, No. 57, Mount-Vernon Street, Boston ; the Pre- 
sident, Hon. Robert C. Winthrop, in the chair. 

The Librarian announced donations from the State 
of Rhode Island ; the Trustees of the State Library, New 
York ; Union College, Schenectady ; the Regents of the 
Lunatic Asylum of South Carolina ; the American Anti- 
quarian Society; Judge Theron Metcalf; Dr. Henry 
Ingersoll Bowditch ; Henry Stevens, Esq., London ; 
George F. Houghton, Esq., of St. Alban's, Vermont ; 
Benjamin Loring, Esq., of Boston ; William G. Brooks, 
Esq. ; D. Ricketson, Esq., New Bedford ; Mr. Theodore 
Augustus Neal, of Salem ; Mr. J. H. Hickcox, Albany, 
N.Y. ; and from Messrs. Bowditch, Robbins, and Win- 
throp, of the Society. 

The President placed upon the table a copy of the By- 
laws of the New-England Society of Quincy, 111., the 
gift of S. Hopkins Emery, of that place. 

On the nomination of the President, the Society 
appointed Mr. Ticknor, now absent in Europe, to pre- 
pare a Memoir of our late associate, Hon. Francis C. 
Gray, deceased, for the Society's Collections. 

Mr. Savage communicated interesting information 
relating to Rev. John Allen, a graduate of Harvard Col- 
lege, 1643, at one time Vicar of Rye in England, and son 
of Rev. John Allen, of Dedham in the Bay. 

He also presented an original letter, written by 
Cotton Mather, dated " Boston, 23d 8mo., 1699," to the 
widow of his uncle, Rev. John Cotton, of Charleston, 



1857.] PROCEEDINGS. 183 

S.C., and previously of Plymouth Church, condoling 
with her upon the death of her husband. 

Dr. Shurtleff stated that the executor of the Hon. 
Francis C. Gray had given to the Society a copy of the 
" blue laws " of Connecticut, and the French medal of 
Washington, which were of the property of the de- 
ceased. 

Dr. Bobbins, from the Standing Committee, exhi- 
bited several articles belonging to the cabinet of the 
Society ; viz., — 

1. Cambridge College Theses, 1678, by John Cotton, Cotton 

Mather, Grindall Rawson, and Urian Oakes. 

2. A manuscript copy of the laws of Harvard College, 1655. 

This was the copy given to Jonathan Mitchell in 1683, 
and contains his " admittatur " of that year. 

3. A curious box of different kinds of wood from buildings, 

structures, &c, of historical interest; given by John F. 
Watson, Esq., of Philadelphia, in 1833. 

4. The epaulets worn by Washington at the siege of Yorktown. 

Washington gave them to his aid, Colonel Humphreys, 
by whom they were presented to the Society in 1804, 
accompanying his gift with an interesting letter of that 
date. 

Boston, Oct. 3, 1804. 

Dear Sir, — I put into your hands a pair of epaulets, which 
were in habitual use by General Washington at the successful 
siege of Yorktown in Virginia, and which were worn by him 
on the day when he resigned his commission of Commander- 
in-chief to Congress at the close of the Revolutionary war. 
These may therefore, without employing a very bold figure 
of speech, be denominated the dumb and imperishable wit- 
nesses of his glory as a hero and a patriot. However we may 
sometimes be inclined to think too lightly of events which 



134 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Feb. 

are so familiar to us from their having happened in our own 
age, what an association of interesting ideas may not the 
view of any thing which was present on those glorious occa- 
sions produce in the minds of future generations ! 

These badges of military distinction, formerly attached to 
so illustrious a personage, and always destined, by the sub- 
stance of which they are composed, to co-exist with the long 
series of future generations, may perhaps be deemed worthy 
of being preserved among the frail insignia of human great- 
ness by the Historical Society of Massachusetts ; in which 
case, they are offered for acceptance by the person to whom 
the General gave them, and who has the honor to subscribe 
himself, 

Very respectfully, dear sir, 

Your most obedient and most humble servant, 

D. Humphreys. 

The Rev. John Eliot, D.D., 

Corresponding Secretary of the Historical Society. 

Mr. Deane gave an interesting summary of a biblio- 
graphical article prepared by him on Governor Hutch- 
inson's Historical Publications, and afterwards published 
in the April number of Richardson's "Historical Maga- 
zine." This paper, as revised, with some additions, by 
the writer of it, here follows. 



HUTCHINSON'S HISTORICAL PUBLICATIONS. 

BY CHARLES DEANE, ESQ. 

Governor Hutchinson possessed rare opportunities for writ- 
ing the history of his native State ; and his qualifications in 
every respect admirably fitted him for this labor. The motives 
which led him to undertake the work, and the materials he 



1857.] HUTCHINSON'S HISTORICAL PUBLICATIONS. 135 

used in preparing it, are thus stated in the preface to his first 
volume : — 

" The repeated destruction of ancient records and papers by fire in 
the town of Boston first inclined me to endeavor the preservation of 
such materials as remained proper for an History of the Massachusetts 
Colony. Many such came to me from my ancestors, who, for four suc- 
cessive generations, had been principal actors in public affairs ; * 
among the rest, a manuscript history of Mr. William Hubbard, which 
is carried down to the year 1680, but, after 1650, contains but few facts. 
The former part of it has been of great use to me. It was so to Dr. 
Mather in his History, of which Mr. Neale's is little more than an 
abridgment. I made what collection I could of the private papers 
of others of our first settlers ; but in this I have not had the success I 
desired. The descendants of some of them are possessed of many 
valuable letters and other manuscripts, but have not leisure or inclina- 
tion to look into them themselves, and yet will not suffer it to be done 
by others. I am obliged to no person more than to my friend and 
brother, the Rev. Mr. Mather,f whose library has been open to me, as 
it had been before to the Rev. Mr. Prince, who had taken from thence 
the greatest and most valuable part of what he had collected." 

Some idea of the extent and value of the materials used by 
Hutchinson in preparing his first volume may be formed 
by referring to the Appendix to that book, and also by con- 
sulting the volume of Original Papers afterwards published by 
him. It is a little singular that he did not consult or make 
use of Governor Winthrop's History while writing his work. 
Nearly ten years before its publication, Prince had announced 
on the cover of the first part of the second volume of his 
Annals, that he had lately received this " most authentic and 
valuable journal " of Governor Winthrop ; so that Hutchinson 
could not have been ignorant of its existence. He, how- 
ever, had the benefit of this History at second-hand, through 
Hubbard. 

* For genealogical notices of Governor Hutchinson's family, see Farmer's Geneal. 
Eeg. pp. 155-6 ; N. E. Hist, and Geneal. Reg. vol. i. pp. 297-310. 

f Rev. Samuel Mather, son of Cotton Mather. He married Hannah Hutchinson, a 
sister of the governor. 



136 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Feb. 

Our chief purpose here is to furnish an account of the dif- 
ferent editions of Hutchinson's History, copies of each of 
which now lie before us, and to include a brief notice of his 
miscellaneous publications. 

The first volume of the History was originally published at 
Boston in 1764. It is entitled " The | History | of the | 
Colony | of | Massachusetts-Bay, | from the | first settlement 
thereof | in 1628, | until its incorporation | with the | Colony 
of Plimouth, Province of Main, &c, | by the | Charter of King 
William and Queen Mary, | in 1691. | Historia, non ostenta- 
tioni, sed fidei, veritatique componitur. | Plin. Epist. L. 7, E. 
33. | By Mr. Hutchinson, | Lieutenant-Governor of the Massa- 
chusetts Province. | Boston, New-England : | Printed by 
Thomas & John Fleet, at the Heart and Crown | in Cornhill, 
MDCCLXIV." pp. 566, 8vo. 

In the Boston " Evening Post " of 1764, printed by T. and 
J. Fleet, is the following announcement, under date of July 
30 : " Ready for the press, and speedily will be published by 
T. & J. Fleet, the History of the Colony of the Massachusetts 
Bay" (&c, citing the title of the first volume). "By the 
Lieutenant-Governor of the Massachusetts." In the same 
paper, Dec. 17, we find, " This day* is published, and to be 
sold in Union Street, opposite the Corn Field, The History 
of the Colony of the Massachusetts Bay." &c. " By the Ho- 
nourable Mr. Hutchinson," &c. Then follows the table of 
contents at length, as it appears in the first volume. In the 
advertisement of July 30, above referred to, that part of 
the History is announced to appear in " Two vols. 8vo." The 
notice was corrected in the next issue of the paper. 

This volume was, the next year (1765), reprinted at " Lon- 
don : Printed for Mr. Richardson, in Pater-noster Row," and 
is styled " The Second Edition." It has the same number of 
pages as the first edition, and is printed almost line for line 
throughout. The date on the titlepage of this issue was first 
printed " MDCCLX ; " the V, doubtless, being accidentally 






1857.] Hutchinson's historical publications. 137 

omitted. Subsequently a new title was printed, correcting the 
error, and was pasted into some of the copies. This is observa- 
ble in the copy in the College Library, which is not the only 
one that has come under our notice. This error — by no 
means an infrequent one, and which, in other instances, has 
been a source of great perplexity to bibliographers * — has oc- 
casioned some misapprehension as to the time when the first 
edition of this part of the History was published. Allen refers 
it to 1760 ; and he is followed by the Hist, and Geneal. Reg., 
vol. i. p. 310. 

The second part (or volume) was published in 1767. The 
title reads thus : " The | History | of the | Province | of | 
Massachusetts-Bay | from the | Charter of King William and 
Queen Mary | in 1691 | until the year 1750. | By Mr. Hutch- 
inson, | Lieutenant-Governor of the Province. | Boston, New 
England : | Printed by Thomas and John Fleet in Cornhill, | 
and sold in Union Street, opposite to the Cornfield. | MDCC- 
LXYII." 539 pp., including an Index to both volumes. This 
is advertised in the " Evening Post " of July 13, 1767, as 
" Just Published, and to be had in Union Street, opposite to 
the Cornfield." 

While the author was engaged in preparing this volume, an 
event occurred which came near depriving us of this portion of 
his labors. Hutchinson was charged with having favored 
the passage of the Stamp Act. The minds of the people here 
were greatly excited ; and on the evening of the 26th of August, 
1765, an infuriated mob broke into his house in Boston, and 
destroyed and scattered all his furniture, 'books, papers, &c. 
In the preface to this volume, he says, — 



* The claim which for a long time was awarded to Caxton, of having introduced 
printing into England, was many years since controverted by the exhibition of a book 
printed at Oxford, and bearing the date M.CCCC.LXVIIL, six years before the first 
issue from Caxton's press in that country. There has been a long controversy respect- 
ing this Oxford book; and the latest and best opinion appears to be, that the numeral 
X was omitted in the date either by accident or design, and that the true date is 
M.CCCC.LXXVIIL Caxton's claim has also been contested on other grounds. 
* 18 



138 MASSACHUSETTS HISTOKICAL SOCIETY. [Feb. 

" The loss of many papers and books, in print as well as manu- 
script, besides my family memorials, can never be repaired. For 
several days, I had no hopes of recovering any considerable part of my 
History : but by the great care and pains of my good friend and 
neighbor, the Rev. Mr. Eliot, who received into his house all my 
books and papers * which were saved, the whole manuscript, except 
eight or ten sheets, was collected together ; and, although it had lain 
in the street scattered abroad several hours in the rain, yet so much of 
it was legible as that I was able to supply the rest, and transcribe it. 
The most valuable materials were lost, some of which I designed to 
have published in the Appendix. I pray God to forgive the actors in 
and advisers to this most savage and inhuman injury ; and I hope their 
posterity will read with pleasure and profit what has so narrowly 
escaped the outrage of their ancestors. 

" The hazard which attends such papers, together with the request 
of many of my friends, induced me to publish my manuscript sooner 
than I intended. 

" I have carried the story down to the year 1750, but that part 
which relates to the last twenty years in a more general way ; being 
deprived of some papers which would have enabled me to render it 
more particular and circumstantial." 

He also adds, relative to his plan in writing the first part of 
his History, — 

" Some of my friends of the Colony of New Plymouth took it 
unkindly that I said no more of their affairs in the first part of the His- 
tory. My principal object was the Massachusetts Colony : besides, I 
never could meet with many papers relative to Plymouth. From 
such papers as I have been able to obtain, I have prepared the best 
summary I could, to which I shall give a place in the Appendix." 

The " summary " there given is taken chiefly from Brad- 
ford's manuscript History, the whole of which has been recently 
published by this Society. 

This volume was the next year reprinted at " London : 
Printed by J. Smith, near Wellclose-Square ; for G. Kearsly, 



* It is said that some of these papers, thus happily rescued from destruction, for a 
long time after bore the foot-prints of the Vandal mob, in the mud which still adhered 
to them. 



1857.] HUTCHINSON'S HISTORICAL PUBLICATIONS. 139 

at No. 1 iii Ludgate-Strcct, and W. Davenhill, at No. 8 in 
Cornhill. MDCCLXVIII." This is styled " Vol. ii. The 
Second Edition." It is printed nearly page for page through- 
out with the first edition. 

In 1769, Thomas and John Fleet published at Boston " A 
Collection of Original Papers Relative to the History of the 
Colony of Massachusetts Bay," in 576 pp. 8vo. This volume 
is sometimes lettered on the back as " vol. 3 " of Hutchinson's 
History. Copies in the College Library and in the Athenaeum 
are thus lettered. In the preface, the editor (of course, Hut- 
chinson) says, — 

"The natural increase of people upon the British continent of 
North America is so great as to make it highly probable, that, in a few 
generations more, a mighty empire will be formed there. 

. " The rise and progress of the several Colonies, of which this 
empire will be constituted, will be subjects of entertainment for specu- 
lative and ingenious minds in distant ages. 

" He who rescues from oblivion interesting historical facts is bene- 
ficial to posterity as well as to his contemporaries ; and the prospect 
thereof to a benevolent mind causes that employment to be agreeable 
and pleasant, which otherwise would be irksome and painful. 

" The papers of which this volume consists are intended to support 
and elucidate the principal facts related in the first part of the History 
of Massachusetts Bay, and may serve as an Appendix to it.* The 
author of that History was possessed of many other ancient and very 
curious original papers, which are irrecoverably lost by an unfortunate 
event sufficiently known. If this collection shall be favorably 
received, another volume of papers will probably be published, to 
serve as an Appendix to the second part of the same History." 



* The first article in this collection is the Massachusetts Colony charter, which, the 
editor says, had "never been printed. There are," he continues, " very few manu- 
script copies of it. Those are liable to so many accidents, that it is thought proper to 
publish it as the most likely means of preventing its being irrecoverably lost." This is 
printed from a copy attested by John Winthrop, governor, March 19, 1643-4. The 
statement that it is here first printed is an error. It was printed eighty years before 
this, by J. Green, Boston, 1689, — a copy of which early impression is in the library of 
the Historical Society, This was evidently taken from the u BupV of the charter now 
at Salem. 



140 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Feb. 

This is advertised in the "Evening Post" of Oct. 9, 1769: 
" Just Published, A Collection of Original Papers," &c. 
" Subscribers are desired to send for their Books to T. & J. 
Fleet, at the Heart & Crown in Cornhill." In the next issue 
of the paper, Oct. 16, the book is advertised as " A Volume of 
Curious Papers collected by his Honour the Lieutenant- 
Governor, which may serve as an Appendix to his History 
of the Massachusetts Bay." And, in the paper of Oct. 30, 
there is added, " And, if favourably received, another volume 
will probably be published," &c, as above quoted from the 
preface. 

This volume, of which many of the original manuscripts com- 
posing it are in the libraries of the Historical Society and the 
Antiquarian Society, has never been reprinted ; and the addi- 
tional volume thus contingently promised never made its 
appearance. 

The next and latest edition of the first and second parts of 
this History was published in 1795. In the " Columbian Centi- 
nel" of Dec. 30 of that year, appears, for the first time 
there, the following advertisement : — 

" Thomas and Andrews, Faust's Statue, No. 45 Newbury Street, 
Boston, Have lately published the following very valuable Books, viz : 
(in two large octavo volumes, price four dollars.) The History of 
Massachusetts, from the first settlement thereof, in 1628, until the year 
1750, a period of 122 years. By Thomas Hutchinson, Esq., Late 
Governor of Massachusetts. The 3d Edition, with additional Notes 
and Corrections. Subscribers are requested to send for their Books." * 

The first volume was " Printed at Salem, by Thomas C. 
Cushing, For Thomas and Andrews," pp. 478, besides 10 pp. of 
index. The second volume was " Printed at Boston, by Man- 
ning and Loring," for the same parties, and contains 452 pp., 



* Then follows a list of other works published by them. " Also in one large 8vo vol. 
(a necessary companion to the above) with a large sheet map, price 2 dollars, The 
History of the District of Maine. By James. Sullivan, &c, &c." Then follow 
Williams's History of Vermont and Lendrum's History of the Revolution. 



1857.] Hutchinson's historical publications. 141 

including 4 pp. of index. The index of the former editions is 
here divided, and the portions which refer to each volume 
printed therein. On the reverse of the titlepage to the first 
volume is this note : — 

" In this Edition, besides many corrections, some additional Notes 
are placed in the margin, which are inclosed [thus]. Mr. Hutchin- 
son's sentiments respecting allegiance and the political connection of 
this country with Great Britain, are distinguished by italic letters." 

The " additional notes " are very few and brief, not consist- 
ing of above thirty lines in all. They have been ascribed to 
a distinguished scholar and antiquary, many years since 
deceased ; but, in the judgment of some whose opinions are 
entitled to respect, on insufficient grounds. The " correc- 
tions " made must have been mere verbal ones, besides those 
few indicated in the table of Errata in the second volume of 
the previous editions. This edition, as to paper and printing, 
is the poorest of all. 

Eleven years previously to this, Isaiah Thomas commenced a 
reprint of this History in the " Royal American Magazine," 
a monthly publication, which began in January, 1774, and 
came to an untimely end in April, 1775 ; the number for 
March being probably the last issued. It was printed in a form 
to be separated from the Magazine, and probably was in most 
cases so separated when the Magazine has been bound. A 
copy of the latter, " volume i.," from January to December 
inclusive, is in the library of the Historical Society, and con- 
• tains 128 pp.* of the History bound in at the end. All but two 
of the unbound numbers (which were probably fifteen in all), 



* I have for some years had 128 pp. of this fragment of Hutchinson's History, but 
was ignorant of the circumstances attending its publication. A few months since, I 
called the attention of my friend Mr. Haven, of the Antiquarian Society at Worcester, 
to it, who at that time had no recollection of ever having heard of such an attempted 
edition. Since then, however, he has informed himself, and has kindly afforded me the 
desired explanation. I am also indebted to him for other valuable information in pre- 
paring this article. 



142 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Feb. 

with the History, which extends only to the 152d page, are in 
the library of the Antiquarian Society at Worcester. The first 
part of the title of the History corresponds to that of the 
first and second editions : then follows, " By Mr. Hutchinson, 
Late Lieutenant-Governor, and now Governor and Com- 
mander-in-Chief of the Massachusetts Province. * * * * 
The Third Edition. Boston : Printed and sold by I. Thomas, 
near the Market." No date. 

The prospectus of the Magazine was first issued July 1, 
1773, and was again published in the " Spy" in January, 1774, 
with an explanatory advertisement from the editor, I. Thomas, 
giving the reason why the issue of the first number was 
delayed ; viz., that the vessel containing the types ordered from 
England had been cast ashore at Cape Cod. This advertise- 
ment is dated Jan. 3 ; and it is added, that the types have 
now arrived, and that No. 1, for January, 1774, will be pub- 
lished on the first day of February. In the " Spy " of Feb. 
10 is this notice, under date of Feb. 6 : " This day pub- 
lished, price ten shillings and eight pence [lawful money] 
per annum to subscribers, No. 1 of the Royal American Maga- 
zine, &c, for January, 1774." After describing, the plan of 
the work, the editor continues : — 

" And, to complete this plan, will be added (to begin at the end of 
the first number, and to continue until the whole is finished, printed in 
an elegant manner, on fine paper, and occasionally ornamented with 
copperplate prints, exclusive of those particularly for the Maga- 
zine *), Governor Hutchinson's History of the Massachusetts Bay; 
which, when finished, will be worth the cost of the Magazine." 



* This Magazine, by the way, is not unworthy the notice of the curious. It con- 
tains nineteen engravings, the most of which are by the celebrated Paul Revere. The 
first number has "A view of the Town of Boston, with several ships of war in the har- 
bour." This view is similar (though on a larger scale) to that which appeared in 
" Edes & Gills' North American Almanac and Massachusetts Register for the year 
1770." See Drake's Boston, p. 747. The number for May contains the curious 
" Indian Gazette," which was afterwards issued in Thomas's " History of Printing," 
vol. ii. p. 190. We are told in the Magazine that " this print is engraved from an 
authentic copy, drawn by a French engineer from the American original." 






1857.] HUTCHINSON'S HISTORICAL PUBLICATIONS. 143 

Among the " conditions," it is stated that " the publication 
will always be on or before the last of the month." The first 
number contained sixteen pages of the History, including the 
title and preface : all the other numbers contained probably 
eight pages each. The supplement to the first volume con- 
tained twenty-four pages (105 to 128 inclusive) of the History. 

On account of " the distresses of the Town of Boston," 
Thomas resolved to suspend the publication of this Magazine 
for a short period, after the issue of the first six numbers ; and 
he never resumed it. After some delay, it was purchased by 
Joseph Greenleaf, who continued it, with the History, to its 
speedy conclusion, as stated above. Greenleaf used a different 
type from Thomas : and this peculiarity marks the History ; 
pp. 57 to 152 being printed by the former. In Greenleaf 's 
notice to his subscribers, dated Dec. 31,. 1774, and which 
appears as a preface to " volume i.," he says, — 

" I have at length, with difficulty, gone through the last six months 
of the Magazine. The publication having been suspended near two 
months by the original undertaker, I have been obliged to publish one 
oftener than once in three weeks. I now present you with a Supple- 
ment, though not promised in the proposals ; also with an Index and 
Titlepage. As it must be a great length of time before the History 
of Massachusetts Bay will be finished, by being thus slowly published 
with the Magazine, many of the subscribers have desired that the 
Supplement might consist wholly of said History. Such subscribers 
as desire to hasten the completion of the History, by signifying it to 
the publisher, may have the addition of a whole sheet to every Maga- 
zine the year to come, making a proportionable addition to the price, 
provided that three hundred at least of the subscribers desire it. By 
this means, twenty-four pages of the History will be published every 
month. If any persons, not subscribers, choose to have the History 
alone, monthly, they may, by subscribing." 

Further on, he says, — 

" Many of the subscribers wish to get rid of Hutchinson's History. 
I am willing to gratify both those who request its continuance, and 
those who wish to drop it. Therefore, those subscribers who had rather 



144 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Feb. 

have the Magazine without the History, upon signifying the same one 
month beforehand (provided that three hundred at least shall certify 
the same), they shall be gratified, and a proportionable abatement be 
made in the price." 

The war, says Thomas, put an end to the Magazine in April ; 
and the edition of Hutchinson, thus commenced, remains a 
fragment. 

As is well known, Governor Hutchinson was superseded in 
the office of chief magistrate of the Province by the arrival of 
General Gage in 1774 ; and, on the 1st of June of that year, 
he sailed for England. He died there before the close of the 
war, in 1780.* He left among his papers, in manuscript, a 
continuation of his History down to the period of his departure 
from the country. This was published in London in 1828, 
edited by his grandson, Rev. John Hutchinson, of Trentham, 
Staffordshire. 

The credit of having procured the publication of this volume, 
which was attended with much difficulty and delay, is mainly 
due to the zeal and perseverance of Hon. James Savage. We 
have recently had the privilege of perusing the greater part of 
the interesting correspondence which took place in reference 
to it, from the year 1817 to the time when the volume made 
its appearance in print ; and, were it not that this notice is 
already extended much beyond our original purpose, we should 
be tempted to give some extracts from the letters. f It having 
been reported that Governor Hutchinson left, at his decease, 
in MS., a continuation of his History, Mr. Savage formed a 
plan, in 1817, of procuring a copy for publication. J Accord- 

* Governor Hutchinson resided at Brompton, near London. He died June 3, 1780, 
in the sixty-ninth year of his age, and was buried at Croydon. His eldest son, Thomas, 
died at Heavitree, near Exeter, in 1811, aged seventy-one ; and his son Elisha, at 
Blurton Parsonage, Trentham, Staffordshire, in 1824, aged eighty. See Hist, and Geneal. 
Reg. vol. i. pp. 297, 310 ; Farmer's Geneal. Reg. pp. 155, 156. 

f By the kindness of Mr. Savage, I have been favored with a perusal of this cor- 
respondence. 

| In the third volume, Second Series, of our Collections, p. 287, is an extract from a 
letter of J. Hutchinson, grandson of Governor Hutchinson, written in 1814, in which, 






1857.] Hutchinson's historical publications. 145 

ingly, on the 18th of August of that year, he addressed a letter 
to Mr. Elisha Hutchinson, a son of Governor Hutchinson, then 
residing at Birmingham, England, soliciting the favor of 
allowing a copy to be taken for the purpose indicated. Mr. 
Hutchinson, however, knew nothing of the manuscript in 
question. He said he had never seen his father's papers since 
his death, and was ignorant of what they consisted ; that the 
governor's literary remains were in possession of his (Elisha's) 
nephew, a son of his deceased elder brother, then residing at 
Exeter in Devonshire. Inquiries were then made in that direc- 
tion, and the next year it was announced that a portion of the 
manuscript had been found, but that the first part unhappily 
was wanting : additional search would be made for it. The 
family were reluctant that it should be seen in its fragmentary 
form. In 1820, Mr. Savage wrote again respecting it, and had 
his application supported by Judge Davis, President of the 
Historical Society, by President Kirkland, and by Governor 
Gore. It was thought desirable to procure the fragment, even 
if the missing part could not be found. Soon after, in that year, 
the gratifying intelligence was received, that the missing portion 
had been recovered ; and negotiations were continued, with a 
view to secure the publication of the work. The correspondence 
on the part of the Hutchinson family was conducted by a Mr. 
Sabbatier, a connection, and by Rev. John Hutchinson, a son 
of Elisha, who subsequently edited the work. Owing to the 
terms they insisted on, no arrangement could then be effected, 
and the correspondence terminated in 1823. In 1826, it was 
revived by Mr. Savage, and terms of publication were finally 
agreed upon. Mr. Savage was solicitous that the work should 
be published in this country. The Hutchinsons insisted that it 
should be published in London ; alleging, as a reason, that the 



alluding to the papers of the latter in his possession, he says, " There is an unpub- 
lished volume of Hutchinson's History ; but the family concluded it to be unfit for the 
press in England; and the same reason would prevent their sending it to the United 
States." 

19 



146 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Feb. 

other volumes of the History were originally issued there ; 
which, as we have seen, was not the case. They therefore 
arranged with John Murray, of London, for the publication of 
one thousand copies, five hundred of which, as per agreement, 
were taken by Mr. Savage and his friends for the American 
market, at a charge of X200. These were sent over in paper 
covers, and thus entitled : " The | History | of the | Province 
| of | Massachusetts Bay | from | the year 1750, until 1774. | 
By Mr. Hutchinson, | Late Governor of that Province. | Vol. 
III. | London : | John Murray, Albemarle Street. | MDCCC- 
XXVIII." pp. 551, including a large Appendix of official 
papers. The remaining five hundred copies, designed for the 
London trade, were published as an independent work, as 
the editor supposed but few persons in England would be likely 
to possess the other two volumes. These contained a preface, 
and a dedication to Lord Lyndhurst, which were wanting in 
the other copies, and were entitled " The | History of the 
Province | of | Massachusetts Bay | from 1749 to 1774, | com- 
prising a detailed narrative of the | origin and early stages | 
of the | American Revolution. | By Thomas Hutchinson, Esq., 
LL.D., | formerly Governor of the Province. | Edited from the 
Author's MS. by his Grandson, | the Rev. John Hutchinson, 
M.A. | London : | John Murray, Albemarle Street. | MDCCC- 
XXVIII." 

The sale of this volume was slow. Of the five hundred 
copies ordered for this country, a large number were, some 
years after, bought by one of our booksellers for a trifling 
sum ; and, in order to give the volume the appearance of an 
independent work, rather than one of a series, he had a new 
title printed, omitting " vol. iii.," and put into some of the 
copies, which have been thrown upon the market. Many of 
those designed for the London trade have also found their way 
here. 

These particulars relative to this volume may seem too 
minute and even trivial to the present reader of this notice ; 



1857.] Hutchinson's historical publications. 147 

but they may at least serve to solve the perplexity of some 
future antiquary and book-collector. 

The editor partly promised a biographical volume relative to 
his ancestor, " with curious and interesting details " from 
papers in the possession of the family : " among these may be 
particularized a conversation between his Majesty George III., 
the Earl of Dartmouth, and Governor Hutchinson, immediately 
on the arrival of the latter in England." This promise is as 
yet unfulfilled. 

Governor Hutchinson's historical labors are of the highest 
value, and Massachusetts owes him a debt of gratitude for 
what he has done to illustrate her annals. Although lacking 
that elegance of style so pleasing in an historian, yet, as his 
work will ever be regarded as of the first authority by the stu- 
dent of our history, it can never be wholly superseded. The 
ample materials he possessed for the earlier portion of it have 
already been referred to, and he was well fitted to make use of 
them. Hutchinson's mind was eminently a judicial one ; and 
candor, moderation, and a desire for truth, appear to have 
guided his pen. In a note which he wrote, near to the close 
of his life, on the back of an unpublished manuscript on 
American affairs, left among his papers, he says, — 

" In the course of my education, I found no part of science a more 
pleasing study than history, and no part of the history of any country 
more useful than that of its government and laws. The history of 
Great Britain and of its dominions was of all others the most delight- 
ful to me, and a thorough knowledge of the nature and constitution of 
the supreme and of the subordinate governments thereof I considered 
as what would be peculiarly beneficial to me in the line of life upon 
which I was entering ; and the public employments to which I was 
early called, and sustained for near thirty years together, gave me 
many advantages for the acquisition of this knowledge." 

In his last volume, he furnishes a detailed narrative of the 
principal events immediately preceding the Revolution, — 

" All which he saw, and part of which he was." 



148 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Feb. 

His subject was a delicate one ; but it is treated with his usual 
good judgment, and with an excellent spirit. 

Hutchinson's volumes, particularly the first and second edi- 
tions of the History, and the collection of " Papers," have 
become quite rare, and are not often found, except at the break- 
ing-up of some old library, and then they usually command a 
high price. Even the edition of 1795 is fast taking its place 
among those books that have to be sought for before they can 
be obtained. Before many years, a new edition of the first two 
volumes of the History will probably be called for, and possibly 
a reprint of the " Papers." The preparation of a new edition 
of the latter would involve a collation with the originals, so far 
as they now exist. More attractive and popular histories of 
our State may in a measure take the place of this with the 
great mass of readers : but, to the curious and critical, Hutch- 
inson will always have a value ; and, to the student who seeks 
for the sources of our history, his work will always be indis- 
pensable. 

In conclusion, we will briefly allude to a few miscellaneous 
publications of Governor Hutchinson, historical and controver- 
sial. Dr. Allen says he published, in 1764, " A Brief State of 
the Claim of the Colony." We have never met with a work 
of his with this title. On the 1st of June, 1763, the Gene- 
ral Assembly of Massachusetts " Resolved, That his Honour, 
the Lieutenant-Governor, be desired in the recess of the Court 
to prepare a very particular state of the controversy between 
this government and the governments of Connecticut and New 
York, respecting the boundary lines between them." On the 
23d of December the Report was announced, and on the 28th 
accepted ; and the secretary was directed to transmit the same 
to Mr. Agent Mauduit. It was also " Resolved, That the above 
Report be printed at the end of the Journal of this session." 
This Report, as printed, is entitled " The Case of the Provinces 
of Massachusetts Bay and New York, respecting the boundary 
line between the two Provinces. Boston ; New England. 



1857.] HUTCHINSON'S HISTORICAL PUBLICATIONS. 149 

Printed by Green and Russell," &c, " 1764." This is a 
valuable paper, and may be the work intended by Dr. Allen. 

Previously to this, a committee was appointed by both 
Houses " to prepare a State of the title of the Province to the 
Country between the rivers Kennebeck and St. Croix." From 
this committee Hutchinson made a report, dated Jan. 18, 1763, 
which was accepted in concurrence, Feb. 1, and a copy direct- 
ed to be sent to the agent. It was also printed at the end of 
the Journal of 1762-3. 

In 1761, quite an interest was excited on the question of 
the currency, and an earnest newspaper controversy was car- 
ried on between Hutchinson and the younger Otis. In the 
College Library is a pamphlet of twenty-seven pages, being 
" Considerations on lowering the value of Gold Coins within 
the Province of the Massachusetts Bay." It bears no date ; 
but it is advertised in the " Evening Post " of Jan. 18, 1762, as 
" this day published." The first eight pages are reprinted 
from one of Hutchinson's papers in the "Evening Post" of 
Dec. 14, 1761, to which the pamphlet is a reply. See also 
the " Evening Post" of Jan. 4 and 11, 1762. 

The half-dozen letters which Hutchinson wrote in 1768 and 
1769 to his friend Thomas Whately, of London, and which, in 
1773, were returned to the Province by Dr. Franklin, were, 
with the others sent back with them, printed at Boston in that 
year, and at London in 1774. 

Many of Hutchinson's official papers, while acting governor 
and governor of the Province, were published at the time, and 
have since (the most of them) been republished in the collection 
of State Papers prepared by Alden Bradford, and issued in 1818.* 



* This work is entitled " Speeches of the Governors of Massachusetts, from 1765 to 
1775; and The Answers of the House of Representatives, to the Same; with their 
Resolutions and Addresses for that period. And other Public Papers, relative to the 
dispute between this country and Great Britain, which led to the Independence of 
the United States. Boston : Printed by Russell and Gardner, proprietors of the work. 
1818." 



150 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [MARCH, 

Many valuable unpublished papers and letters of his are in 
the archives of the State, and in the library of the Historical 
Society. 



MARCH MEETING. 

In consequence of the unfinished state of the rooms, 
in the new arrangement, the Standing Committee voted 
to dispense with the meeting at the rooms at noon, and 
to accept the invitation of the President to meet at his 
house in the evening. Accordingly, the Society held 
their stated monthly meeting at the house of Hon. Robert 
C. Winthrop, in Pemberton Square, Boston, on Thurs- 
day evening, March 12, at half-past seven o'clock; the 
President in the chair. 

The Recording Secretary being necessarily detained 
from the meeting, Mr. Deane was chosen to that office 
pro tern. 

The Corresponding Secretary pro tern, transmitted to 
the meeting the following communications ; viz. : A 
letter from Dr. Josiah Bartlett, of Concord, tendering 
his resignation as a member of this Society; a letter 
from William Paver, Esq., of York, England, dated Jan. 
29, 1857, with his thanks for his election as a Corre- 
sponding Member, and his acceptance thereof; and, 
accompanying this letter, " a list of the pedigrees con- 
tained in his consolidated visitations of Yorkshire, being 
those taken in 1584, 1612, and 1665," and therewith 
" a list of alliances and matches " containing all the 
names mentioned in the " visitations " other than those 
of the families whose pedigrees are given. 



1857.] PROCEEDINGS OF MARCH MEETING. 151 

Dr. George Derby, through the President, presented 
to the Society " A Sermon preached at Cambridge 
before his Excellency Thomas Hutchinson, Esquire, 
Governor, and His Honor Andrew Oliver, Esquire, 
Lieutenant-Governor," May 29, 1771. By John Tucker, 
A.M., pastor of the First Church in Newbury." 

Dr. Hough, of Albany, through Mr. Sparks, presented 
to the Society a volume of " Papers relating to the 
Island of Nantucket," recently published. 

The President presented to the Society a copy which 
he had caused to be made of the College Laws of 1655, 
from the ancient copy exhibited at the last meeting, 
made to guard against accident or loss. 

He also called the attention of the Society to two 
interesting relics before him. One was a small maho- 
gany table, well supplied with drawers, formerly used by 
Lord Chatham ; passing from him to Sir John Temple, 
and thence coming down, an heirloom, to its present 
owner. Upon the table was a portable mahogany writ- 
ing-desk, of thorough workmanship, about twelve inches 
wide, sixteen inches long, and four inches deep. At one 
end is a drawer, parted off for ink, pens, letters, and 
paper. Within is a convenient writing-desk, lined with 
velvet, where is seen, in the handwriting of Mr. Jeffer- 
son, the following memorandum ; viz., — 

" Tho. Jefferson gives this writing-desk to Joseph Coolidge, 
jun., as a memorial of affection. It was made from a drawing 
of his own, by Ben. Randall, cabinet-maker, of Philadelphia, 
with whom he first lodged on his arrival in that city, in May, 
1776 ; and is the identical one on which he wrote the Declara- 
tion of Independence. Politics, as well as religion, has its 



152 MASSACHUSETTS' HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [MARCH, 

superstitions. These, gaining strength with time, may one day 
give imaginary value to this relic for its association with the 
birth of the great charter of our independence. 

" Monticello, Nov. 18, 1825." 

In the drawer were three Paris visiting-cards, hav- 
ing upon them representations of the Coliseum, &c. ; 
and an original visiting-card of John Adams, bearing 
simply, in large handwriting, " Mr. Adams." 

A copy of the Bible, once belonging to Melancthon, 
and containing many of his manuscript notes, was 
exhibited at the meeting. It is now in the possession 
of our associate, Mr. Livermore. 

Mr. Bowditch exhibited a copy of Marco Polo's 
Travels, 1496, and some other curious books. 

Rev. William B. Sprague, D.D., of Albany, was 
elected a Corresponding Member. 

Hon. Charles H. Warren was elected a Resident 
Member. 

Rev. Dr. Frothingham made a feeling allusion to the 
death of Dr. Kane, and offered the following resolu- 
tion : — 

Whereas the Supreme Disposer of events has withdrawn 
from the service of his country and of science Dr. Elisha 
Kent Kane, to live henceforth in history, and in the admiring 
respect of all wise and good men ; therefore — 

Resolved, That the Massachusetts Historical Society desire 
to join in the tribute of honor and regret which, at home and 
abroad, is now paying to his memory. 

We recognize in the self-sacrificing labors of our noble 
countryman something far greater than a spirit of adventure, 
however daring ; than a curiosity to penetrate further through 



1857.] RESOLUTION ON THE DEATH OF DR. KANE. 153 

the Polar ice to the Polar Sea, however enlightened that curi- 
osity might have been ; or even than a sympathetic impulse 
urging him to seek for tidings of his lost predecessor among 
those dreariest of wastes. We see in them something far 
more than new wonders of nature beheld and deep secrets of 
science explored, though his description of that awful scenery 
will thrill the hearts of myriads of readers, and though his 
researches in those latitudes of frozen night may contribute 
aid to the ship that is sailing upon the warm Gulf Stream or 
among the sunny islands of the Pacific Ocean. We discern in 
him those moral qualities of a truly heroic man, which set him 
higher than any of his exploits, and expand him beyond all 
limits of the places where his work and trials were undergone. 
We wish to record our sense of his eminent personal worth, 
fitting him for command, preparing him for generous achieve- 
ments, and entitling him to a pure fame such as men love to 
look at, and grow better as they look at it. 

On this day of his burial in his native city of Philadelphia, 
we would make commemoration of those virtues which are all 
that can now bestead him, and which the ground cannot cover 
up. We call to mind his modest resolution ; his gentle force ; 
his brave prudence ; his cheerful martyrdom ; his religious 
reverence, so quiet and unobtrusive, but so strong ; and the 
moral influence, which, by those great endowments, he was 
able to exert upon those who were placed under his charge. 
Such an example of the highest and truest manhood is of a 
kind to perpetuate its likeness in the world, to be effective over 
many who never saw his face, and to take hold on the hearts 
of the coming generations. We therefore think that it fitly 
belongs to this Historical Society to put upon its record some 
testimonial to a private character and public service which 
help to redeem history from the disgraces that so often defile 
its annals. 



20 



154 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [MARCH, 

The foregoing resolution having been seconded by 
Mr. Prescott, — 

Voted unanimously to adopt the same. 

Dr. Rob bins, from the Standing Committee, reported 
that the three oldest volumes of the manuscript-records 
of the Society had been carefully rebound in one volume, 
designed to be preserved in a separate place of deposit. 

Messrs. Bowditch and Russell were appointed a Com- 
mittee to examine the Treasurer's account for the year, 
and report at the next meeting. 

The President communicated a letter from the Re- 
cording Secretary, Mr. Willard, necessarily detained 
from this meeting, declining to be considered a candi- 
date for re-election. 

Messrs. Lincoln, Gray, and Deane were appointed a 
Committee to nominate a list of officers to be balloted 
for at the annual meeting in April. 

On motion of Dr. Robbins, — Voted, That a Commit- 
tee of five be appointed to revise the By-laws of the 
Society, and report at the next meeting ; and thereupon 
Messrs. Robbins, Hillard, Livermore, Chandler, and 
Deane were appointed to constitute that Committee. 

On motion of Mr. Savage, — Voted, That the Presi- 
dent, with Messrs. Clifford and Brigham, be a Committee 
to apply in behalf of this Society to the Legislature, at 
its present session, for such addition to, and amendment 
of, our charter as shall permit us to enlarge the num- 
ber of our resident members, not to exceed one hundred ; 
and to make election of such associate members living 
without the limits of this State, or of honorary mem- 
bers residing without or within the limits of the Com- 



1857.] PROCEEDINGS OF ANNUAL MEETING. 155 

monwealth, as the Society, in its discretion, may deter- 
mine. 

Mr. Ellis presented a number of valuable papers, 
consisting in part of letters from William Vassall and 
others, relating to lands in Maine ; and also a petition, 
dated March, 1777, from sundry persons in Pownal- 
borough in that Province, calling themselves Episcopa- 
lians, " great part of them French and Dutch German 
Protestants," praying that they " may be freed from 
being assessed or taxed in any parish for ministerial 
rates," &c., as they now pay a minister of their own. 

Mr. Savage presented to the Society copies of letters 
of Rev. John Allin, the ejected Vicar of Rye, Sussex, 
1662, relating to his father in New England, of date 
1663 to 1673-4. These letters were sent to Mr. Savage 
by Mr. Cooper, of London. 



ANNUAL MEETING, April 9, 1857. 

The Society held their annual meeting on Thursday, 
April 9, at noon, at their rooms in Tremont Street, 
Boston ; the President, Hon. Robert C. Winthrop, in 
the chair. 

The Librarian submitted the following report : — 

Since the last annual meeting, there have been added to the 
library, by donation, a hundred and eighty-six printed volumes, 
five hundred and ninety-one pamphlets, two maps, and two 
unbound files of newspapers ; all of which have been arranged 
and catalogued. The number of volumes taken from the 
library, by members and others, since the last report, is more 



156 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [APRIL, 

than double that of the preceding year ; and the number of 
books consulted at the rooms bears nearly the same proportion 
to that of the year 1855-6. All the books taken out have 
been returned in good order, with the exception of two vo- 
lumes which were taken from the shelves without the know- 
ledge of the Librarian, and are still missing, notwithstanding 
the efforts which have been made to trace them with a view to 
their recovery. 

Since the library has been closed for examination, the books 
have been classified according to their subjects, and the whole 
library has been newly arranged with reference to the conve- 
nience of those who may hereafter frequent the rooms. 

One of the two volumes which are missing is " Sargent's 
History of Braddock's Expedition," which has not been seen 
since the removal of the books into the front-room in August 
last. The other missing volume is " Young's Chronicles of 
the Pilgrims," which was not missed till since the library was 
closed for the annual examination and arrangement of the 
books. It has been noticed in the library within two or three 
months. 

The Corresponding Secretary communicated a letter 
from the Hon. Charles H. Warren, accepting his election 
as a Resident Member. 

The Cabinet Keeper communicated a donation from 
our associate, Mr. Sears, of the Sears Memorial, neatly 
framed. 

The President communicated the following letter 
from Judge Kane, of Philadelphia : — 

Philadelphia, 29th March, 1857. 
Hon. R. C. Winthrop, President, &c. 

My dear Sir, — I want language to express my very grate- 
ful sense of the tribute with which the Historical Society has 
honored the memory of my son. He cannot have died too 



1857.J ACT OF THE LEGISLATURE. 157 

soon, who had earned such a eulogy from men so eminently 
distinguished. It is only mournful that he could not have 
lived to witness the fame he had achieved, and to reflect its 
influence, as it would have been his best happiness to do, on 
the home-circle that he loved. I pray you, my dear sir, to 
make my rightful acknowledgments to the Society, and per- 
sonally to believe me 

Your very faithful and most obedient servant, 

I. K. Kane. 

The President also communicated a letter from the 
Secretary of the Tennessee Historical Society, express- 
ing the desire of that Society to possess " portraits of 
persons who have occupied positions of distinction 
within our country," with reference, among others, to 
those persons who have been distinguished in the Com- 
monwealth of Massachusetts ; and asking for " the views 
and suggestions " of the Massachusetts Historical So- 
ciety and their President. Voted to refer this letter to 
the Standing Committee. 

Mr. Clifford, from the Committee on the subject 
appointed at the last meeting, reported an Act of the 
Legislature passed according to the draught proposed 
by him, as follows ; viz. : — 

Commcmtaltfj of pHssacjjasjeiis. 

IN THE TEAR ONE THOUSAND EIGHT HUNDRED AND FIFTY-SEVEN. 

AN ACT IN RELATION TO THE MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives in General Court 
assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows : — 

Sect. 1. — Nothing in the Act of Incorporation of the Massachu- 
setts Historical Society shall prevent said Society from electing 
Associate or Corresponding Members residing without the limits of 
this Commonwealth, or Honorary Members residing either within or 



158 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [APRIL, 

without said limits, or from having as many as one hundred Resident 

Members, at their discretion. 

Sect. 2. — This Act shall take effect from and after its acceptance 

by said Society. 

House of Representatives, April 1, 1857. 
Passed to be enacted. 

Chas. A. Phelps, Speaker. 

In Senate, April 1, 1857. 
Passed to be enacted. 

Charles W. Upham, President. 

Approved April 2, 1857. 

Henry J. Gardner. 

On motion, — -Voted, That the foregoing Act be, and 
hereby is, accepted by the Society ; and that the same be 
extended upon the Society's records. 

Dr. Bobbins, Chairman of the Standing Committee, 
made the following Report of the doings of the Com- 
mittee for the past year ; viz. : — 

It is unnecessary to occupy the time of the Society at this 
important meeting by a complete recital of all the doings of 
the Standing Committee during the past year. A concise 
summary of the most important of them may satisfy the 
requirements of an annual report. 

Nearly all of the members of this Society recollect the un- 
handsome condition of this building at the last annual meeting. 
At that period, not one of the improvements which we have 
since witnessed had been commenced. 

On the 3d of April, 1856, a vote was passed empowering 
the Standing Committee " to make such alterations and repairs 
in the rooms of the Society as in their judgment may be best." 
The duty thus assigned to the Committee, involving a great 
variety of more or less important arrangements, and requiring 
an almost daily direction and supervision, has been going on 
without intermission during the year. If the result is gene- 
rally satisfactory to the members, and especially to those whose 
liberal contributions have enabled them to carry out the pro- 



1857.] PROCEEDINGS OF ANNUAL MEETING. 159 

jected improvements, the Committee will have no reason to 
regret the time and labor they have expended. 

The most important repairs and alterations of the building 
— with a single exception, to be referred to at the close of this 
report — have been the following: namely, a new entry and 
stairway ; doors and windows ; the introduction of gas, water, 
and pipes for a furnace ; the fitting-up of the large hall in 
the third story ; and the remodelling and furnishing of the 
ante-room, and of the middle room on the second story in 
which we are now convened. 

The manuscripts and printed papers which had been lying 
in heaps in the attic have been examined and classified, and 
deposited on shelves and in boxes in the small room in the 
upper story. The work of arranging and binding the valuable 
letters and papers in the cabinets, which was begun two years 
ago, has been completed, and a large collection formed, of 
neatly and uniformly bound and lettered volumes. 

The pamphlets, which have been catalogued during the year, 
have been arranged, according to their subjects, in neat cases. 

The library has been thoroughly examined, and the books 
re-arranged on the shelves of the middle room. The three 
volumes of the Society's old records have been substantially 
bound in one. 

The portraits and bound newspapers, and the natural curio- 
sities, have been distributed in order on the walls, table, and 
shelves in the hall above. 

Amongst the other duties discharged by the Committee 
may be mentioned the reprinting of volumes vii., viii., and ix. 
of the First Series of the Collections, which are now com- 
pleted and on our shelves, while volume x. is at present 
in the printer's hands ; the establishment of a system of ex- 
changes with literary and historical institutions, domestic and 
foreign ; and an engagement with Mr. Richardson, the pub- 
lisher of the " Historical Magazine," for a more extensive sale 
of the Society's Collections. 



160 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [APRIL, 

There have been sold during the year, at the rooms of the 
Society, seventeen complete sets of the Collections, amounting 
in value to $676.55 ; also eighty-five single volumes at $153 ; 
making a total of receipts at the library of 1829.55. One 
hundred and twenty-seven copies of Bradford's History have 
been consigned to Messrs. Little and Brown. 

The following statement from Dr. Appleton will show the 
progress that has been made in the preparation of the new 
catalogue ; viz. : — 

Since the commencement of the work on the i8th of April, 1855, 
all of the bound volumes in the library (nearly eight thousand), with 
about three -fourths, say nine thousand, of the unbound pamphlets, have 
been catalogued, and the requisite cross-references prepared, amount- 
ing in the whole number, including duplicates, titles, and references, 
to about fifty-four thousand. 

It has been confidently expected that the catalogue would have 
been completed within a period of two years from the above date : but 
the interruptions consequent upon the alterations in the library-rooms, 
with the removal and classification of the books in the library, have 
prevented this result ; and a few weeks more will be required for the 
accomplishment of the work. 

The remainder of the library, consisting of the bound volumes of 
newspapers, with the residue of the pamphlets, may be catalogued 
during the month of May, unless a large portion of the time should be 
occupied in other duties connected with the affairs of the library. 

J. Appleton. 

The Committee have the pleasure of presenting to the 
Society a neat and beautiful casket which has been procured 
by the President for the preservation and safe keeping of the 
two original manuscript volumes of Winthrop's Journal, which, 
at his request, were intrusted to his charge by the Committee, 
to be carefully repaired. The Society will be glad to know 
that these precious relics have at length received the careful 
treatment they deserve ; and will less regret the tardiness of 
this provision for their security, since it has given to one whom 
it so well becomes, and to whose feelings it must be so grate- 



1857.] THE DOWSE LIBRARY ROOM. 1.61 

ful, another opportunity of expressing his pious respeet for his 
distinguished ancestor. 

Early in the month of January, 1857, an estimate having 
been made by the Chairman of the Standing Committee, in 
connection with Messrs. Deane and Shurtleff, of the expense 
of remodelling and fitting up the Society's inner room, which 
had been set apart for the reception of the Dowse Library, the 
Chairman was requested to inform the executors of Mr. Dowse 
of the result. 

On the 8th of January, a letter was received from Mr. Liver- 
more, generously offering on the part of the executors to 
appropriate and deposit the sum of three thousand dollars, 
subject to the order of the Chairman, to be expended, in 
whole or in part, as might be found necessary for the con- 
templated purpose. 

Engagements were immediately entered into with compe- 
tent mechanics for the different portions of the work. It was 
deemed advisable not to employ an architect. The utmost 
despatch, consistent with thorough and faithful workmanship, 
has been used, in order to have all things in complete order 
before the annual meeting. It seemed impossible to accom- 
plish the work in so short a time ; but, through the promptness 
and energetic exertions of all concerned, it has been done. 
The books, during the last week, were carefully removed from 
Cambridge, and deposited and partially classified in their new 
cases. The room is finished and furnished, and will soon be 
opened for the inspection and occupancy of the Society. 

In closing this report, it is a grateful duty to acknowledge 
the constant and assiduous aid of Dr. Shurtleff, the valuable 
services of Mr. Deane in arranging the books, and the ever- 
welcome suggestions of the President and Mr. Livermore. 

All that remains for me is to close, with a feeling of relief, 
my humble services to the Society on the Standing Committee, 
with the presentation to them of this account of my steward- 
ship, and to render back to the executors of Mr. Dowse a 

21 



162 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [APRIL, 

special trust, by placing in their hands the key of the Dowse 
Library, together with an exhibit of the disbursement of the 
funds intrusted by them to my charge. The work has not 
been performed without anxiety : we trust it may be contem- 
plated without disappointment. 

Mr. Lincoln, from the Committee appointed at the 
March meeting to nominate officers for the ensuing 
year, reported the following list ; and the persons there- 
in named were elected, viz. : — 

President. 

Hon. ROBERT C. WINTHROP, LL.D Boston. 

Vice - Pres idents . 

JARED SPARKS, LL.D Cambridge. 

Hon. DAVID SEARS, A.M Boston. 

Recording Secretary. 
Rev. CHANDLER ROBBINS, D.D Boston. 

Corresponding Secretary. 

JOSEPH WILLARD, A.M Boston. 

Treasurer. 

Hon. RICHARD FROTHINGHAM, Jun Charlestown. 

Librarian. 

Rev. SAMUEL K. LOTHROP, D.D Boston. 

Cabinet-Keeper. 
NATHANIEL B. SHURTLEFF, M.D Boston. 

Standing Committee. 

WILLIAM BRIGHAM, A.B Boston. 

FRANCIS PARKMAN, A.B Boston. 

GEORGE LIVERMORE, A.M Cambridge. 

Rev. WILLIAM P. LUNT, D.D Quincy. 

THOMAS ASPLWALL, A.M Boston. 

The Committee appointed at the March meeting to 
examine the Treasurer's accounts for the year ending in 
April, made the following Report ; viz. : — 



1857.] THE DOWSE LIBRARY. 163 

Boston, April 8. 

The undersigned, a Committee to examine the accounts of 
the Treasurer of the Massachusetts Historical Society, have at- 
tended to that duty, and report, that the accounts are properly 
vouched and correctly cast, and that there are in the hands 
of the Treasurer the following balances : On the General 
Account, two hundred and twenty-three dollars and thirty- 
six cents ; on the Appleton-Fund account, two hundred and 
seventy dollars and four cents ; on the Massachusetts Histori- 
cal Society Trust Fund, thirty-two dollars. 

N. I. Bowditch, ) „ 

n -n -n > Committee. 

G. R. Russell, \ 

George Livermore, Esq., then rose, and spoke as fol- 
lows : — 

Mr. President, before any further business is introduced, 
I move that the Society proceed to take possession of the 
Dowse Library. 

The Chairman of the Standing Committee has already 
informed you, that the library presented to the Society last 
summer by Mr. Thomas Dowse, of Cambridge, has been 
removed to the room prepared for it in this building, and the 
key of the same delivered to Mr. Dowse's executors. 

The pleasant duty now devolves upon me of transferring to 
you this key, which will, I hope, open to the Society a new 
source of interest and usefulness to its members, and through 
them, indirectly, to many others. 

My colleague, Mr. Dale, who is present on this interesting 
occasion by special invitation from the officers of the Society, 
agrees with me in feeling entire confidence, that as the future 
guardians of this important trust, chosen by Mr. Dowse him- 
self, the Society will continue to exercise a due regard to the 
wishes of the donor and the conditions of his gift. 



164 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [APRIL, 

Perhaps I may now be pardoned if I frankly confess, that a 
feeling of fond pride and interest in the place of my birth had 
oftentimes led me to hope that Mr. Dowse would leave his 
library to some public institution in the city of Cambridge ; 
but, for reasons which I cannot but approve, he decided other- 
wise. As he has placed with his executors, in trust, the means 
of founding an institution in that city, which will cause his 
name to be for ever remembered with gratitude by the people 
of the place where he so long resided, it would be ungracious 
in me, as a citizen of Cambridge, and a friend of the generous 
benefactor of more than one public institution, to question the 
wisdom of his decision in the disposition of his library. 

I therefore, with great pleasure, hand you this catalogue 
of the collection, and the key to the room in which it is con- 
tained. 

The President, on receiving the key to the Dowse- 
Library Room from the hands of Mr. Livermore, invited 
Hon. Josiah Quincy, sen., and Hon. James Savage, the 
senior members of the Society, to marshal the newly 
elected officers and the members of the Society into the 
new room. After the officers had taken their seats at 
the table, Mr. Winthrop spoke as follows : — 

You will hardly expect me, gentlemen, to resume my posi- 
tion as President in this beautiful apartment, and to take 
possession of this sumptuous official chair, without something 
more than a mere formal acknowledgment of the honor you 
have done me by the re-election which has just taken place. 
For that honor I sincerely thank you ; but with this almost 
magical transformation fresh in our view, and with this key 
and this communication newly placed in my hand, I should be 
quite inexcusable were I to waste an instant on any thing so 
merely accidental, personal, and temporary as the result of 
our annual election of officers. 



1857.] MR. WINTHROP'S REMARKS. 165 

I can hardly be mistaken in thinking, that this occasion is 
destined to be long remembered as an epoch in the history of 
our Society, and that from the opening of yonder folding doors, 
I might almost say, " on golden hinges turning," through 
which we have been admitted to the enjoyment of these ample 
accommodations and these priceless treasures, will be dated 
a new era of its existence. 

More than sixty-six years have now elapsed since its original 
organization. On the nineteenth day of February last, the full 
term of sixty-three years was completed since the date of its 
original act of incorporation. Our Society has thus just passed 
over that precise period in its career which old superstition 
has been accustomed to regard as somewhat peculiarly critical. 
But certainly all the omens for the future are most auspicious. 
It has gone through, indeed, with a pretty protracted chrysalis 
state ; but to-day it is permitted to display plumage and pinions, 
which promise a more sustained and prosperous progress than 
any of us could hitherto have ventured to anticipate for it. 

I would not speak disparagingly, however, of its day of 
small things. I would by no means forget or depreciate the 
services of those who watched over its humble beginnings. On 
the contrary, I cannot but feel that our very first acknowledg- 
ments, on such an occasion as this, should be paid to the 
memory of those devoted and excellent men by whom this old- 
est Historical Society in America was so well and so wisely 
instituted and organized. 

In that precious volume of original records which has been 
carefully bound up for preservation, we find that the first formal 
meeting of the Society took place on the twenty-fourth day of 
January, 1791. It was held at the house of the Hon. William 
Tudor, and was attended by only eight persons. There is a 
tradition that a previous meeting had been held, at which there 
were but five; and that, on this subsequent occasion, each of 
the five had been relied on to bring a friend. Foremost on the 
list of those present, by every claim of personal merit as well 



166 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [APRIL, 

as of alphabetical order, is found the name of the Rev. Jeremy 
Belknap, D.D., the well-known historian of New Hampshire, 
and author of the American Biography, whose services to the 
general cause of American history, as well as to this Society 
in particular, can never be overestimated. Next stand the 
cherished names of the Rev. John Eliot, D.D., and the Rev. 
James Freeman. Then comes the Hon. James Sullivan, after- 
wards Governor of Massachusetts, and our first President. 
Next we find mentioned in order the Rev. Peter Thacher, 
D.D. ; Judge Tudor himself, the host of the occasion, and our 
first Treasurer ; Mr. Thomas Wallcutt ; and James Winthrop, 
Esq., of Cambridge. At this meeting, however, two of the ori- 
ginal members of the Society appear to have been absent, whose 
names can by no means be spared from our little roll of distin- 
guished founders, — William Baylies, Esq., of Dighton, and 
the Hon. George Richards Minot, of Boston, whose valuable 
contributions to the history of Massachusetts, and more espe- 
cially during one of its most momentous periods, are fresh in 
the grateful remembrance of us all. 

These were our Decemviri ; and to their timely forecast 
and their devoted efforts it is due, not only that this Society 
had an existence at all at that early day, but that so many of 
the materials of our New-England and American history were 
seasonably rescued from oblivion and decay, and placed within 
the reach of those who have known so well how to use them. 
I trust that more of the portraits of these venerable founders 
of our Society may hereafter adorn our walls. 

Meantime, it is not a little interesting, as we enter to-day 
upon these commodious and elegantly furnished apartments, 
to look back upon the narrow and economical arrangements of 
that early period, when we find it a matter of formal entry 
and acknowledgment, that the first gift to the Society came in 
the shape of a little paper-covered blank-book for records, pre- 
sented by President Sullivan ; and when, as we learn soon 
afterwards (viz., on the 30th of June, 1791), the Treasurer 



1857.] MR. WINTHROP'S REMARKS. 167 

was desired to purchase twelve chairs, — which are carefully 
described as " Windsor green, elbow-chairs ; " and " a plain 
pine-table," which is required to be " painted, with a draw 
and lock and key ; " and " an inkstand, &c." The little paper- 
book is still extant, with all its pages rilled up in the large 
round hand of the first Recording Secretary, Mr. Wallcutt ; 
and the chairs, inkstand, &c, are believed to be the same 
which, until within a few months past, have constituted a prin- 
cipal part of the furniture of our rooms, and which will still, I 
trust, be sacredly preserved as memorials of our small begin- 
nings. 

It would occupy too much time for such an occasion as this 
to attempt any detailed account of the gradual rise and 
progress of the Society. An excellent sketch of it, by our 
venerable and valued associate the Rev. Dr. Jenks, may be 
found in the seventh volume of the Third Series of our Col- 
lections ; and the admirable Anniversary Discourse of Dr. 
Palfrey, in the ninth volume of the same series, contains a 
faithful review of the first half-century of our existence. I 
hope that a full history of the Society, as exhibited in its ori- 
ginal records, and in a shape in which it may be circulated 
separately from our ordinary publications, may soon be under- 
taken and completed by some one of our number. There is 
ample evidence, however, both within and beyond these walls, 
of the aggregate results which have been accomplished. In 
the numerous and prosperous kindred associations, in other 
States and in our own State, which have grown up under its 
example and encouragement, and to all of which we hold out 
afresh this day the right hand of fellowship ; in the thirty- 
three well-filled volumes which have been published under its 
auspices and by its direct agency ; in the many other valuable 
publications for which it has furnished materials, and, in some 
cases, authors ; in the precious collection of books and pam- 
phlets and manuscripts which it has gradually accumulated 
here for the convenient consultation of the students and 



168 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [April, 

writers of history, — in these and many other considerations 
and circumstances we may find abundant proof, that no insuf- 
ficiency of means, no narrowness of accommodations, no 
plainness of furniture, and no paucity of numbers, have pre- 
vented the Society from fulfilling the largest expectations 
which could have been reasonably formed of it, even by the 
most hopeful of its founders and friends. 

It will be well for our own reputation, if we in our turn, 
and in this day of its comparative prosperity, shall succeed in 
leaving behind us the evidences of a proportionate progress. 

Before turning entirely from the reminiscences of the past, 
I must not omit to add to the list of those to whom the Society 
has owed most, in other days, the name of Christopher Gore, 
another Governor of Massachusetts, and our second President, 
who generously emulated the example of his predecessor, Gov- 
ernor Sullivan, in his devotion to its interest, and whose liberal 
contributions of money, as well as of time, render him pre- 
eminent, perhaps, among our earlier benefactors. 

The first dawning of our present bright and auspicious day 
may be traced to the munificence of the late Samuel Appleton, 
from whose executors the sum of ten thousand dollars was re- 
ceived a few years since as a publishing fund, and of which 
the worthy first-fruits are already before the public, in the 
long-lost Pilgrim History of Governor Bradford, so recently 
and admirably edited by our associate, Mr. Charles Deane. 

The next rays of our sunrise were found in the liberal 
donations of our excellent fellow-members, Mr. David Sears 
and Mr. Nathan Appleton, seconded by a similar donation from 
our respected friend, Mr. Jonathan Phillips, and followed by 
the contributions of Mr. William Appleton, Mr. John E. 
Thayer, Mr. Peter C. Brooks, Mr. John C. Gray, and others 
both in and out of our ranks. The fund thus raised — com- 
menced for the purpose by Mr. Sears, and closed so handsomely 
by our venerable senior member, President Quincy, whom we 
are proud to count still among our most zealous co-operators, 



1857.] OPENING OP THE DOWSE LIBRARY. 169 

after more than sixty years of active service — furnished the 
means of securing for the Society the sole and permanent pos- 
session of this most desirable building, on this old historical 
site, overhanging the graves of so many of the fathers and 
founders of our state and city, and endeared to us all by so 
many hallowed associations of remote and of recent history. 

But I must not longer postpone the acknowledgment, which 
we all feel to be especially due from us this day, to the memory 
of that remarkable self-made man, who has made this Society 
the chosen depositary and privileged guardian of the noble 
library which it was the pride of his long life to accumulate, 
and upon the enjoyment of which we are now permitted to 
enter. 

The room in which we are gathered is to be known hence- 
forth as the Dowse Library of the Massachusetts Historical 
Society. It has been thus elegantly fitted up under the direc- 
tion of a committee of our own number, with the Rev. Dr. 
Chandler Bobbins as its able and untiring head, and Dr. Natha- 
niel B. Shurtleff as his always efficient auxiliary. It has all 
been done, however, at the sole expense of Mr. Dowse's estate, 
and by the express authority of his executors, who have con- 
sulted his own well-understood views in the execution of this 
part of the honorable discretion committed to them. Here the 
precious volumes which he himself, in his lifetime, watched 
over so fondly, and consulted so frequently, have been arranged, 
and are to be carefully classified, under the direction of our 
worthy Librarian, Dr. Lothrop ; and from this apartment, 
which they will henceforth exclusively occupy, they are never, 
in any contingency which can be anticipated, to be removed. 
An original sketch of our distinguished associate, Mr. Everett, 
by Stuart, and a fine marble bust of Sir Walter Scott by 
Ohantrey, — which were the chosen ornaments of the library 
while it was at Cambridge, — have also found their appropriate 
places in the same association here. Busts of Milton and 
Shakspeare, of Franklin and Washington, and of others whose 

22 



170 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [APRIL, 

writings or whose lives were especially dear to Mr. Dowse, are 
arranged upon the cases ; while, from the principal niche at 
the head of the room, the speaking portrait of the venerable 
donor himself, procured for the purpose by the order and at 
the expense of the Society, looks benignantly down upon these 
cherished friends of his youth and of his age, from which he 
has so recently been called to part, and offers an accustomed 
and recognized welcome to all who worthily approach to enjoy 
their privileged companionship. 

A nobler monument to such a man, a nobler monument 
to any man, could not have been devised, nor one better 
calculated to secure for him an enviable and delightful remem- 
brance long after the costliest cenotaph or the most magnificent 
mausoleum would have crumbled into dust. To us it is an 
invaluable treasure ; and the name of Thomas Dowse will 
henceforth be inscribed upon our rolls and upon our hearts 
among our greatest and most honored benefactors. 

I cannot receive the key which has just been handed to me, 
without recurring to the occasion, less than a year ago, when 
he himself presented to me a noble volume of " Purchas's Pil- 
grims," as the earnest of the donation which is this day so 
happily consummated. The volume is here, and will now 
resume its place in the series to which it belongs ; but the 
hand which gave it is cold and motionless, and the ear to which 
I would again have addressed your acknowledgments is 
beyond all reach of human utterance. I rejoice to perceive, 
however, that there is at least one of the witnesses to that 
transaction present with us on this occasion ; and while I 
offer, in your behalf and in my own, a humble tribute of affec- 
tionate gratitude to the dead, I feel it to be but just to unite 
with it an expression of cordial thanks to the living, by whom 
the wishes of Mr. Dowse and the welfare of our Society have 
been so kindly and liberally consulted. Mr. Dowse himself 
would, I am sure, have rejoiced to know, that the name of his 
chosen and devoted friend would be associated with his own 






1857.] LETTER FROM MR. DOWSE'S EXECUTORS. 171 

in the grateful remembrance and respect of all who shall now 
or hereafter enjoy the privileges of this charming resort ; and 
the name of George Livermore will be always so associated. 
The munificent provision which has been this moment an- 
nounced, in the communication just delivered to me, as having 
been made by himself and his colleague, Mr. Eben. Dale, for 
the permanent safe keeping and superintendence of the 
library, calls especially for our renewed acknowledgments ; 
and I tender to them both, in behalf of every member of 
the Society, a sincere expression of our deep and heartfelt obli- 
gation. 

It only remains for me, gentlemen, to remind you that our 
responsibilities increase proportionately with our opportunities 
and advantages ; that many things remain to be desired and to 
be done to perfect other departments of our Institution, and 
to render them worthy of what has thus been inaugurated ; 
and to assure you, that, for myself, I shall most gladly co-operate, 
in every way in my power, with the excellent and efficient 
officers whom you have associated with me, in promoting the 
continued prosperity and welfare of a Society whose objects are 
at once so interesting and so important. 

I proceed, without further delay, to lay before you the com- 
munication of Mr. Dowse's executors, which will tell its own 
story far better than I could describe it. 

The President then read the following letter : — 

Cambridge, April 9, 1857. 
Hon. Robert C. Winthrop, 

President of the Massachusetts Historical Society. 

Dear Sir, — The library of the late Thomas Dowse, presented by 
him during his lifetime to the Massachusetts Historical Society, having 
been removed from the rooms it so long occupied to the new and con- 
venient apartment prepared for it by the Society, his executors desire 
on this occasion to express through you their thanks to the officers and 
members of the Society for the kind regard to the wishes and views 



172 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [APRIL, 

of the donor, which they have shown in all their proceedings relating 
to the subject. 

In his will, which was executed before he had decided what disposi- 
tion to make of his library, Mr. Dowse, after making liberal and equal 
bequests to his relatives, declared it to be his purpose, should his life 
be spared, to dispose of the residue of his property for charitable, 
literary, and scientific uses. But, well knowing how uncertain his life 
was, and being unwilling that his general purpose should be defeated 
by any delay to make a particular disposition of his property, he placed 
the entire residue of his estate, real, personal, and mixed, in trust, to 
be applied by his executors — after paying his just debts, and the lega- 
cies referred to — to the uses above named. 

A little more than a month from the time he signed his will, Mr. 
Dowse determined to offer to the acceptance of the Historical Society, 
and to commit to their keeping, his library, containing the dearest 
earthly objects of his affections, the friends of many years, his guides 
in youth, his support in manhood, his solace in old age. This act was 
the spontaneous decision of his own mind, uninfluenced by the slightest 
hint from any other source. To the close of his life, he took the 
greatest pleasure in expressing to his neighbors and friends the con- 
tinually increasing satisfaction which he felt in his decision, and the 
grateful feelings he cherished for the prompt, hearty, and delicate 
manner in which the Society had responded to his proposition. 

Two works of art — the only objects of the kind which had a place 
in his library at Cambridge — have been removed with the books to 
the new apartments, and are now offered by his executors to the 
acceptance of the Society, — the marble bust, by Chantrey, of Sir 
Walter Scott ; and the unfinished portrait, by Stuart, of one who for 
many years shared, to a degree which few others have done, the 
friendship and regard of Mr. Dowse, and who has paid so beautiful 
and appropriate a tribute to his character, — your illustrious associate, 
Edward Everett. 

That the library which is now transferred to the Historical Society 
may be for ever preserved and used in accordance with the views of 
the donor, and the votes of the Society at the time the gift was 
accepted, the executors, in accordance with the trust imposed upon 
them by the will of Mr. Dowse, have decided to appropriate the sum 
of ten thousand dollars, as "the Dowse Fund of the Massachusetts 
Historical Society ; " the principal to be for ever kept intact, and the 
income to be used for the purposes above named. This sum is inde- 



1857.] PROCEEDINGS OF ANNUAL MEETING. ITo 

pendent of the amount previously paid for the expenses of removing 
the library, and preparing the room to receive it. 

Respectfully yours, 

GEORGE LlVERMORE, ) Executors of the Will 
EbeN. DALE, ) of Thomas Dowse. 

When Mr. Winthrop had taken his seat, Hon. Emory 
Washburn offered the following resolutions, prefacing 
them with remarks in his peculiarly happy style : — 

Resolved, That the best thanks of the Massachusetts Histori- 
cal Society be presented to our respected and valued associate, 
Mr. George Livermore, and to his colleague, Mr. Eben. Dale, 
for the munificent liberality with which they have exercised 
their discretion, as the executors of the last will and testament 
of the late venerable Thomas Dowse, in preparing and furnish- 
ing the room which this Society has set apart for the Dowse 
Library, and in establishing a fund for its safe keeping. 

Resolved, That the Society gratefully accept the said fund 
upon the conditions and for the uses set forth in the communi- 
cation of said executors, this day made to the President ; and 
that said communication, with these resolutions, be entered 
upon the record. 

The resolutions w 7 ere unanimously adopted. 

Charles Deane, Esq., offered the following resolution, 
which was passed : — 

Resolved, That the thanks of the Society be presented to 
Joseph Willard, Esq., for his faithful and devoted services 
as Recording Secretary during the unprecedented term of 
twenty-two years. 

Mr. Willard made a very graceful response, thanking 
the Society for the honor they had conferred upon him, 
for such a long series of years, by annual election. 



174 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [APRIL, 

Further remarks were made by Hon. Jared Sparks, 
who proposed the names of two distinguished foreign 
historians as honorary members. 

Mr. Paige offered the following resolutions, which 
were unanimously adopted : — 

Resolved^ That the thanks of the Society be presented to 
Rev. Dr. Robbins for his devoted labors as Chairman of the 
Standing Committee during the past year, and also for the 
especial service he has rendered in taking charge of the pre- 
parations necessary to the fitting-up of the Dowse Library. 

Resolved further, That the thanks of the Society are due to 
Dr. N. B. Shurtleff for his valuable suggestions and efficient 
services in arranging said library. 

Hon. Edward Everett then presented to the Society 
a rare English manuscript which he had received from 
Thomas Carlyle, containing memoranda relating to the 
Franklin family in England previous to their removal 
to America. He accompanied his gift with the follow- 
ing remarks : — 

I felt strongly impelled, Mr. President, to say a few words, 
by way of seconding the resolutions so appropriately moved 
and so handsomely supported by Governor Washburn ; but the 
terms in which our respected associate, Mr. Livermore, has 
expressed himself in the personal allusion to myself, in that 
most welcome communication which you have just read, has 
put it out of my power, without indelicacy, to say a word on 
the subject. I may add too, sir, that the manner in which 
you have, on this most interesting occasion, spoken for us all, 
leaves not another word to be desired or supplied by myself or 
any other individual. I rise only, therefore, at this somewhat 
late hour of the morning, to offer to the acceptance of the 



1857.] MR. EVERETT'S REMARKS. 175 

Society, through you, what I am confident you will regard as 
an interesting relic; viz., the original manuscript record-book 
of the small tithes of the parish of Ecton, Northamptonshire, 
England, from 1640 to about 1700, — the parish, I need not 
tell you, sir, where the family of Benjamin Franklin had been 
established for several generations previous to the emigration 
of his father to Boston in 1682. This venerable relic had, it 
seems, been found in Northamptonshire by Mr. Wake, an 
English gentleman, who presented it to Mr. Thomas Carlyle. 
Mr. Carlyle, justly presuming that it would be of greater inte- 
rest in this country than it could have been in England, sent 
it to me, leaving the disposal of it to my discretion. I imme- 
diately determined, after having it suitably bound, to present 
it to the Historical Society ; deeming this body, as the oldest 
Historical Society in the United States, and established, too, in 
the city where Franklin was born, to be the proper place of 
deposit for a document of some interest in reference to his 
family. Mr. Carlyle sent me the manuscript by the hands of 
his friend, the eminent artist, Mr. Samuel Lawrence, with a 
letter bearing date 2d December, 1853 ; which, owing to acci- 
dental circumstances, did not reach me till November of the 
following year. I have, with Mr. Carlyle's permission, had 
the portion of this interesting and characteristic letter which 
relates to the manuscript copied into one of the blank pages, 
in the following terms : — 

Mr. Lawrence carries for me a little packet to your address, — a 
strange old brown MS., which never thought of travelling out of its 
native parish, but which now, so curious are the vicissitudes and growths 
of things, finds its real home on your side of the Atlantic, and in your 
hands first of all. The poor MS. is an old Tithes-Book of the parish 
of Ecton in Northamptonshire from about 1640 to almost 1700, and 
contains, I perceive, various scattered faint indications of the civil-war 
time, which are not without interest ; but the thing which should raise 
it above all tithes-books yet heard of is that it contains actual notices, 
in that fashion, of the ancestors of Benjamin Franklin, blacksmiths in 
that parish! Here they are, — their forge-hammers yet going, — 



176 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [APRIL, 

renting so many "yard-lands" of Northamptonshire church-soil, — 
keeping so many sheep, &c, &c, — little conscious that one of the 
demigods was about to proceed out of them. I flatter myself these old 
plaster-cast representations of the very form and pressure of the prime- 
val (or at least prior-eYsd) Franklins will be interesting in America. 
There is the very stamp (as it were) of the black knuckles, of their 
hob-nailed shoes, strongly preserved to us, in hardened clay, and now 
indestructible, if we take any care of it. 

In the interior of the parcel are the necessary further indications of 
its history. I am very happy now to give up this MS. to your piety, 
such being the best dictate of my own piety upon the subject. To 
your wise keeping and wise disposal I now surrender it ; and it is you 
that have it on your conscience hereafter, not I. 

I lost no time in thanking Mr. Carlyle for sending me this 
interesting document. I informed him of the use that I pro- 
posed to make of it, and that an opportunity would probably 
occur of bringing it to the public notice on occasion of the 
inauguration of the statue of Franklin, which was already in 
anticipation. I placed it in your hands, Mr. President, at the 
proper time for that purpose ; rejoicing to have it in my power 
to contribute in this way, however slightly, to the materials of 
the admirable address delivered by you on that occasion. In 
reply to my letter of acknowledgment, in which I had asked 
Mr. Carlyle' s permission to publish his part of the correspond- 
ence between us, he addressed a second letter to me, dated 
22d December, 1854, of which I have caused the following 
extract to be copied also into one of the blank leaves : — 

All is right with this matter of the old Tithes-Book ; and I am 
heartily pleased to find that it so pleases you, and is to have such 
honors as you indicate. A poor half-foolish and yet partly very 
serious and worthy old object has been rescued from its vague wan- 
derings over cosmos and chaos, and at length helped into its right place 
in the creation ; for which small mercy let us be thankful, and wish 
only, that, in bigger cases (of which in nature there are so many, and 
of such a tragical sort), the same perfect service could always be 
done. Alas ! alas ! 



1857.] mr. Everett's remarks. 177 

To-day I am in considerable haste, but would not lose a post in 
answering you about the letter you speak of. I quite forget what was 
in the letter in question, but do not doubt it would be some transcript 
of my then feelings about the matter on hand; part of the truth, 
therefore, and I hope not of the untruth, in regard to it : and I will 
very willingly commit it altogether to your friendly discretion, to make 
whatever use of it you find to be reasonable and feasible ; and so will 
say, Long life to Franklin's memory ! and add our little shout to that of 
the Bostoners in inaugurating their monument for him. " Long life 
to the memory of all brave men ! " — to which prayer, if we could add 
only, " Speedy death to the memory of all who were not so ! " it would 
be a comprehensive petition, and of salutary tendencies, in the epoch 
Barnum and Hudson. 

I will not take up your time, Mr. President, at this advanced 
hour, by a more detailed description of this ancient and inte- 
resting document. Mr. Wake has facilitated the use of it by 
marking with a pencil the passages where the name of Frank- 
lin occurs. I feel gratified that it has fallen to my lot on this 
occasion, when we are taking formal possession of Mr. Dowse's 
magnificent library, to have it in my power to make the first 
offering to the Society after that happy event ; and that this 
offering should be an original manuscript volume, possessing 
some antiquarian interest in connection with the family of 
the great man whose merit was so fully appreciated by Mr. 
Dowse, and to whose memory, among the last acts of his life, 
he erected a monument, in granite, near his own last resting- 
place at Mount Auburn. 



SPECIAL MEETING, April 30. 

A special meeting of the Society, called by the Stand- 
ing Committee, was held at the house of William Brig- 
ham, Esq., 1061, Washington Street, Boston, on Thurs- 
day evening, April 30, at seven and a half o'clock. 

23 



178 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [APRIL, 

The Corresponding Secretary read a letter from the 
Rev. W. B. Sprague, D.D., of Albany, N.Y., accepting 
his election as a Corresponding Member. 

Dr. Robbins, on behalf of the Committee on the By- 
laws, asked and obtained leave of the Society to report 
in print at the next stated meeting. 

The same gentleman reported a set of temporary 
By-laws for the Dowse Library, to be in force until a 
proper system of rules and regulations shall be agreed 
upon by the Society; which, having been read, were 
unanimously adopted. They are as follows : — 

RULES FOR THE DOWSE LIBRARY. 

1. The room in which the books are deposited, which were 
presented to the Society by the late Thomas Dowse, shall be 
known as the Dowse Library of the Massachusetts Historical 
Society. 

2. No book shall be taken out of the room. 

3. Books may be used in the room by members of the So- 
ciety, and by others introduced by them in person ; but no 
book shall be taken from the cases except by members, or by 
the Assistant Librarian, who shall cause each book to be re- 
turned to its proper place immediately after it has been used. 

4. Meetings of the Society may be held in the Dowse Li- 
brary at the discretion of the Standing Committee ; but the 
room shall never be opened for the meeting of any other asso- 
ciation. 

Voted, That authority be given to the Standing Com- 
mittee to address a circular to all the members of the 
Society, with a view of securing additional contributions 
to the library, and especially of procuring as many as 



1857.] FRANKLIN'S AUTOGRAPH SIGNATURE. 179 

possible of the publications of the past and present 
members. 

Interesting conversations were held upon subjects 
suggested by several valuable donations made to the 
Society by members present at the meeting. 

The President presented a letter from Benjamin 
Franklin, with his autograph signature, addressed to 
James Bowdoin, Governor of Massachusetts, of which 
the following is a copy : — 

In Council, Philadelphia, 23d March, 1787. 

Sir, — I have the honor of enclosing a copy of an Act of the 
Legislature of this Commonwealth, and a Proclamation of 
the Council, founded upon your Excellency's letter of the 10th 
of Feb'y. I am, sir, with much respect, 

Your Excellency's most obedient servant, 

B. Franklin. 

His Excellency, James Bowdoin, Esquire, Governor of Massachusetts. 

The Proclamation referred to in the letter was as 
follows : — 



[L. B.] 

B. Franklin. 



Pennsylvania, ss. — By the President and 
Supreme Executive Council of the Com- 
monwealth of Pennsylvania. 



a proclamation. 



Whereas the General Assembly of this Commonwealth, by 
a law entituled " An ' Act for co-operating with the State of 
Massachusetts Bay, agreeable to the Articles of Confederation, 
in the apprehending of the proclaimed rebels, Daniel Shays, 
Luke Day, Adam Wheeler, and Eli Parsons,'" have enacted, 
" that rewards additional to those offered and promised to be 
paid by the State of Massachusetts Bay, for the apprehending 
the aforesaid rebels, be offered by this State," — we do hereby 



180 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [APRIL, 

offer the following rewards to any person or persons who shall, 
within the limits of this State, apprehend the rebels aforesaid, 
and secure them in the jail of the city and county of Phila- 
delphia: viz., for the apprehending of the said Daniel Shays, 
and securing him as aforesaid, the reward of one hundred and 
fifty pounds lawful money of the State of Massachusetts Bay, 
and one hundred pounds lawful money of this State ; and for 
the apprehending the said Luke Day, Adam Wheeler, and Eli 
Parsons, and securing them as aforesaid, the reward (respec- 
tively) of one hundred pounds lawful money of Massachusetts 
Bay, and fifty pounds lawful money of this State. And all 
judges, justices, sheriffs, and constables are hereby strictly 
enjoined and required to make diligent search and enquiry 
after, and to use their utmost endeavours to apprehend and 
secure, the said Daniel Shays, Luke Day, Adam Wheeler, and 
Eli Parsons, their aiders, abettors, and comforters, and every 
of them, so that they may be dealt with according to law. 

Given in Council, under the hand of the President and the 
seal of the State, at Philadelphia, this tenth day of March, in 
the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty- 
seven. 

Attest, John Armstrong, Jr., Sec'y. 

§oh $nh % Commmtfaltjj ! 

Mr. Winthrop also exhibited the original conveyance 
of Hicham Woods by Sir Wm. Forth to Sir Edward 
Coke, bearing date 28th March, 1610. 

The President also offered for the inspection of the 
members the original order issued by General Gage 
for permission to be granted to the inhabitants of Boston 
to cross the lines, dated Boston, 27th April, 1775. 

Mr. Savage presented one of the original " passes " 
given in accordance with General Gage's order, of which 
the following is a copy : — 



1857.] PASS FROM GENERAL GAGE. 181 

Boston, May , 1775. 

Permit Margarett Jepson, together with his [her] Family, 
consisting of Seven Persons and their Efects, to pass over the 
Line between Sunrise and Sunset. 

By order of his Excellency the Governor. 
To the Field Officer in the Lines. 

No Arms nor Ammunition is allowed to pass, nor Merchan- 
dize. 

Mr. Savage also gave to the Society an autograph 
letter of James Otis, written in 1758, and a document 
containing the names of the people at Gay Head in 
1792. 

Mr. Brigham offered for acceptance a number of the 
"Royal American Magazine" for June, 1774; and "A 
Select Catalogue of Books in the College Library at 
Cambridge, for the more frequent use of the under-gradu- 
ates," printed at Boston in 1773. 

Mr. Warren presented a pamphlet entitled " Notices 
of the Last Great Plague, 1665-6, from the Letters of 
John Allin, formerly Vicar of Rye, Sussex." Also the 
" Annual Register" from 1764 to 1784. 

Mr. Warren also exhibited and read extracts from a 
rare volume, entitled " The World's Hydrographical Di- 
scription," written by John Davis, the celebrated English 
navigator, who discovered Davis's Straits in 1585. The 
book was printed at London in 1595. It relates to his 
reason for expecting to find a " speedie passage " into 
the South Seas, to China and India, by northerly navi- 
gation. 

Dr. Robbins presented to the Society a " Manuscript 
Diary," by Michael Wigglesworth, for the years 1653 
to 1657, inclusive. 



182 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [May, 



MAY MEETING. 

The Society held their stated monthly meeting on 
Thursday, May 14, at noon, in the Dowse Library; the 
President, Hon. Robert C. Winthrop, in the chair. 

The Librarian announced donations from the Chicago 
Historical Society ; the Suffolk Insurance Company ; 
the American Insurance Company ; Dr. George Derby ; 
David Ricketson, Esq., New Bedford ; Rev. Dr. Fuller, 
Andover ; Dr. Samuel H. Hurd, Somerville ; William 
H. Whitmore, Esq. ; Sylvester D. Willard, M.D., Al- 
bany ; Wm. B. Fowle, Esq. ; Rev. Caleb D. Bradlee ; 
L. A. Huguet Latour, Esq., Montreal ; Lieut. Geo. F. 
Emmons, U.S.N. ; Rev. D. P. Henderson, Louisville, 
Ky. ; and from Messrs. Barry, Brigham, Clifford, Everett, 
Robbins, Savage, and Winthrop, of the Society. 

The President communicated a circular letter from 
a French commissioner, charged with the erection of a 
statue to Geoffroy-Saint-Hilaire, soliciting subscriptions 
for that object. 

Also a letter from Charles J. Hoadly, State Librarian 
of Connecticut, dated May 11, 1857, announcing the 
gift, on the part of that State, of a copy of the Colonial 
Records from 1638 to 1649. 

The President read the following interesting commu- 
nication from Hon. William Willis, President of the 
Maine Historical Society, accompanying two coins, 
which were discovered on Richmond Island, May 11, 
1855: — 



1857.] COINS FOUND ON RICHMOND ISLAND. 183 

Portland, May 2, 1857. 
Hon. Robert C. Wintitrop, 

President of the Massachusetts Historical Society. 

Dear Sir, — I send you with this a silver coin of the reign 
of Queen Elizabeth, and a gold coin of the reign of Charles I., 
a donation to the Massachusetts Historical Society from Dr. 
John M. Cummings, of this city. 

These coins, with others of the reigns of Elizabeth, James 
I., and Charles I., were found on Richmond Island, May 11, 
1855. Richmond Island, now owned by Dr. Cummings, lies 
off the southern shore of Cape Elizabeth, half a mile distant 
from the main-land, and nine miles distant from Portland. It 
contains about two hundred acres, and has been occupied by 
but a single family for many years. 

The first settlement upon it, of which we have any account, 
was by Walter Bagnall in 1628, who carried on a profitable 
trade with the Indians, and was killed by them for his extor- 
tion, Oct. 3, 1631. Winthrop, in his " Journal," says he accu- 
mulated a large property by his traffic. 

Dec. 1, 1631, the island, with the southern part of Cape 
Elizabeth, was granted by the Council of Plymouth to Robert 
Trelawny and Moses Goodyear, merchants in Plymouth, Eng- 
land. They appointed John Winter, who then resided on the 
territory, and was interested in the patent, as their agent. 
Winter soon after built a ship there, which was probably the 
first regular trader between the two worlds ; established a 
Colony ; and carried on at that place a larger commercial busi- 
ness than was then done upon the New-England coast. Lum- 
ber, fish, furs, oil, <fec, were sent to Europe; and there were 
received, in return, wines, liquors, guns, ammunition, and such 
merchandise as was suited to the Indian trade and to sustain 
the Colony. Several ships were employed in this business. In 
1635, a ship of eighty tons, and a pinnace of ten tons, arrived 
at the island. In 1638, Winter had sixty men employed there 
in the fisheries ; and, the same year, Trelawny sent a ship of 



184 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [MAY, 

three hundred tons, laden with wine and spirits, to the island. 
Jocelyn, the voyager, speaking of the trade there at that time, 
says, " The merchant comes in with a walking tavern, — a bark 
laden with the legitimate blood of the rich grape, which they 
bring from Phial, Madera, and Canaries." 

In 1639, Winter sent home, in the bark " Richmond," six 
thousand pipe-staves, valued at £8. 6s. a thousand. An Episco- 
pal church was established there, in which Robert Gibson, whom 
Winthrop calls a scholar, officiated from 1637 to 1640, and 
was the first Episcopal church established in New England. 
Gibson was succeeded by Rev. Robert Jordan, who married 
Winter's only daughter, and inherited his estate. He fought 
long and bravely for Episcopacy ; and, at much peril and per- 
sonal inconvenience, sternly resisted the persevering assaults 
upon it by the magistracy of Massachusetts. 

Trelawny died in 1644, and Winter in 1645. Erom that 
period, the Colony, its quickening spirits being gone, declined ; 
and commercial operations on the island were soon after aban- 
doned. 

The coins referred to were found in a stone pot of common 
ware, but of a beautiful shape, resembling a globe lantern. It 
would probably hold a quart, and was found about a foot below 
the surface of the earth, on a slope of land descending north- 
westerly to the shore, and about four rods from it. There 
were traces of the foundation of buildings near the spot, the 
remains of a chimney, and a cavity used as a cellar. The 
particular place had not been ploughed nor cultivated within 
the memory of the present generation, until the year previous 
to the discovery. The next year the ploughing was deeper ; 
and as the ploughman was holding his plough, and his son 
driving, the pot was turned up from its hiding-place. When 
the boy picked it up, and showed it to his father, he exclaimed, 
" It is a rum-jug of the old settlers : throw it over the bank." 
On second thought, he told him to lay it one side on a pile of 
stones. The pot was apparently filled with caked earth : no- 



1857.] COINS FOUND ON RICHMOND ISLAND. 185 

thing more could be seen. A younger son of the ploughman, 
sitting upon the rocks, began to pick the earth from the pot, and 
soon came to the coin. Their surprise may well be conceived. 
On examination, the coin appeared to be regularly arranged in 
the bottom of the pot, — the silver on one side, the gold on the 
other, — and a fine gold signet-ring in the centre. 

On the next day, being notified by Dr. Cummings of the 
discovery, I went with him, accompanied by the Hon. Mr. 
Davies, and his son Dr. Davies, to the island, and carefully 
examined the coin, and explored the locality. We found the 
silver considerably discolored; the gold very little. There 
were thirty-one pieces of silver, of which twenty-three were 
shillings, sixpences, and groats, of the reign of Elizabeth ; four 
shilling-pieces and one sixpence of the reign of James I. ; and 
one shilling and one sixpence of the reign of Charles I. The 
gold consisted of ten sovereigns of the reign of James I., 
which were generally called units, from their being the first 
issued under the united crowns, and three half-sovereigns of 
the same reign ; seven sovereigns of Charles I. ; and one curi- 
ous and beautiful Scottish coin, half-sovereign size, bearing 
date 1602, — the last year of James as King of Scotland. All 
the coins are hammered, and are thinner and broader than 
modern coins of the same value. Milling was not generally 
used until the time of Charles II. ; although some experiments 
of it were tried in Elizabeth's reign, but proved too expensive 
and imperfect for general use. The impressions "on the gold 
coins are clear and distinct : they are less worn than the sil- 
ver, and nearly as bright as when issued. 

Part of the fracture of the pot was fresh, as if occasioned 
by the recent ploughing : the other was of an earlier date, and 
made, as is conjectured, by the ploughing of the previous year. 
It is probable, from appearances and from the absence of 
pieces, that it was a broken vessel when the coin was put in it. 
We found, in the vicinity of the place, broken pottery, pipes, 
an iron spoon of ancient form, part of a large glass bottle, 

24 



186 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [MAY, 

charcoal, nails, spikes, &c, turned up and scattered about by 
the plough. No further coin, after a careful search, was 
found. 

The question now arises, How came this treasure there ? No 
certain answer can be given. I have no doubt that the deposit 
is a solitary one, and can afford no encouragement to the idle 
rumors which have long prevailed, that large sums of money 
were many years ago concealed by pirates on this and other 
islands in our bay. The probability is that the deposit was 
made by some inhabitant of the island, or transient person, for 
security ; and that he suddenly died, or was driven away or 
killed by the Indians, without disclosing the fact. 

My conjecture is that the deposit was made as early as 
the death of Winter, in 1645 ; and I go farther, and express the 
belief that the money is connected with the fate of Walter 
Bagnall, who was killed by Sagamore Squidraket and his 
party, Oct. 3, 1631 ; that it was, in fact, a part of his un- 
justly earned estate. Bagnall had one companion with him, 

whom Winthrop calls John P . Bagnall had acquired 

a large property, — <£400, it is said. Winthrop says he was a 
wicked fellow, and exasperated the Indians by his hard usage. 
The latest of the coinage was of the time of the first Charles ; 
and, of the fifty-two pieces, nine only were of his reign, and 
these must have been coined before the breaking out of the 
civil war in 1642 ; for the king's coinage after that event 
was of different, and generally of much coarser, execution 
than that issued before. That the deposit must have had an 
early date — before the commencement of the civil war — is 
evident from the fact that there is no piece of a later period 
than 1642 ; and there is nothing to show that any of it is of a 
later date than 1631. 

In 1632, the expedition fitted out in Boston and " Piscata- 
qua" to pursue Dixey Bull, a buccaneer, — who had ravaged 
Pemaquid and plundered vessels, — stopped, on their return, 
at Richmond Island, and hung Black Will, an Indian, who 



1857.] COINS FOUND ON EICHMOND ISLAND. 187 

had been concerned in the murder of Bagnall. My solu- 
tion is that this coin was concealed by BagnalPs servant, or 
by some of the Indians, perhaps Black Will, and that it had 
lain in its concealment until its recent discovery. That the 
treasure can have no connection with the Indian war of 1675 
seems clear from the fact, that the collection contains no coin 
of a date within thirty years of that event. 

The silver coin I now transmit to you is a hammered shil- 
ling, without date, and bears the same effigy, title, and motto 
that were placed on all the silver coin of that reign. They 
are as follows : On the face is the profile head of the queen, 
crowned ; the rose, an old emblem introduced by the early 
sovereigns, behind it ; around it her title, ELIZABETH. D. 
G. ANG : FR : ET : HI : REGINA. On some of the coins 
the title is more abridged. On the reverse are the arms of 
England, which embrace the emblems of France and Ireland, 
traversed by the cross, with the motto, POSUI. DEV. ADJV- 
TOREM. MEV. ; that is, Posui Deum Adjutorem Meum, " I 
have made God my helper." This motto was first adopted by 
Edward III., and continued to the time of Charles I. The six- 
pences, and some of the smaller pieces, were dated for the first 
time in this reign, but not the shillings nor the gold coin. 

The accompanying gold coin is a hammered sovereign, or 
unit, of the early part of the reign of Charles I. It represents 
the head of the king, crowned and youthful, with a double 
ruff around his neck, and a robe over his shoulders. The 
figures XX. behind his head denote the value of the coin, 
which is twenty shillings. His title on the margin is " Carolus 
D. G. Mag. Brit. Fra. et. Hi. Rex. ; " on the reverse, a new motto 
is introduced, not used by any former sovereign, Florent Con- 
cordia Regna, " Nations flourish by peace ; " in the centre 
are the national arms, quartered, as usual, on a shield, which, 
in the present case, is garnished : it is sometimes plain. 

I hope these interesting relics of the past, so happily brought 
forth to instruct, and gratify the curiosity of the present age, 



188 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [May, 

will be acceptable to your venerable Society ; and that the his- 
torical sketch I have added of a noted spot in our early annals, 
of which your renowned ancestor has given us the first notice, 
will not be tedious or unwelcome to yourself. 

I am the Society's ever-faithful friend, 

And your obedient servant, 

Wm. Willis. 

The communication of Mr. Willis was referred to the 
Publishing Committee, and the President was requested 
to present the thanks of the Society to Dr. Cummings 
for his valuable gift. 

Dr. Robbins, from the Committee on the By-laws, re- 
ported that, for reasons which were stated, it was neces- 
sary to request a postponement of the full report of said 
Committee to a future meeting. This verbal report was 
accepted, and the request was granted. 

Mr. Washburn communicated a valuable paper in 
relation to the circumstances under which slavery ceased 
to exist in Massachusetts, which was referred to the 
Publishing Committee, and printed in the fourth volume 
of the Fourth Series of the Collections. It is as fol- 
lows : — 



EXTINCTION OF SLAVERY IN MASSACHUSETTS. 

BY HON. EMORY WASHBURN. 

Much interest has been felt, of late years, to know when, 
and under what circumstances, slavery ceased to exist in 
Massachusetts. 

I recollect, among other evidences of this, being applied to 
by Mr. Webster, a few years before his death, for such facts as 



1857.] EXTINCTION OP SLAVERY IN MASSACHUSETTS. 189 

I happened to possess on the subject, in order to aid him in the 
investigation he was making in regard to the extinction of sla- 
very here, which he said he had not been able satisfactorily to 
determine. 

The generally received notion is, that slavery was extin- 
guished by the adoption of the Constitution of Massachusetts, 
which declared all men free and equal ; and it is undoubtedly 
true, that, soon after it was adopted, it was definitely and defini- 
tively declared, that the relation of master and slave did not 
exist within the Commonwealth. 

But, could we arrive at the true history of the state of 
public sentiment, — a power often quite as strong as the law, 
and always, in some measure, an exponent of the law itself, — 
we should, I think, find that the Constitution, with its Bill of 
Rights, was literally a declaration of what the people regarded 
as already their rights, rather than an exposition of any newly 
adopted abstract principles or dogmas to be wrought out 
into a practical system by any course of future legislation 
under a new regime. 

There is no question that slavery and slaves existed here in 
some form, and to some extent, from the time Maverick was 
found dwelling on Noddle's Island in 1630. Men and women 
were bought and sold in market, inventoried as property, and 
held to have the settlements of their masters in the character 
of slaves. 

But, after all, the laws on this subject, as well as the practice 
of the government, were inconsistent and anomalous ; indi- 
cating clearly, that, whether Colony or Province, so far as 
it felt free to follow its own inclinations, uncontrolled by the 
action of the mother country, Massachusetts was hostile to 
slavery as an institution. 

Thus we find, among other evidence of the prevalence of 
this sentiment, one of the articles of the " Body of Liberties," 
which are preserved in the eighth volume, Third Series, Histori- 
cal Collections, declares, " There shall never be any bond 



190 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [May, 

slaverie, villenage, or captivitie, unless it be lawful captives, 
taken in just wars, and such strangers as willingly sell them- 
selves or are sold to us." And another guaranties to all men, 
whether " inhabitant or foreigner, free or not free," liberty to 
" come to any public court, council, or town-meeting, and, either 
by speech or writing, to move any lawful or seasonable or 
material question, or present any necessary motion, complaint, 
petition, bill, or information," &g. ; clearly recognizing them 
alike as having the rights of suitors in courts, and the qualified 
rights of citizens, so far, at least, as to be heard as petitioners. 
And this, it will be remembered, was as early as 1641. 

But I pass over the various laws and acts of the colonists 
upon this subject, to notice the case of James vs. Lechmere, 
which was decided in 1769, and which involved the right of a 
master to hold slaves here, as we are told in Dr. Belknap's 
letter to Judge Tucker, 4 Historical Collections, First Series, 
202.* 

This, it will be recollected, was nearly two years before the 
famous decision of Lord Mansfield in Somersett's case ; and, if 
Dr. Belknap's account of the matter be correct, the decision 
rested substantially upon some of the same grounds as that on 
which Lord Mansfield based his opinion. " On the part of the 
blacks," says Dr. Belknap, " it was pleaded that the Royal 
Charter expressly declared all persons bom or residing' in the 
Province to be as free as the king's subjects in Great Britain ; 
that, by the laws of England, no man can be deprived of his 
liberty but by the judgment of his peers ; that the laws of 
the Province respecting an evil existing, and attempting to 
mitigate or regulate it, did not authorize it; " &c. 



* The term at which judgment in this action was rendered was held in Suffolk, 
Oct. 31, 1769. The action was commenced in the Inferior Court of Common Pleas, 
May 2, 1769, and the plaintiff declared in trespass for assault and battery, and impri- 
soning and holding the plaintiff in servitude from April 11, 1758, to the date of the 
writ. Judgment in the lower court was rendered for the defendant. The plaintiff 
appealed; and, in the Superior Court, the defendant was defaulted, and judgment was 
rendered for an agreed sum, with costs. 



1857.] EXTINCTION OF SLAVERY IN MASSACHUSETTS. 191 

That these positions were not lightly or unadvisedly taken, 
we may be assured from the fact that they were urged by such 
a man as Jonathan Sewall, at that time the Attorney-General 
of the Province, and a profound and able lawyer. 

The decision of the court was in favor of the liberty of the 
negro. 

And, if this were the place for speculation, I should feel 
myself warranted in assuming that our courts always regarded, 
and, as early as 1769, solemnly adjudged, the attempt to hold 
any person not captured and brought and sold here, but born 
here, as a slave, not justified by law, although he might be the 
child of a slave. This would not be inconsistent with the ex- 
tract I have given from the " Body of Liberties," and is in 
accordance with what Dr. Belknap says was the ground taken 
in some cases, — " that though the slavery of the parents be 
admitted, yet no disability of that kind could descend to 
children." 

This conjecture is, moreover, strengthened by the arguments 
by which it was attempted to sustain slavery as an institution 
after the adoption of the Constitution ; viz., that the declara- 
tion in the Bill of Rights as to freedom or equality referred to 
the children of slaves, and did not emancipate such as could 
be proved to have been actually sold and purchased as such 
before its adoption. 

I have thought these explanations a necessary and proper 
introduction to a brief history which I propose to offer of the 
case, or rather cases, — for there were three in number, — 
involving the same point, in which, by the verdict of a jury, 
with the approbation of the highest court, it was declared au- 
thoritatively that slavery no longer existed in Massachusetts. 

The cases to which I allude were Quork Walker vs. Natha- 
niel Jenison, Nathaniel Jenison vs. John Caldwell and Seth 
Caldwell, and the Commonwealth vs. Nathaniel Jenison. The 
civil actions were commenced in the Inferior Court of Common 
Pleas for the county of Worcester, at the June Term, 1781. 



192 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [May, 

The first of these was trespass for an alleged assault and 
beating of plaintiff by the defendant, with the handle of a 
whip, on the 30th of the previous April. 

The answer of the defendant alleged that one Caldwell, 
being possessed of said Quork, " as of her own proper negro 
slave," married and became the wife of defendant, whereby he 
became possessed of said Quork "as of his own proper negro 
slave ; " and " prayed judgment of the court if said Quork to 
his said writ ought to be answered." 

The plaintiff's replication was, that he was a freeman, and 
not the proper negro slave of defendant ; and this was the issue 
raised by the pleadings of the parties, to be tried by the jury. 

In the second of the above actions, Jenison sued the Cald- 
wells, in an action of the case, for enticing away the same 
Quork, a negro man and servant of the plaintiff, from his ser- 
vice, and rescuing him out of the plaintiff's hands, and pre- 
venting his reclaiming and reducing his said servant to his 
business and services, they knowing said negro to be the plain- 
tiff's servant. He laid his damages at a thousand pounds. 
The case was tried at the Inferior Court upon the general 
issue, and a verdict rendered for the plaintiff for twenty-five 
pounds. From this judgment the defendants appealed to the 
Superior Court ; and a trial was had there, in September, 1781, 
when a verdict was rendered for the defendants. 

The indictment above mentioned was for beating said Quork, 
and resulted in the conviction of the defendant. 

The court before which the first of the above cases was 
tried was held by Moses Gill, Chief Justice ; and Samuel 
Baker and Joseph Dorr, Assistant Justices. 

The counsel for the plaintiff — the negro — were Caleb 
Strong and Levi Lincoln ; for the defendant, Judge Sprague 
and William Stearns : and abler advocates could not, then or 
since, have been easily found to sustain the cause of the slave. 

Neither of the judges were educated as lawyers. The Chief 
Justice belonged to Princeton, and was afterwards known as 



1857.] EXTINCTION OF SLAVERY IN MASSACHUSETTS. 193 

Governor Gill, having become the acting Governor upon the 
death of Governor Sumner in 1799. He was bred, and for 
many years engaged in the business of, a merchant. Baker 
was a farmer in Berlin ; and Dorr, a farmer at that time in 
Ward, now Auburn, though, a short time before that, residing 
in Mendon. They were therefore probably, like the jury, the 
exponents of public sentiment in the direction they gave to the 
trial, rather than the organs of any profound legal or constitu- 
tional views in regard to the rights of the parties. 

The verdict of the jury was, in substance, that said Quork 
" is a freeman, and not the proper negro slave of the defend- 
ant ; " and they assessed damages against the defendant in sixty 
pounds, and judgment was rendered accordingly. 

From this judgment the plaintiff appealed, as the defend- 
ants did in the other case, as has been already stated. But, 
after the decision of the latter case in the defendant's favor, 
the plaintiff failed to prosecute his appeal in this ; so that, in 
all the cases, the final judgment of the court was adverse to the 
claims of the master, and in favor of the negro, declaring and 
regarding him as a free man. 

I have before me the brief used by Mr. Lincoln on the 
trial of Jenison vs. Caldwell before a jury in the Superior 
Court, the substance of which I propose to transcribe ; the 
same having been kindly furnished me by his son, for many 
years Governor of the Commonwealth. 

Mr. Lincoln was one of the ablest lawyers in the State. 
His business was very extensive ; and he was engaged as leading 
counsel in some of the most important causes in several of the 
counties in Massachusetts, as well as in Maine. He was not 
only a profound and learned lawyer, but an eloquent and 
popular advocate. He was, at this time, in the thirty-second 
year of his age. In 1800, he was elected to Congress ; and, 
the following year, received the appointment of Attorney-Gene- 
ral of the United States from President Jefferson, between 
whom and himself there was a great personal intimacy and 

2/5 



194 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [May, 

regard. In 1808, he discharged, for more than half a year, 
the duties of Governor, upon the death of Governor Sullivan ; 
and, in 1811, was appointed a Judge of the Supreme Court of 
the United States, which office he was obliged to decline by the 
loss of vision, which became almost total towards the close of 
his life. 

Governor Strong was four years the senior of Mr. Lincoln in 
age ; but neither acted as what is known as " senior counsel,'* 
since a full closing argument was addressed to the jury by 
each of the counsel, one speaking in behalf of one of the de- 
fendants, and the other for the other. 

Governor Strong is too well known in the history of Massa- 
chusetts to render it necessary to say a word of him personally. 
He was the leading advocate in the western and middle parts 
of the State at the bar, and a zealous champion in the cause of 
the oppressed. 

Though the names of the counsel who were opposed to 
them may be less generally known or remembered, they were 
men of high rank and reputation. 

Mr. Stearns was of Worcester, and about the same profes- 
sional age as Mr. Lincoln, and in every way a respectable 
lawyer ; but he died early, before attaining a distinguished 
eminence in his profession. 

Judge Sprague belonged to Lancaster. He had been a 
member of the bar before the Revolution, and was a few years 
older than either Mr. Lincoln or Mr. Strong, and was then in 
the vigor of his manhood and power. He was, however, 
rather a wise and learned lawyer than an eloquent advocate. 
His business extended into several counties, in which he di- 
vided the field with Lincoln and the Strongs, Simeon and 
Caleb, in influence and business. He was one of the few who 
were appointed barristers after the Revolution ; and, in 1798, 
was made Chief Justice of the Court of Common Pleas for 
the county of Worcester. 

Such were the counsel in those memorable causes. 



1857.] EXTINCTION OF SLAVERY IN MASSACHUSETTS. 195 

The Superior Court, before which the latter case was tried, 
consisted of Hon. N. P. Sargent, David Sewall, and James 
Sullivan. 

The Chief Justice, William Cushing, was not present at the 
term when the cause was heard. 

Judge Sargent was of Haverhill, a sound lawyer and 
upright judge, and succeeded Chief Justice Cushing upon his 
appointment to the United-States Court. At the time of this 
trial, he was fifty years of age, and had then held a place upon 
the bench six years. 

Judge Sewall belonged to York. He was then forty-six 
years of age, had been a leading lawyer in that part of the 
State in which he resided, was appointed to this court in 1777, 
and subsequently was appointed Judge of the District Court 
of the United States for the district of Maine. He was a 
classmate and personal friend of John Adams, and had a high 
reputation for integrity and uprightness. 

The strong man of the court, however, was James Sullivan. 
A self-made man, he had risen to the first rank in his profes- 
sion, and been actively engaged in the events of the Revolu- 
tion, and took a prominent part in the formation of the 
Constitution. No further evidence of his eloquence or power 
as an advocate and a statesman need be given than the rank 
he held among such names as Dana, Lowell, Parsons, Gore, 
and Dexter. 

He was appointed to the bench of the Superior Court in 
1776, when thirty-two years of age ; and held the office till 
1782, when he resigned, and returned to the bar. 

In 1790, he was appointed Attorney-General ; and, in 1807, 
was chosen Governor. He died in the office ; and was suc- 
ceeded, as has already been stated, for the balance of his term, 
by Lieutenant-Governor Lincoln. 

It will be perceived, that those who took part in the decision 
of this question were among the leading minds of the Com- 
monwealth. They had been witnesses of, and taken a more or 



196 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [MAY, 

less prominent part in, the events and discussions of the Revo- 
lution ; and were especially well qualified to understand and 
appreciate the motives, grounds, and leading principles, of the 
Constitution. 

The whole subject had agitated the public mind for several 
years ; and one Constitution, prepared in 1777-8 and submit- 
ted to the people, had been rejected by a vote of more than 
five to one ; one reason for which is said to have been, that it 
contained no Bill of Rights. 

The general sentiment on the subject of slavery was ex- 
pressed the same year by an Act of the Legislature, forbid- 
ding the sale of a number of slaves taken on board an English 
prize-ship and brought into Salem, and ordering them to be 
set at liberty. 

Such, in brief, were the circumstances under which this 
great question of human freedom was to be decided, to serve 
as a precedent, for all coming time, to Massachusetts ; and 
such were the men who took part in its decision. 

It was not, as already stated, determined so much by any 
positive language or enactment in the Constitution, as by that 
all-pervading sense of the community, that the time had come 
when that slavery, against which they had been so long strug- 
gling, was incompatible with their character as a free and 
independent State, and ought to be suppressed. 

The strongest expression in the Constitution, perhaps, is the 
opening declaration of the Bill of Rights, that " all men are 
born free and equal," &c. Nor can too much credit be ascribed 
to the Hon. John Lowell in procuring the insertion of this 
clause, since it took from the Legislature the power of ever 
legalizing slavery, without a radical amendment, by the people, 
of the organic law of the Commonwealth. But it will be per- 
ceived that the advocate for the slave, in this case, rested his 
claim upon the incompatibility of slavery with our condition 
as a people, quite as much as upon any new right declared or 
sustained by the Constitution. Indeed, there is nothing in the 



1857.] EXTINCTION OF SLAVERY IN MASSACHUSETTS. 197 

Constitution which expressly abrogates, or even recognizes, sla- 
very as an existing political institution. 

The counsel for the master rested his rights, among other 
tilings, upon the following points : — 

In the first place, that the negro was a servant by his own 
consent, and therefore the defendant was liable for enticing 
him away. 

But to this it was answered, that, if such were the case, 
there must be some evidence of that consent, either express or 
implied, and the terms of it must be understood. 

Besides, some term of time must be agreed upon ; for if 
he consented to be the plaintiff's servant, and no time were 
agreed upon, it would be only during his own will, which he 
may put an end to whenever he pleases. 

But that, in fact, there was no evidence of consent in the 
case. 

In the next place, the plaintiff insisted he was his servant 
by virtue of a bill of sale, by which he became the property of 
Caldwell, from whom he passed to the plaintiff as husband 
of his owner ; and such a bill of sale was produced on the 
trial. 

And the general right of holding property in slaves was 
sustained upon several grounds : — 

1st, It is declared in Exodus, of a man's servant, that " he 
is his money." 

But, said the defendant's counsel, " It is indeed said in Exo- 
dus, that a man's servant is his money ; and, from this, the 
counsel on the other side argues in favor of slavery." 

" But are you to try cases by the old Jewish law ? " 

This was an indulgence to that nation, and they could only 
make slaves of the heathen around them. But even by their 
severe laws, which required an eye for an eye and a tooth for 
a tooth, men were not allowed to make a slave of a brother. 
They might not make a slave of him, though they might hire 
him. 



198 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [May, 

In the present case, Quork was their brother : they all had 
a common origin, were descended from a common parent, were 
clothed with the same kind of flesh, breathed the same breath 
of life, and had a common Saviour. 

It was contended that the custom and usage of the country 
considered slavery as right. 

But, it was replied, the objection to this is, that customs and 
usages which are against reason and right are void. 

So far as this question depends upon the laws of the State, 
any laws against the laws of nature are void ; and that laws 
upholding slavery are against the laws of nature, he cited 
1 Blackstone, 91, 131, 423. 

" But is he a slave by the laws of the country ? " If there 
are laws of the State which derogate from the rights recognized 
by the common law, they are to be strictly construed ; and 
such a law is contrary to the Constitution, as well as to the 
laws of nature. " The air of America is too pure for a slave 
to breathe in." 

The counsel on the other side insist that slavery is a re- 
spectable affair in this country. But the question to be decided 
was not whether it was respectable or not. 

Has the defendant enticed away the plaintiff's servant, as 
is claimed in his writ ? 

When a fellow-subject is restrained of his liberty, it is an 
attack upon every other subject, and every one has a right to 
aid him in regaining his liberty. 

What, in this respect, are to be the consequences of your 
verdict ? Will it not be tidings of great joy to this commu- 
nity ? It is virtually opening the prison-doors, and letting the 
oppressed go free ! 

Could they expect to triumph in their struggle with Great 
Britain, and become free themselves, until they let those go 
free who were under them ? Were they not acting like Pha- 
raoh and the Egyptians, if they refused to set these free ? 

But the plaintiff insists that it is not true, as stated in the 



1857.] EXTINCTION OF SLAVERY IN MASSACHUSETTS. 199 

Constitution, that all men are born free ; for children are born 
and placed under the power and control of their parents. 

This may be. But they are not born as slaves : they are 
under the power of their parents, to be nursed and nurtured 
and educated for their good. 

And the black child is born as much a free child in this 
sense as if it were white. 

Then, again, it is contended that the Constitution only de- 
termines that those that have been bom since its adoption are 
equal and free. And they admit, that, since that time, every- 
body is born free ; and they say, that, by a different construc- 
tion, people will lose their property. 

This is begging the question. Is he property ? If so, why 
not treat him as you do an article of stock, — an ox or a 
horse ? 

It is again said, that it is for the jury to inquire whether the 
custom of slavery is a good or a bad custom. 

But, if tried by that test, is it not a bad custom ? 

What are its consequences ? How does slavery originate ? 
Kidnapping and man-stealing, in the negro's country ; while its 
consequences here are, that the infant may be wrested from 
its mother's breast, and sold or given away like a pig or a 
puppy, never more to be seen by the mother. 

Is not this contrary to nature ? Does not Heaven say so in 
the strongest manner ? Is not one's own child as dear to the 
black subject as to the white one ? Can a mother forget her 
sucking child ? Do not even the beasts and the birds nurture 
and bring up their offspring, while acting from their instincts ? 

But, under such a law as this, the master has a right to 
separate the husband and wife. Is this consistent with the 
law of nature ? Is it consistent with the law of nature to 
separate what God has joined together, and declared that no 
man should put asunder ? 

The opposite counsel, however, urge, that, by the laws of 
England, a person may, for a crime, be sent into other parts 



200 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [MAY, 

of the world, away from parents, sisters, and brothers, never 
more to return. 

In the present case, a subject of this free Commonwealth 
may be taken, without crime, from his friends, his father and 
mother, and sisters and brothers, and shipped off with spavined 
horses, as an article of merchandise, to the West Indies. 

They say, that, in the early history of the country, slaves 
were needed to cultivate the earth ; but, instead of that, now, 
the employing of them does an actual injury to the poorer 
classes of people, by being in the way of their finding employ- 
ment. 

Is he a slave by the custom of the country ? A custom 
must be general to be binding as such. This is not a general 
custom. It has ever been against the principles of some to 
make slaves, and some have freed them. 

It must, moreover, be undisputed in order to be binding. 
But this has always been disputed, — in the General Court, in 
the courts of justice, and elsewhere. 

It must, besides, not be against reason. 

In making out that negroes are the property of their mas- 
ters, the counsel for the plaintiff speak of lineage, and contend 
that the children of slaves must be slaves in the same way that, 
because our first parents fell, we all fell with them. 

But are not all mankind born in the same way ? Are not 
their bodies clothed with the same kind of flesh ? Was not 
the same breath of life breathed into all ? We are under the 
same gospel dispensation, have one common Saviour, inhabit 
the same globe, die in the same manner ; and though the 
white man may have his body wrapped in fine linen, and his 
attire may be a little more decorated, there all distinction of 
man's making ends. We all sleep on the same level in the 
dust. We shall all be raised by the sound of one common 
trump, calling unto all that are in their graves, without dis- 
tinction, to arise ; shall be arraigned at one common bar ; 
shall have one common Judge, and be tried by one common 



1857.] EXTINCTION OF SLAVERY IN MASSACHUSETTS. 201 

jury, and condemned or acquitted by one common law, — by 
the gospel, the perfect law of liberty. 

This cause will then be tried again, and your verdict will 
there be tried. Therefore, gentlemen of the jury, let me con- 
jure you to give such a verdict now as will stand this test, 
and be approved by your own minds in the last moments of 
your existence, and by your Judge at the last day. 

It will then be tried by the laws of reason and revelation. 

Is it not a law of nature, that all men are equal and free ? 

Is not the law of nature the law of God ? 

Is not the law of God, then, against slavery ? 

If there is no law of man establishing it, there is no diffi- 
culty. If there is, then the great difficulty is to determine 
which law you ought to obey ; and, if you shall have the same 
ideas as I have of present and future things, you will obey 
the former. 

The worst that can happen to you for disobeying the former 
is the destruction of the body ; for the last, that of your 
souls. 

Though this sketch must, from the nature of the case, be 
little more than a meagre outline of the respective grounds 
taken by the counsel in this case, enough is seen to justify the 
remark, that the case turned and was decided upon the strong, 
prevailing sentiment that pervaded the community, rather than 
the positive provisions of the Constitution. 

These, indeed, were sufficient to sustain the court and jury 
in the conclusions to which they came ; yet I apprehend it was 
accomplished more by relieving the courts from the oversha- 
dowing influence of the crown, by a final act of independent 
legislation, like the adoption of an organic law as a State, than 
by any new form of declaring personal rights or the popular will. 

In 1767 and in 1774, laws against the slave-trade and sla- 
very had been passed by the Legislature, which were defeated 
by the governors, acting under instructions from home ; both 

26 



202 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [May, 

Governors Hutchinson and Gage refusing, for that reason, to 
sign such bills. 

This is what the counsel for the slave in the case of Quork 
alluded to, when they insisted that slavery had always been 
opposed here, — " in the General Court, the courts of justice, 
and elsewhere." 

And this is further illustrated by the fact, that while the 
New-Hampshire courts, construing a similar provision in the 
Constitution of that State, are said to have adopted the views 
contended for by the counsel for the master in the case in our 
courts, — viz., that it only emancipated such as were born 
after its adoption, — our courts made no such distinction, but 
held the declaration as of universal application. 

Nor could this have been done hastily or unadvisedly. 
Both of the counsel for the slave, though neither of those for 
the master, and one of the Judges of the Inferior Court, and 
all the Judges of the Superior Court who sat in the case, as 
well as the Chief Justice, had themselves been members of 
the Convention which formed the Constitution, and must have 
understood the intention of its framers upon a subject that had 
so often and so recently been agitating the public mind. And 
their decision assumes a more than ordinarily authoritative 
character, inasmuch as it utters not only a judgment founded 
upon the language of that instrument, but speaks the senti- 
ment which dictated that language itself. 

I may perhaps be pardoned in alluding to one other 
point, in this discussion, of the binding obligation of the laws 
of slavery ; and that is, this early and most marked resort to 
the " higher law," as it has been called in modern phrase. No 
more direct appeal to such a law could well be made, than 
that in which eminent counsel indulged, in this language I 
have quoted, in connection with the paramount obligation of 
the Constitution, in the formation of which he had taken a 
part, and in the presence of judges who had shared with him 
in that office. 



1857.] PROCEEDINGS OP MAY MEETING. 203 

In conclusion, I have only to add, that I have been induced 
to present these original memoranda of this cause, in connec- 
tion with the circumstances under which it arose and was de- 
cided, that the true relation which our fathers held to slavery 
in Massachusetts might be understood, and not from any wish 
to utter a word upon a subject which could add to the excite- 
ment which it has already awakened. 

It is simply the detail of an historic fact, which it is due 
to the historic fame of Massachusetts should be fully known 
and understood. If it does no more, it shows that descendants 
of Africans had the rights of free citizens in Massachusetts, 
years before the Constitution of the United States had been 
framed, or even conceived of ; and history would confirm the 
position, that many of this very class voted as citizens, upon 
the election of the members of the Convention which adopted 
it, and in that way may have been the means of securing its 
adoption. 



On motion of Mr. Livermore, it was voted that the 
Cabinet-keeper be requested to report at the next stated 
meeting in relation to the present condition and future 
wants of the Society's cabinet. 

A report presented by Mr. Bowditch, from a Com- 
mittee appointed to make inquiry concerning the diary 
of the late Rev. John Pierce, D.D., was referred to the 
Standing Committee. 

Rev. James Walker, D.D., President of Harvard 
College, was elected a Resident Member of the Society ; 
Monsieur Francois Pierre Guillaume Guizot and 
Monsieur Alexis De Tocqueville were elected Hono- 
rary Members ; and William Durrant Cooper, F.S.A., 
of London, a Corresponding Member. 

On motion of the Librarian, voted that Messrs. Shurt- 



204 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [June, 

leff, Livermore, and Deane be a Committee to advise 
and assist the Librarian in completing the arrangement 
and classification of the books in the Dowse Library. 



JUNE MEETING. 

The Society held their stated monthly meeting on 
Thursday, June 11, at noon, in the Dowse Library ; the 
President, Hon. Robert C. Winthrop, in the chair. 

The Librarian announced donations from the Society 
of Antiquaries, London ; the American Philosophical 
Society, Philadelphia; the Trustees of the Astor Li- 
brary, New York ; Messrs. Little, Brown, and Co. ; 
Thomas M'Ewen, Esq., Secretary-General of the Society 
of the Cincinnati; Dr. Samuel H. Hurd, Somerville; 
Hugh B. Grigsby, Esq., Washington, D.C. ; and from 
Messrs. Deane, Parkman, Shurtleff, Sibley, Warren, and 
Winthrop, of the Society. 

The President announced that he had taken the 
liberty to extend an invitation, officially, to the Ameri- 
can Antiquarian Society, at their late semi-annual meet- 
ing in Boston, and also to the General Society of the 
Cincinnati, at their first triennial meeting held in this 
city since their institution in 1783, to visit the So- 
ciety's rooms, and view the Dowse Library; that both 
these societies had accordingly been received, and the 
various colonial and revolutionary memorials in the So- 
ciety's cabinet exhibited to them. 

The President communicated to the Society a letter 
from the American Minister at London, conveying the 



1857.] PROCEEDINGS OF JUNE MEETING. 205 

gratifying intelligence that the British government, 
through his intervention, had presented to this Society 
copies of such of the publications of the British Record 
Commission as could conveniently be spared. He also 
read to the Society a letter from Lord Clarendon, and 
from the Master of the Rolls, relating to this valuable 
donation. Whereupon it was — 

Resolved, That the President be requested to commu- 
nicate the thanks of the Massachusetts Historical So- 
ciety to his Excellency George M. Dallas, the American 
Minister at London, for his obliging intervention in 
securing for the Society the publications of the British 
Record Commission. 

Also Resolved, That the Massachusetts Historical So- 
ciety would respectfully and gratefully acknowledge the 
liberal policy of the British government in the distri- 
bution of the interesting publications of the Record 
Commission, and would especially express their own 
obligations for the valuable volumes which have been 
added to their library by direction of her Majesty's 
Secretary of State for the Home Department. 

Resolved, That the President be requested to commu- 
nicate the foregoing resolution to the Right Hon. Sir 
George Grey, the Secretary of the Home Department, 
through the American Minister at London. 

Mr. Sibley stated that he had in his possession twenty 
Triennial Catalogues of Harvard University, containing 
notes and memoranda by the late Rev. Dr. Pierce, which 
he had been authorized to retain as long as he might 
require their use, and had been directed afterwards to 
place in the Library of the Massachusetts Historical 



206 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

Society. Mr. Sibley said he took occasion to mention 
this fact before the members of the Society, so that they 
might bear it in mind in case of any accident to himself. 
At present, these triennials are kept in the library of 
Harvard University, in order that they may be safe 
against fire and other accidents. 

Voted, That the manuscript volume containing the 
autograph copy of Washington's Address to the officers 
of the American army, March 15, 1783, with several 
interesting letters relating to the same, be referred to 
the Standing Committee, with full powers. 

The President announced the appointment of Hon. 
C. H. Warren to complete the Memoir of the late Isaac 
P. Davis, Esq., which was left unfinished by Dr. Lunt. 

Mr. Willard announced the decease of Rev. William 
Parsons Lunt, D.D., of Quincy, his predecessor in the 
office of Corresponding Secretary, in a brief but ap- 
propriate eulogy, and offered the following Resolution ; 
which, after having been responded to in feeling terms 
by Messrs. Aspinwall, Gray, and Bobbins, was unani- 
mously adopted : — 

Resolved, That the Massachusetts Historical Society 
has heard with deep sorrow of the death of the Rev. 
William Parsons Lunt, D. D., an honored associate 
and officer of our Society, whose example and influ- 
ence were ever on the side of religion, truth, and duty, 
and to whose ardent, intelligent, and effective interest 
in historical pursuits, the records of our Society bear 
abundant testimony. We mourn his departure, and 
tender our sympathies to his bereaved family and his 
venerable father. 



1857.] MEMOIR OF WILLIAM PARSONS LUNT, D.D. 207 

The President appointed Dr. Frothingham to prepare 
a Memoir of Dr. Lunt for the Society's Collections. 
The Memoir is here reprinted from the fourth volume 
of the Fourth Series. 



MEMOIR OF WILLIAM PARSONS LUNT, D.D. 

BY NATHANIEL L. FROTHINGHAM, D.D. 

Rev. William Parsons Lunt, D.D., the Corresponding Se- 
cretary of this Society, left home on the last day of the year 
1856 to travel in the East. It had always been a favorite 
wish of his life to visit the lands made sacred by the Scripture 
histories ; to see the Nile and Egypt ; to cross the desert, and 
go up to Jerusalem. This long-cherished religious desire he 
proposed now to fulfil. But it was only the smaller part of 
his vow that was granted. 

Soon after his arrival at Sinai, he began to be ill. He did 
not venture to encounter the giddiness he would be exposed 
to in ascending the mountain with his companions. The next 
day, his malady grew serious. He was carried, in the gentlest 
way that circumstances allowed, to Akabah, a small place that 
lay distant three or four days of slow travel, on the eastern estu- 
ary at the head of the Red Sea. The second night there was his 
last on earth. After a short delirium, he fell into a deep sleep, 
which was never broken. Thus, at that ancient haven of 
Ezion-Geber, he struck the sail of his modest life, and gave 
back a thoughtful soul to God. The next morning, March 21, 
1857, his body was buried, with all decent religious ceremonies, 
in the sands of the wilderness. 

His friend, Rev. Dr. Chandler Robbins, the Recording Se- 
cretary of the Massachusetts Historical Society, has given so 
faithful an account of his life and character, in a volume already 



208 



MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



[June, 



in its library, that he has left little more to be said, and has 
removed the regret which would otherwise have been felt in 
the necessity of confining the present notice to a very few 
pages. 

Mr. Lunt was born in Newburyport, April 21, 1805, the son 
of Henry and Mary Green (Pearson) Lunt. His American 
ancestor, on the father's side, belonged to Newbury, in the 
county of Berkshire, England, and came from London to New 
England in 1633. His grandfather was the Henry Lunt, a fa- 
vorite officer of Commodore Paul Jones, who fought under 
that commander in the " Bonhomme Richard," and assisted at 
the capture of the " Serapis ; " and, throughout the Revolu- 
tionary war, was actively engaged in the service of his country. 
Naturally of a thoughtful spirit and reserved manners, William 
passed an unblemished youth more among books than plea- 
sures. He was fitted for college at Milton Academy ; and en- 
tered Harvard University in 1819, graduating with distinction 
in 1823. The following year found him at Plymouth, engaged 
in teaching a school ; and from thence he came to Boston, and 
began the study of the law. It was soon evident, however, that 
the legal profession was not that which suited best the character 
of his mind, his tastes, habits, and aspirations. He gave up 
his law-books after a short trial, and joined the Theological 
School at Cambridge in 1825. While a member of it, he 
officiated for a time at the University as a teacher in mathe- 
matics. Before he had completed his course of study, he had 
attracted so much attention, and given such high promise, that 
he received an invitation to assume the ministry over the Se- 
cond Congregational Unitarian Society in the city of New 
York, who had built their church, and were awaiting their first 
pastor. He was ordained there, June 19, 1828. That sphere 
of clerical duty was a peculiarly oppressive one to so young a 
man, of shrinking modesty and a nervous temperament. He 
labored faithfully, but with an uneven success, till November, 
1833, when he asked and obtained leave to be released from 



1857.] MEMOIR OF WILLIAM PARSONS LUNT, D.D. 209 

his pastoral charge. Such high gifts, however, as he possessed 
for his sacred office, in his earnest mind, devout spirit, polished 
pen, and eloquent utterance, could not long permit him to float 
at large among the churches. On the 3d of June, 1835, he 
was installed at Quincy, with the usual solemn services, as 
colleague pastor with Rev. Peter Whitney, now become an old 
man. As the minister of the church in Quincy, he finished 
his course. He preached his parting sermon to the people 
there on the 28th of December, 1856 ; and then went from 
them and from his house, to be seen of them no more. 

This most imperfect outline of an uneventful life will give, 
of itself, some just idea of the character and qualities of the 
man. Dr. Lunt's devoted and pure mind was of a pensive 
cast, tending to deep shadow sometimes ; rather contemplative 
than diligent, and not always kept up to the full tone of its 
best faculties. He was diffident till he was roused and excited ; 
capable of more than he performed ; and contented with a per- 
severing silence in the company of others, that was in singular 
contrast with his fine powers of speech. And yet his time was 
never frittered away in indolence or the least frivolity ; and the 
vigorous applications of his thought, though to some persons 
they might appear fitful, were frequent enough to accomplish 
a large amount, and his whole share, of useful labor. If his 
talent was not remarkable for versatility, and did not care to 
travel far beyond the soberest lines of a profession that tasked it 
to the uttermost, it yet went out with a marked preference and 
commendable success into the three different departments of 
philosophy, history, and poetry. His philosophic turn was spe- 
cially indicated in a sermon preached at Jamaica Plain in 1843, 
on occasion of the installation of Rev. George Whitney, which 
took for its theme the Necessity of a Religious Philosophy ; in 
his Address to the Alumni of the Theological School at Cam- 
bridge in 1852 ; and, above all, in his able Dudleian Lecture, 
pronounced in 1855. His interest in historical researches, par- 
ticularly those relating to New England, is sufficiently manifest 

27 



210 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

from the duty of writing this brief Memoir of him, and from 
the position which he held among the officers of this Society. 
The two discourses which he delivered on the Two Hundredth 
Anniversary of the First Congregational Church in Quincy 
are really models in that kind of composition, whether we 
consider their faithfulness of historic research, the breadth of 
their religious views, or their rhetorical beauty. His poetical 
tastes and capabilities were displayed in several occasional 
pieces, that were received with marked approbation ; and in a 
spiritual poem, called " Psyche," delivered before the Phi Beta 
Kappa Society in 1837. His " Collection of Psalms and 
Hymns, " published in 1841 under the title of the " Christian 
Psalter," though too purely old-fashioned to satisfy modern crav- 
ings, is perhaps inferior to no hymn-book that preceded or has 
followed it, in point either of excellence or serviceableness. 

In theology, Dr. Lunt stood far on the right wing, though 
not on the extreme right, of the Unitarian denomination. 
Reverence for antiquity and established belief, for the early 
church and the sacred associations of the past, wrought strongly 
within him. He loved to hold fast, so far as he could, to the 
language of Scripture, and to the doctrine, liberally inter- 
preted, which had come down from the fathers. He was more 
ready to accept, than anxious to define, hallowed phrases. 
While he was open to new light, he was jealous of innovations. 
He shrank from all approach to the subversive speculations 
of the newest criticism. While he repelled, with every power of 
his intellect, every instinct of his conscience, every throb of his 
heart, the dogmas of Calvinistic divinity, yet his puritan soul 
leaned back, as far as it dared, towards ancient formulas. The 
abstruse conceptions, that had entered into the gospel and 
the church from Greece and Alexandria, had a vivid impor- 
tance to his mind. His preaching came from the depths of 
his Christian convictions ; and, aided by a rich voice and skilful 
elocution and fervid manner, was at times exceedingly impres- 
sive, both attracting by its beauty and affecting by its strength. 
The political and reformatory movements of the day he was 



1857.] MEMOIR OF WILLIAM PARSONS LUNT, D.D. 211 

slow to admit into his pulpit. Controversial religion was not 
to his liking. The biblical neologies of our new times were an 
offence, if not an alarm, to him. He held the literal Word 
reverently dear ; although he endeavored to give it an expan- 
sive scope, and sought underneath it the most spiritual signifi- 
cances. His parishioners were fully aware of the solid and 
shining gifts of their minister, and rejoiced in his professional 
distinction. Nothing was wanting, but that, with a nature 
more warmly social, and dispositions more demonstrative, he 
could have drawn nearer to their companionship and private 
sympathies. But who can be or do all things ? He followed 
the lead of the best that God had given him ; if sometimes a 
depressed, always a faithful and true man. 

One of his friends, in an unpublished poem written a few 
years ago, has thrown off a sketch of him, of which the accu- 
racy may make amends for any lack of merit in other respects, 
and justify the insertion of so slight a fragment into so serious 

a place. 

A " rural bishop " * now, 

"With pale and furrowed brow, 
Draws up his chair beside my bed. 

The cloudy orb Saturn 

Drips from its leaden urn 
Its damps on his fine nature and clear head. 

Long will he silent sit, 

If no inspiring fit 
Rouse him to animated speech. 

His low, unfrequent laugh, 

Half gay and plaintive half, 
Rolls like grave Ocean toying with the beach. 

But give a quickening theme, 

And wake his soul from dream, 
And you shall feel what magic power 

Of skilled melodious tongue, 

And energies full strung, 
Has Genius in its high, ascendant hour. 

* Dr. Lunt was the only minister described in these verses, whose pastorate was in 
the country, and not in the city of Boston. 



212 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [June, 

Rhetor and poet too, 

With taste severely true, 
He writes for those who can judge well; 

But, when his periods glance 

With burning utterance, 
Both taught and untaught feel the binding spell. 

His sudden death, and the affecting manner of it, — so far 
from his family and his many friends, and in that dreary 
waste, — produced a profound sensation in the community, and 
called forth several tributes of praise and sorrow. Just as he 
was on the point of leaving our shores, the church in New 
York, with which his first vows were connected, sent him a 
request that he would sit for his portrait, that it might be pre- 
served among them for a memorial ; and now, in the church 
at Quincy, from which his light has so lately gone out, a mural 
tablet has been set up, facing the monuments of two illustrious 
Presidents of the United States, and bearing the following 
inscription : — 

Jn iilemorn of 

WILLIAM PARSONS LUNT, D. D., 

Pastor of this Church ; 

Prized, honored, hamented. 

Theologian, Poet, and Scholar, 

He devoted his life 

To intellectual pursuits and sacred exercises. 

Weighty and accomplished as a writer, 

Eloquent as a Preacher, 

Conservative in a liberal doctrine, 

Of a grave and earnest spirit, 

He loved the highest meditations, 

And meditated the truest services. 

Born in Newburyport, April xxi., mdcccv. 

Installed here June in., mdcccxxxv. 

He died at Ezion-Geber, 

On his way to Jerusalem, 

March xxi., mdccclvii. 



EVEN SO, SAITH THE SPIRIT; 
FOR THEY REST. 



1857.] MEMOIR OF WILLIAM PARSONS LUNT, D.D. 213 

Besides various contributions to the " Christian Examiner," 
Dr. Lunt is the author of the following publications : — 

A Sermon delivered in Quincy, June 7, 1835. 2 Pet. i. 12. 

A Sermon at the Ordination of H. G. 0. Phipps, 1835. 1 Col. i. 28. 

A Sermon at the Installation of Rev. George Whitney, 1836. 1 Cor. 

ii. 14. 
A Christmas Sermon, 1836. Luke i. 35. 
Psyche. A Poem delivered before the Phi Beta Kappa Society in 

1837. 
An Address delivered in Quincy, July 4, 1838. Moral Education. 
Two Discourses delivered Sept. 29, 1839, on the Two Hundredth 

Anniversary of the First Congregational Church in Quincy. 
A Discourse delivered at the Funeral of Rev. Peter Whitney, March 7, 

1843. 
A Discourse preached in Quincy, Nov. 9, 1843. Mark vii. 11. 
Artillery Election Sermon. 1847. 
A Discourse at the Interment of President John Quincy Adams, March, 

1848. 
A Discourse delivered in Quincy, Oct. 21, 1849. Matt. xiii. 47, 48. 
A Lecture before the Quincy Lyceum, Feb. 7, 1850. 
A Discourse delivered in Quincy, Sept. 15, 1850. Eccl. hi. 11. 
A Discourse delivered in Quincy, April 10, 1851. Tit. hi. 1, 2. 
A Discourse delivered in Washington, Nov. 30, 1851. Tit. i. 15. 
An Address before the Alumni of the Cambridge Theological School, 

July 20, 1852. 
A Discourse delivered in Quincy, Nov. 25, 1852, commemorative of 

Daniel Webster. 
A Discourse delivered in Quincy, Jan. 8, 1854. John v. 41. 
A Discourse delivered in Quincy, June 25, 1854. 1 John iv. 1. 
The Dudleian Lecture for 1855. 
A Discourse delivered in Quincy, June 3, 1855. " A Sheaf of 

Years." 
" The Last Sermon," Dec. 28, 1856. Ps. cvii. 7. 



214 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JULY, 



JULY MEETING. 

The Society held their stated monthly meeting on 
Thursday, July 9, at noon, in the Dowse Library ; the 
President, Hon. Robert C. Winthrop, in the chair. 

The Librarian announced donations from the New- 
York State Agricultural Society ; the New- York His- 
torical Society ; the Chicago Historical Society ; J. R. 
Bartlett, Esq. ; William Willis, Esq. ; Dr. Samuel A. 
Green ; L. A. Huguet-Latour and Samuel P. Fowler, 
Esqs. ; and Mr. Parkman, of the Society. 

The President read a letter from L. M. Sargent, Esq., 
communicating a paper from Mr. Henry Lunt, father 
of the late Rev. Dr. Lunt, Corresponding Secretary of 
the Society, accompanying, and giving account of, a 
candlestick saved by his father from the sinking wreck 
of the " Bonhomme Richard," after her memorable bat- 
tle with the " Serapis ; " which relic Mr. Lunt has pre- 
sented to this Society. The paper of Mr. Lunt is as 
follows : — 

This candlestick — whether of French or English manufac- 
ture I am not informed — possibly might have been one of 
the captured articles from prizes taken by the " Bonhomme 
Richard " before the capture of the ship " Serapis." In such 
case, it is highly probable that it was of British manufacture. 
But it is most likely that it was attached to the ward-room fur- 
niture of the "Richard" before she left the port of L'Orient in 
the summer of 1779, at the commencement of the cruise 
which terminated in the capture of the British ships of war, 
the " Serapis " and " Countess of Scarborough ; " and, if so, 
it is no doubt of French manufacture. 






1857.] CANDLESTICK FROM THE " BONHOMME RICHARD." 215 

I had the following account of it from my father when 
I was a child, and often since then repeated ; and know of 
its being in our family ever since I was about four years 
of age. 

When the engagement was terminated, the first lieutenant 
(Dale), being badly wounded, was carried from the prize on 
board the " Bonhomme Richard" to obtain surgical aid. The 
second lieutenant (my father), having then charge of the 
" Serapis " (the prize), was ordered to follow the " Richard ; " 
and, the day after the battle, that ship had been so much shat- 
tered as to render it impossible to keep her above water. This 
having been discovered, the second lieutenant, with others from 
the squadron, repaired with their boats to the " Bonhomme 
Richard," in order to render all the assistance possible in 
saving the crew and the prisoners, with as much of the effects, 
too, as practicable. The water gained so fast upon the pumps, 
that it was with the greatest difficulty that the crew of the 
" Richard " and the prisoners were rescued. In this great 
confusion, to save something, this candlestick was seized hold 
of in the officers' room, and was the only article which my 
father then could save from the " Richard ; " not having been 
able to save any of his wardrobe. This same candlestick ac- 
companied him afterwards in the " Serapis " to the Texel in 
Holland ; and from thence, in the ship " Alliance," to France ; 
and also from France, in the ship " Ariel," to Philadelphia ; 
under the command, in these several ships, of Commodore 
John Paul Jones : the cruises all being ended at the latter 
place in the spring of 1781. This same candlestick, to my 
knowledge, has continued in our family ever since that period. 

Henry Lunt. 

Extract from Cooper's "Naval History" vol. i. p. 202. 

" By this time, Mr. Lunt, the second lieutenant, who had 
been absent in the pilot-boat, had got alongside, and was on 
board the prize. To this officer Mr. Dale now consigned the 



216 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JULY, 

charge of the ' Serapis : ' the cable was cut, and the ship 
followed the ' Richard,' as ordered 

" Although this protracted and bloody combat had now 
ended, neither the danger nor the labors of the victors were 
over. The ' Richard ' was both sinking and on fire. The 
flames . . . extended so far as to menace the magazine ; while 
all the pumps, in constant use, could barely keep the water at 
the same level 

" In this manner did the night of the battle pass, with one 
gang always at the pumps, and another contending with the 
flames, until about ten o'clock in the forenoon of the 24th, 
when the latter were got under 

" On the morning of the succeeding day . . . about ten, 
the ' Bonhomme ' wallowed heavily, gave a roll, and settled 
slowly into the sea, bows foremost." 

The above paper having been read, it was Voted, 
That the thanks of this Society be presented to Mr. 
Henry Lunt for the interesting relic which he has 
added to the Society's cabinet. 

Mr. Willard read a passage from Hutchinson's 
" History of Massachusetts," relating to the unscrupu- 
lous efforts used to effect the removal of Governor Bel- 
cher ; also extracts from letters written in 1739 by 
Shirley — Belcher's successor in the government — to 
General Waldo, then in London, showing the complicity 
of Shirley in some of the means adopted to accomplish 
this object. 

Mr. Ames produced a large bundle of deeds and 
copies of acts of the Colonial Government of Plymouth, 
and of the Colonial and Provincial Governments of 
Massachusetts ; also of Indian deeds, town-votes, actions 
at law, surveys, plans, depositions, &c, bearing upon 
the question of the boundary line between the Colo- 



1857.] PROCEEDINGS OP JULY MEETING. 217 

nies of Plymouth and Massachusetts ; and upon the 
location and bounds of a grant made to Peregrine 
White, by the Colony Court at Plymouth, in October, 
1665, "in respect that he was the first of the English 
that was born in these parts." 

Among these documents was a certified copy from the 
Records, showing that the king's commissioners request- 
ed the Colony Court of Plymouth to accommodate Lieut. 
Peregrine White with a portion of land, in respect that 
he was the first of the English that was born in these 
parts ; and that the Court, in October, 1665, granted him 
two hundred acres of land, lying and being at the path 
that goes from Bridge water to the Bay, adjoining to the 
Bay line. Also a certified copy of the Indian deed of 
W r ampatuck, or Chickatabuck, to Peregrine White in 
February following, of two hundred acres of land be- 
tween Bridgewater and the Bay bounds ; with liberty to 
said White, upon view, to select instead any other tract 
between Bridgewater and the Bay bounds, yet ungranted. 
Also a copy of the record of the doings of the Plymouth 
Colony Government in 1667, in whic,h the Court declared 
that the land which the Court gave liberty to Mr. Pere- 
grine White to purchase of Wampatuck or Chickata- 
buck was situated as follows, viz. : " Beginning at a 
certain stake where is a heap of stones in the path from 
Bridgewater to Braintree, and in the line betwixt the 
Massachusetts and Plymouth bounds ; from thence in 
the bound line to the head of a brook called by the In- 
dians Shanamacknoegg ; from thence circular, as the 
brook runneth, until it meets with another stream called 
by the Indians Shumacastasant ; and then crossing a 



218 



MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



[July, 



stream, running near north and south, stretching three 
hundred and twenty rods eastward ; and then a due 
square to the Massachusetts bound line, be it more or 
less, according to the Indian deed." 

Mr. Ames also produced the original deed, dated Sept. 
5, 1667, signed by Peregrine White, acknowledged be- 
fore Richard Bellingham, Governor of Massachusetts, 
Oct. 8, 1667, and before Josias Winslow, assistant, May 
23, 1673, by which Peregrine White sold and conveyed 
said tract to Col. Daniel Searle, Esq., in consideration 
of sixty pounds. In this deed the tract is called four 
hundred acres or more. Mr. Ames also produced the 
original deed of Searle to Thomas Snell and John 
Howard, and Ephraim Howard, of Bridgewater, in the 
year 1703. 

The location of the said grant or tract of land of 
Peregrine White, bounded north by the Massachusetts 
line for the distance of about one mile, was the subject 
of numerous suits in the courts of law from 1704 to 
1785. During the same period, the General Court, on 
numerous occasions, took action upon the subject, with 
a view to settle the controversies, as well as to define the 
line between the two late Colonies of Plymouth and 
Massachusetts. In some of the numerous lawsuits, it 
appears by the record that the elder President Adams, 
James Otis, jun., and Timothy Ruggles, were engaged as 
counsel. Among the numerous proceedings of the 
General Court, before the Revolution, to settle the line 
between the former colonies, it appears, by the General 
Court Records, that in 1772 Hon. Artemas Ward, then 
of the Council (afterwards Major-General Ward), was 



1S51'.] PROCEEDINGS OF JULY MEETING. 219 

chairman of a joint committee of both branches of the 
General Court which went upon the line, viewed and 
reported at an adjourned session of the General Court. 

After a contest of eighty-one years, the controversy 
was finally brought to an end about the year 1781 ; at 
which time, Daniel Howard, Esq., of that part of Bridge- 
water now North Bridge water, and who died in 1821, 
was the principal actor on the part of those who claimed 
under the Plymouth Colony. 

Mr. Ames stated that Mr. Howard had collected, for 
evidence, the original deed of Peregrine White to Searle ; 
a copy of every act of the Colonial Government of 
Plymouth, and of the Colonial and Provincial Govern- 
ments of Massachusetts ; a copy of every Indian deed, 
of all town-votes, and of all votes and doings of proprie- 
tors of common lands ; a copy of all records of actions 
at law; the originals or copies of all surveys, plans, 
depositions, and, indeed, of every possible paper, docu- 
ment, or writing, that could bear upon the question of 
the boundary line between the Colonies of Plymouth 
and Massachusetts, and upon the location and bounds 
of the Peregrine White grant or tract, from the first 
settlement of the country down to 1785. 

Mr.' Ames also stated that he had recently found this 
valuable collection in the dwelling-house of a son of the 
said Daniel Howard ; that the papers were now in his 
own control ; and he declared his purpose, in due sea- 
son, to arrange the whole in chronological order, to 
prepare an index, to append notes to facilitate inves- 
tigation, and to bind the same, and place the volume in 
the library of the Society. 



220 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [AUGUST, 

Rev. Samuel Osgood, D.D., of New York, was elected 
a Corresponding Member of the Society. 



AUGUST MEETING. 

The Society held their stated monthly meeting on 
Thursday, Aug. 13, at noon, at their rooms in Tremont 
Street, Boston ; the President, Hon. Robert C. Win- 
throp, in the chair. 

The Librarian announced donations from the Govern- 
ment of Great Britain; the Society of Antiquaries, 
London ; the Mercantile-Library Association of New 
York; the Trustees of the Free Public Library, New 
Bedford ; Charles Stoddard, Esq. ; H. B. Dawson, Esq. ; 
Wm. J. Rhees, Esq. ; Rev. E. A. Park ; and from Messrs. 
Deane, Livermore, and Robbins, of the Society. 

The Corresponding Secretary read a letter from Wil- 
liam Durrant Cooper, F.S.A., communicating his accept- 
ance as a Corresponding Member of the Society. Rev. 
E. H. Sears was elected a Resident Member of the 
Society. 

The President communicated a letter from the Secre- 
tary of the Society of Antiquaries, dated London, 20th 
April, 1857, announcing the gift by said Society of a 
large number of their publications ; whereupon, it was 
voted that the thanks of this Society be returned, in due 
form, to the Society of Antiquaries, for their valuable 
donation. 

The President, in a few appropriate remarks, an- 



1857.] INTRODUCTION OF COTTON INTO THE U. STATES. 221 

nounced the decease of Hon. John G. King, a Resident 
Member of the Society, and requested Judge White to 
prepare a Memoir of Mr. King for the Society's Collec- 
tions. 

The President communicated a letter from Wm. W. 
Parrott, Esq., in relation to the introduction of cotton 
into the United States. He also read a letter addressed 
to his father, the late Hon. Thomas L. Winthrop, by 
his nephew, J. A. Winthrop, Esq., together with another 
manuscript found amongst his father's papers, relating 
to the same subject ; all of which were referred to the 
Standing Committee. They are here printed. 

Gloucester, July, 185V. 

Deae Sir, — I do not know but that I am taking too much 
liberty in addressing a letter to you as President of the Massa- 
chusetts Historical Society ; but having seen many statements, 
in the public newspapers, in relation to the crop of cotton, and 
the prospects, in future, of a supply, I have thought some cir- 
cumstances in relation to its introduction into the United 
States, and which, I believe, are not generally known, might 
lead to further inquiries in relation to a plant that has 
within the last sixty years done so much to change the indus- 
try and commerce of Europe and the United States. 

I first went to Georgia in the year 1798, mate of a freight- 
ing-ship. At that time, a ship had never been wholly loaded 
with cotton in the United States ; and we obtained fifty or sixty 
bales of cotton as a favor, to prevent the ship, laden with rice 
and tobacco, from being too deep in the water. I continued in 
this trade as long as I went to sea, which was till 1808. By this 
time, the cotton culture was very much extended ; and most 
people thought the production would soon be beyond the con- 
sumption, and the planters would be ruined. 



222 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [AUGUST, 

In 1807, I was in Liverpool, and transacted business with 
gentlemen connected with the house of Simpson and Davison, 
of London ; and Mr. Davison, one of the partners, was fre- 
quently in Liverpool. In conversation one night, he related 
the early history of the cotton-trade. He said the first cotton 
of American growth that came from the United States and 
from Savannah came to their house in London, and was 
packed in rice-casks ; the rice-plantations, or a part of them, 
having been converted into cotton culture, and they had then 
no cotton-bagging to put it in. 

He said they advertised it ; and soon some manufacturers 
from Glasgow came to London, and, after examining it, bought 
it at something like four shillings and sixpence sterling per 
pound. Soon after, they came again to London, and made par- 
ticular inquiries where they got the cotton which they had 
purchased of them, as they had never seen any before so good : 
it was Sea-Island cotton. They told them it came from Geor- 
gia as an experiment. They wanted to know, if they had any 
more come, if they would give them the preference, and they 
would engage to take all they could procure ; and to say to 
their friends in Georgia, that there was no fear of overstocking 
the market, as there would be a demand for all they could pro- 
duce. And it has gone on increasing up to the present time. 

This cotton was produced on the Island of Sapelo and the 
adjacent main land, sixty miles south of Savannah ; and was 
made by Francis Levett and Thomas Young, for whose account 
it was sold. 

To Mr. Levett belongs, I think, the credit of successfully 
introducing the cotton-plant into the United States. In the 
war of the Revolution, he was a royalist ; was proscribed ; and 
left, with his family and negroes, and went to Florida with the 
British. Subsequently he went to the Bahamas, and com- 
menced the culture of cotton ; but very soon the chenilla, or 
caterpillar, destroyed the cotton, and he was obliged to aban- 
don the culture of it. 



1857.] INTRODUCTION OP COTTON INTO THE U. STATES. 223 

About this time he managed to get the sequestration taken 
off his property, and had liberty of returning with his family 
and negroes to Georgia. He soon after began the cultivation 
of cotton ; and his example soon stimulated others, and we now 
see the great results it has produced. 

Mr. Levett died some time in 1805 or '6, as in 1807 I 
brought his widow and son from Liverpool to Savannah. From 
her I learnt many incidents of her husband's early history. 
He was born in Smyrna, in Turkey, and came to America as 
agent of the English factory at Smyrna, for the purpose of 
introducing a colony of Greeks into Florida ; I suppose, with 
a view of introducing the culture of the fig and orange. He 
selected a place, and called it New-Smyrna Inlet, and brought 
over his colony of Greeks ; but, from some cause or other, the 
project fell through, and he came to Georgia, and established 
himself as a rice-planter at Sapelo, and left the country in the 
war of the Revolution, as before stated. It is a little curious 
that this same New-Smyrna Inlet should have been selected for 
another experiment similar to Mr. Levett's, which also was 
abandoned. 

Some time about the year 1803 or '4, Mr. William Ladd, of 
Portsmouth, N.H., afterwards known as the President of the 
Peace Society, in connection with a Mr. Meigs, of Connecti- 
cut, introduced a colony of German Redemptivers, so called, 
and established them at New-Smyrna Inlet. Yery soon the Ger- 
mans found they had made a hard bargain with Mr. Ladd, and 
refused to work any longer for him ; turned Roman Catholics, 
and claimed the protection of the then Spanish government of 
Florida : the consequence of which was, that the whole enter- 
prise was abandoned. This I had from Mr, Ladd himself, with 
whom I was well acquainted. 

It might be an amusement for some of the invalids, who 
visit Florida for health, to ascertain if there are any remnants 
of the Greek and German colonies left in the country. 

Having been known to you for a long time, I have taken the 



224 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [AUGUST, 

liberty of addressing you this letter, thinking some of the cir- 
cumstances I have named may be useful at some future time 
in the investigation and history of the cotton-plant in the 
United States. 

Respectfully your obedient servant, 

Wm. W. Parrott. 
Hon. Robert C. Winthrop. 

Charleston, Oct. 15, 1839. 
Hon. T. L. Winthrop. 

My dear Uncle, — Your letter of 19th ultimo was duly re- 
ceived, and I have not lost a moment in trying to obtain the 
information requested ; but, in matters of such long standing, it 
is difficult to come at the facts correctly. After much inquiry 
of many of the oldest persons here, and having recourse also 
to several publications, I have arrived at the most accurate in- 
formation that can be obtained in this city. 

The introduction of cotton into Georgia was probably about 
the year 1785, as will be seen in the following letter of Tho- 
mas Spaulding, which I copied from the " South Agriculturist," 
published in this city in 1832 : — 

" Observations on the Introduction of Long Staple Cotton in Georgia, 
by Thomas Spaulding.* 

" Dear Sir, — My friend Colonel Troup, of the Senate, has just 
enclosed me, as you will see, the conclusion of Mr. Holmes's speech, 
which contains a letter from Mr. Richard Leake, the father of Mrs. 
Spaulding, on the subject of cotton in the year 1788, addressed to the 
late General Porter, of Philadelphia, which the tariff-men had hunted 
up among his papers. This letter may be worth publishing in your book ; 
and I need only add to it, that I saw this field of cotton growing, and 
I believe it was the earliest long staple grown to that extent ; although 
Governor Tatnall and Mr. Nicholas Turnbull, of Savannah, and my own 
father, at St. Simon's, were all growing the Anguilla cotton, in 1785 and 
1786, in small experimental quantities. Governor Tatnall received his 

* This letter, you will perceive, relates to Long Staple Sea-Island cotton only. 



1857.] INTRODUCTION OF COTTON INTO THE U. STATES. 225 

seed from his father, then in the Bahamas ; my father received his seed 
from Colonel Kelsale, his former associate in business; and Mr. 
Leake, from his brother-in-law, then resident in the Bahamas. 
" Yours with esteem, &c, 
" (Signed) Thos. Spaulding." 

These gentlemen are residents of Georgia. Mr. Tatnall and 
Nicholas Turnbull planted the seed, it is believed, on a planta- 
tion called Warsaw Island, in Savannah River. 

I cannot ascertain by whom cotton was first planted, or 
when, in South Carolina; but, from various persons I have 
conversed with, it is evident that it was planted for domestic 
purposes long before the Revolution. Dr. Ramsay, in his 
" History of South Carolina," states that in 1792 it was planted 
in considerable quantity for exportation. Mr. Samuel Maverick, 
who was a store-keeper in the upper part of King Street, and 
traded mostly with the people from the country, told me, many 
years since, that he received the first bale of cotton planted in 
this State, and that my late father shipped it to Liverpool. I 
could, perhaps, ascertain this fact by looking into old papers, 
which would occupy more time than I could well spare just 
now. 

I enclose a copy of a statement of the imports of cotton from 
the United States into Liverpool in the years 1785, '86, '87, 
and '88. Much of the cotton planted at that early period went 
from North Carolina and Virginia. 

Williams's " Florida," published in 1837 in New York (see 
pp. 188, 189, 190, and 191), has reference to the settlement 
of the colony of fifteen hundred Minorcans, Greeks, and Ita- 
lians. The writer speaks in severe terms of Dr. TurnbuH's 
treatment of them ; on account of which they left the settle- 
ment in a body, and went to St. Augustine. This fact is cor- 
roborated by many whom I have conversed with. He also 
gives a very minute description of the location of the land, 
and of its being very valuable.. 

29 



226 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [AUGUST, 

Carey published, I think, in 1791, an account also of this 
colony. I have not been able to find the work, entitled 
" American Museum, or Columbian Magazine," in which he 
speaks in severe terms of the treatment of Dr. Turnbull. 

I had a conversation with a gentleman who married a daugh- 
ter of the late Judge Bay, whose wife was a Turnbull. He 
gave me the enclosed memorandum. 

If I should collect any further information on the subject, 
that I think may be of use to you, I will forward it. Hoping 
this will find you and your family enjoying good health, 

I remain, dear sir, your nephew, 

Jos. A. Winthrop. 

In the year 1770, Dr. Andrew Turnbull arrived in Florida 
with a colony of Minorcans, Greeks, some Italians, and others, 
inhabitants of islands in the Mediterranean. The doctor did 
not intend that the number of emigrants should exceed seven 
or eight hundred : but such was the wretched condition of 
many of those unfortunate people, that they begged and prayed 
to be taken on any terms, and actually thronged into the trans- 
ports without registry ; so that, instead of seven or eight hun- 
dred, on arrival at Augustine they numbered between fifteen 
and sixteen hundred. The settlement of New Smyrna was 
about seventy miles from Augustine. Shortly after their arri- 
val there, the Greeks began to get dissatisfied, although labori- 
ous pursuits had not yet commenced ; and, whilst Dr. Turnbull 
was absent at Augustine, the Greeks revolted, cut off the ears 
and fingers of a Mr. Tucker, who acted as principal director, 
and, with two others who were in authority, put all to death. 
Dr. Turnbull, being in Augustine, applied to Governor Grant, 
who had the ringleaders taken up, tried, and hung. Mrs. 
Turnbull herself, being of Greek origin, tried very hard with 
Governor Grant to have pardon extended ; but he refused, 
saying the example of pardon, under such circumstances, would 



1857.] INTRODUCTION OF COTTON INTO THE U. STATES. 227 

ruin the undertaking at once. Such were the barbarity and 
bad habits of the Greeks, that they not only destroyed life, but 
every thing else as far as lay in their power, — wines, oil, fruit, 
and all other articles which had been laid in for support until 
a crop of provisions could be made. After the affair of the 
Greeks had subsided, all went on well for nearly ten years (the 
time of their indentures) ; when, by the advice of Governor 
Touyn, who had succeeded Grant, they one and all went off in 
a body to St. Augustine, leaving all their implements of hus- 
bandry behind them. Dr. Turnbull was at the time in London. 
Having no employment in Augustine, many of them went 
begging about the streets in a wretched condition, and several 
died of disease and want. Governor Touyn made himself very 
■unpopular, nay, obnoxious, with the people of Florida, and 
was the cause of breaking up the settlement, when the emi- 
grants had served out all their time except nine months. There 
never were any Moors brought out for the settlement ; but Dr. 
Turnbull, finding that the low and swampy lands did not agree 
with the health of the white men, purchased some thirty odd 
negroes to cultivate the low-lands. There were upwards of five 
hundred comfortable dwellings and other houses on the settle- 
ment. Nicholas Turnbull was the eldest son of Dr. Turnbull, 
and was supposed to be the first person who planted cotton in 
Georgia. Where the seed came from is not now known. The 
first trial of the cotton was, it is supposed, some two or three 
miles from Savannah, at Warsaw Island, on the river Tybee. 
The late R. J. Turnbull was the next to John Turnbull, young- 
est of the family. It is supposed that Governor Touyn became 
very obnoxious to the Turnbull family in consequence of their 
not paying any attention to his wife, who was the wash-woman 
of that family, and brought out from Europe in that capacity 
by them. 

The following is an account of the cotton imported into 
Liverpool from the United States of America : — 



228 



MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



[August, 



1785. 

Jan. 
Feb. 
June. 

1786. 

May. 

June. 

1787. 

April. 

June. 

June. 

Aug. 

Dec. 

1788. 

Jan. 
Jan. 
June. 
July. 



Bags 

Diana, at Charleston 1 

Torno, at New York 1 

Grange, at Philadelphia 3 

Thomas, at Charleston 2 

Juno, at Charleston 4 

John, at Philadelphia ; J. Jackson 6 

Wilson, at New York ; Ashfield 9 

Grange, at Philadelphia ; three importers ... 9 

Henderson, at Charleston ; J. Coult 40 

John, at Philadelphia ; G. Goring 37 

Order 7 

Mersey, at Charleston ; P. Marrow 1 

Grange, at Philadelphia ; G. Goring 5 

John, at Philadelphia; T. Green 30 

Harriet, at New York ; Backhouse and Son ... 62 

Grange, at Philadelphia ; Duckun and Party . . 60 

Ashfield 27 

Order 16 

Peel and Co., 4 ; Rathbone and Co., 3 ; Nerral, 1 . 8 

Polly, at Charleston ; Goring .42 

Jurdet, 26 ; and L. and L, 5 31 

Four years' import 



— 5 



108 



— 282 



401 



General Payer, a proprietor of extensive estates in Barba- 
does, took the seed from thence into Georgia, soon after the 
peace following the American war, which was the beginning of 
the growth of cotton in the United States. 



1857.] PROCEEDINGS OF SEPTEMBER MEETING. 229 



SEPTEMBER MEETING, 1857. 

The Society held their stated monthly meeting on 
Thursday, Sept. 10, at noon, in the Dowse Library ; the 
President, Hon. Robert C. Winthrop, in the chair. 

In the absence of the Librarian, the Recording Secre- 
tary announced donations from the Mercantile-Library 
Association ; the State Historical Society of Wisconsin ; 
the Smithsonian Institution ; Charles H. Emery, Esq. ; 
B. Homer Dixon, Esq. ; Rev. Alonzo H. Quint ; Rev. 
Eleazer Williams ; William H. Edwards, Esq. ; and 
from Messrs. Willard and Winthrop, of the Society. 

In the absence of the Corresponding Secretary, the 
Recording Secretary read a communication from the 
Dorchester Antiquarian and Historical Society, dated 
July 3, 1857, announcing the appointment of a Com- 
mittee to keep a meteorological journal, together with a 
diary of remarkable events, and recommending to the 
Massachusetts Historical Society the adoption of a 
similar plan. This communication was referred to the 
Standing Committee. 

Mr. R. Frothingham read to the Society a petition 
of Roger Williams to the " honored General Court of 
Massachusetts Colonie, now assembled in Boston, 1651, 
humbly praying that he may find civilitie and courtesie, 
— inoffencively behaving himself, — that he may unof- 
fencively, and without molestation, pass through their 
jurisdiction, as a stranger, for a night, to the ship in 
which he proposes to sail for England as a messenger 



230 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Sept. 

and agent of the High Court of the Parliament, in 
the name of his neighbors, in relation to a grant lately 
obtained by Mr. Coddington for Rhode Island." 

Mr. Washburn communicated the following paper, 
narrating a personal incident connected with the local 
reminiscences of Braddock's campaign : — 

The recent perusal of Captain Orme's Journal of Braddock's 
campaign of 1755, which, with the ample memorial of that 
disastrous expedition by Winthrop Sargent, has been published 
within two or three years, will serve as an explanation, and, 
so far as necessary, an apology, for a brief minute which I have 
prepared of a personal incident connected with the local remi- 
niscences of that event. 

It will be recollected that the point at which the forces 
were collected, and from which they took their departure for 
Fort Du Quesne, was Fort Cumberland, at what was then 
known as Will's Creek, where the present town of Cumber- 
land, in Maryland, is situate. 

From thence to the place of their destination the distance 
was something over an hundred miles. The route of the expe- 
dition lay over and along the Alleghany Mountains, through 
an almost unbroken wilderness, without a single settlement, 
unless it might have been that of a solitary individual, known 
as Gist's Plantation. 

For about fifty miles, it followed the general direction of 
what is known as the " National Road," from Cumberland to 
Wheeling. At that point it crossed the Great Meadows, near 
the site of an old fortification, called Fort Necessity, the scene 
of one of the earliest of Washington's military encounters with 
the French and Indians, and near to which Jumonville, the 
French commander, fell, and is buried. 

At that point Braddock's course turned more to the north- 
west, passing over the rugged summits of Laurel Hill, which 



1857.] REMINISCENCES OF BRADDOCK's CAMPAIGN. 231 

seem to the traveller, even at this day, to be impassable for an 
army, with its military stores and baggage. 

Braddock left Fort Cumberland on the 10th June, though a 
part of the troops had been engaged for two days in opening 
a road for his progress. It was the 25th of June before he 
reached Fort Necessity, the distance of about fifty miles ; and 
it was not till noon of the 9th of July that he reached the 
second ford of the Monongahela, near which the fatal battle of 
that day was fought. 

Such was the nature of the country, that, for several days, 
the army made only from two to four miles' advance in a 
day ; although the heavier stores and baggage of the expedition 
were transported at a much slower rate by a portion of the 
troops which were left in charge of these, and never, in fact, 
reached but a few miles beyond the Great Meadows, already 
spoken of. This place was called Dunbar's Camp ; and to this 
point, though forty miles from the scene of the action, the 
troops which remained after the battle fled in the greatest ter- 
ror and confusion. Instead of making a stand here, as they 
could have done with entire safety, or even attempting to with- 
draw the military stores, of which they had large quantities, 
they buried or destroyed the principal part of these to prevent 
their falling into the enemies' hands, and took up a hurried 
march for Will's Creek. 

Braddock, who had been fatally wounded in the battle, but 
was still living, was borne by his men over the same track 
which he had passed so shortly previous in all the imposing 
array of a well-appointed military force. 

On the night of the 13th, four days after the battle, he died, 
and was buried in the middle of the trail made by the army, 
in order to obliterate every trace of his grave by the tracks of 
the men and carriages passing over it. 

The place of his burial was known to be at or near the 
Great Meadows ; but its precise locality was first ascertained 
about 1823, while the workmen were engaged in constructing 



232 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Sept. 

the National Road, close by which his remains were found 
reposing. 

But to the incident to which I alluded, which, as I remarked, 
was recalled by reading the work of Mr. Sargent. 

I left Cumberland on the evening of the 13th July, 1841, 
by stage for Wheeling. At a late breakfast-hour the next 
morning, we found ourselves at the door of a hotel at Fayette 
Springs, fifty-three miles from Cumberland, and nine miles from 
Union Town, which lies at the western foot of the mountains. 
A mile or two before reaching this place, we had crossed a 
little stream, which the driver informed us was called " Brad- 
dock's Run ; " and shortly after passed a large tree, growing 
close to the highway, on which a small board was nailed, 
having an inscription upon it, " Braddock's Grave," and were 
told that his remains were found buried near that spot. 

On entering the bar-room, I observed a large quantity of 
shot and shells of various sizes in one corner of the room, 
incrusted with a black substance like gunpowder, and, though 
without any mark of rust upon them, showing that they were 
not of recent manufacture. 

So singular a sight, in such a place, led me to inquire, of a 
very intelligent-looking gentleman standing near them, the 
occasion of such a collection of warlike stores in such a retired 
and peaceful neighborhood. 

He replied, that the place where we were standing was near 
the track of Braddock's army ; that the mountain which we 
could see to the right of us, though still covered with the 
native forest, and so steep and rugged, had to be surmounted 
by him and his army ; that, though the traces of his march 
were principally obliterated, it had always been understood, 
that, at a place a few miles from where we then were, within 
the forest, upon that mountain, he had buried a quantity of 
ammunition and stores ; and it had been proposed, by several 
gentlemen interested in this historical tradition, to visit the 
spot, and ascertain, by excavation, its truth ; that, on the 



1857.] REMINISCENCES OF BRADDOCK'S CAMPAIGN. 233 

4th of July just past, they had repaired to the locality of 
the supposed buried stores, and, upon digging a few feet below 
the surface, they brought to light large quantities of such 
material as I saw before me ; and a part of them had been left 
at the hotel, in the state in which they were found. 

The place where these were discovered was about two miles 
from the hotel, at what had been called Dunbar's Camp, 
and was the extreme point to which that part of the army 
which remained with Colonel Dunbar advanced, and at which 
they received the few fugitive remains of Braddock's force 
which had escaped from the field of his discomfiture and 
defeat. 

To reach the scene of the battle by this route, some of the 
sharpest and loftiest summits of the Laurel Ridge had to be 
surmounted, in which the artillery and baggage were drawn 
up with infinite labor, and let down upon the opposite side by 
means of blocks and tackle. And I may repeat, that, even at 
this day, one cannot look at the mountains, and this in par- 
ticular, over which these troops had made their way, with- 
out astonishment and almost incredulity. They remind one 
of the march of Suwarrow through the mountains of Switzer- 
land. 

Since the time of which I have been speaking, pains have 
been taken to trace the course of Braddock's army, which has 
been done with success ; and a plan of it accompanies the 
work of Mr. Sargent. 

The associations which were irresistibly awakened by the 
objects before me, of that memorable campaign and its actors, 
led me to make inquiries respecting the localities around us, 
and how far they were identified with the early warlike expe- 
ditions which had been sent out from the settlements by the 
way of Will's Creek ; and I found, in the gentleman with 
whom I was conversing, one who was apparently entirely fami- 
liar with the subject, and who readily communicated the in- 
formation I desired. 

30 



234 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Sept. 

Pointing to an open, level area, near which we were standing, 
he said, " That is the Great Meadows, the scene of General 
Washington's first military encounter with the enemy in 
1754 ; there, about half a mile from us, stood Fort Neces- 
sity ; and at about two miles from here, in that direction, is 
Jumonville's grave, whose death led to so much unjust remark 
against Washington by the French writers of that day ; and 
there, close by the side of the road over which you passed, and 
near the large tree with fc Brad dock's Grave ' upon it, is the 
spot where his remains were found when the National Road 
was constructed." 

" But how," said I, " could it have been known, after such 
a lapse of years, where he was buried, if, as is said, the spot 
was carefully concealed at first, and no monument had ever 
marked it afterwards ? " 

" I can tell you," said he ; " for I was myself present when 
the discovery was made. There was a singular old man whom 
I knew in my younger days, whose home was up in the moun- 
tains, from which he occasionally emerged to visit the settle- 
ments. His name was Faucit, and he was known by every- 
body as ' Whistling Tom,' — one of that class which has 
entirely disappeared, whose pioneer life and habits assimilated 
him to the natives, with whom he was so much associated in 
his early days. 

" He always insisted that he had himself fired the shot which 
fatally wounded Braddock ; that he had belonged to the Pro- 
vincial troops, and had been present at his burial, and could 
point out the spot where he lay. He described, too, the man- 
ner in which the troops, with the train of wagons, were made 
to pass over the grave, which was dug in the middle of the 
road along which they were retreating, in order to obliterate 
the traces of his burial-place. 

" Nobody, however, heeded this statement sufficiently to 
make any search for his remains, until one day, while the 
workmen were engaged in excavating the earth in construct- 



1857.] REMINISCENCES OF BRADDOCK'S CAMPAIGN. 235 

ing the National Road, Whistling Tom, then a very old man, 
came along by where they were at work, and, stopping, told 
them they were then within a few feet of where Braddock was 
buried, and, if they would dig at a spot which he pointed out 
with his cane, they would find his bones. 

" They were induced to make the experiment, and, in a few 
minutes, threw out portions of the remains of a human body, 
with enough of remnants of military trappings mingled with 
them to render the information of the old pioneer satisfactory 
and reliable. The only indication of the spot now is the 
inscription upon the tree near it which I have mentioned." 

Of the truth of the statement which this old soldier had 
uniformly persisted in making, nothing, probably, can ever be 
known beyond the balancing of probabilities. Mr. Sargent 
treats it as entitled to no credit, and as akin to the tales of 
Mandeville or Pinto, if, indeed, any historian since Herodotus 
can appease an appetite for the marvellous that could take in 
such a narrative. 

But that such was his statement, there can be no doubt ; 
and that there was a tradition to the same effect prevailing 
many years since in the western part of Pennsylvania, we are 
assured by Mr. Sparks, in his notice of Braddock's defeat ; and 
it found a place in Watson's " Annals of Philadelphia," and in 
the Appendix to Gordon's " History of Pennsylvania." 

But whether the statement were true or otherwise, the fact 
was not without interest, that such a tradition prevailed, and 
that here stood a living witness, who had personally known 
one of the actors, at least, in the events of that fatal day, 
and who had, without doubt, assisted in the burial of Brad- 
dock. 

There was enough in the scene and its associations to im- 
press any mind deeply, without borrowing any thing from 
doubtful tradition. There was the track he had pursued 
through an unbroken wilderness, surrounded by foes making 
the day as well as the night hideous with their yells and their 



236 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [SEPT. 

savage mode of warfare ; and that track now forming a national 
highway, along which the traveller to or from the now 
thronged cities of that region, which was then without an inha- 
bitant, found one of the many avenues of trade and inter- 
course which bind together the crowded East and the teeming 
West. 

Before me lay exhumed from a sleep of more than eighty 
years a part of that very material of war which one of the 
great nations of the Old World had sent here, at so much 
cost of life and treasure, to enable them to maintain a doubt- 
ful and divided empire, against the armies of another European 
State, over the waters and woods and wild Indian hunting- 
grounds of the Ohio and its tributaries. And hard by was the 
undistinguished grave of one, who, after having fought bravely 
at Fontenoy and Culloden, and after nearly fifty years of 
honorable service in England, Scotland, and the Low Coun- 
tries, had risen to the rank of major-general in the British 
army ; had been selected for his courage and military skill and 
experience to lead an expedition adequate to expel the French 
armies from their fastnesses beyond the Alleghanies ; and had 
there sought, as it were, to hide in the lonely fastness of this 
mountain-valley the memory of his name and his disgraceful 
defeat. 

But, hidden and unknown as was that spot till an entire 
generation had passed away, the name of the unfortunate 
leader of that expedition, and the melancholy fate of his army 
on the banks of the Monongahela, were repeated from sire to 
son, and kept in fresh remembrance wherever the white man's 
foot had penetrated. 

The result of that battle seemed disastrous to the feeble 
colonists of that day ; but its consequences were little under- 
stood. The Provincials saw themselves despised, and their 
system of tactics and discipline made the subjects of ridicule, 
by the troops of the mother country, trained in the school of 
the Coldstreams, under Marlborough and Cumberland : but, 



1857.] THE POCASSET PURCHASERS. 237 

when they saw all this boast and pretension humbled and 
crushed in an ignominious contest with a foe contemptible in 
numbers and devoid of discipline, the prestige of the name lost 
much of its charm ; and the subsequent part which the Pro- 
vincials took with the royal troops in the war with the French 
and Indians prepared them still more to stand up with unwa- 
vering ranks, when arrayed against each other in the battles of 
the Revolution. 

But I again confess, that I owe an apology for venturing 
upon this subject, and still more for the length to which I 
have suffered it to extend. 

The revival of emotions I felt at witnessing what I have 
attempted to describe, by glancing over the work of Mr. Sar- 
gent, suggested the theme of this article ; and I have been the 
more encouraged to pursue it, from knowing, as I do, that 
the subject has not lost its interest after the lapse of more than 
an hundred years. 

Mr. Felton laid before the Society a programme of 
the course of instruction in the University of Athens, 
accompanying and illustrating it with interesting re- 
marks. 

Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes was unanimously 
elected a Resident Member of the Society. 

Dr. E. B. O'Callaghan, of Albany, N.Y. ; Bucking- 
ham Smith, Esq., of Florida; and Benjamin F. French, 
Esq., of New Orleans, — were elected Corresponding 
Members. 

Mr. Ames presented a manuscript original record of 
the engagement of the Pocasset purchasers, with an 
autograph of Captain Benjamin Church, the famous 
Indian warrior. 

The following is a copy of this interesting relic : — 



238 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [SEPT. 

Wee whose names are vnder writen the Purchaser of the 
Lands of Pocassett & places adjacent Doe ingage our selves to 
the Honoured Court of Newplimouth that we will from time 
to time use our utmost Indeavour for the well setleing of the 
s d Plantation & in order thereunto will be carefull to setle 
such Persons theron as shall be to the acseptance of this Gouer- 
ment & that shall Promote the Worship of God & will joine 
with Succonitt Proprieter in the Calling of A Gospell Mineter 
& for his incoragment as to his outward subsistance will settle 
him one the most Conveneont Place we can to accomidate both 
Plantations & give to the first Mineter that shall settle amongst 
us soe much of our land as Succonitt shall also giue beside a 
proportion at part of our land we will lay out for the Ministry 
in succession & al[so] give such due incoragment as to his 
Maintenance as our abillityes & his nesesity may call for 
Desireing of this Court to giue such due Incoragmtt to the 
s d newplantaton as may be for the well setlemtt of the s d 
Place. 

Testis edward O Grays mark 

John Ff [torn] Nathaniel Thomas 

Daniel Smith Benjamin Church 

Christopher Almy 
Job Almy. 
Thomas Wait 
Daniel g? Wilcoks rnarke 
William X Mancheter, his marke. 

This writing is Recorded according to order p r Nathaniel 
Morton Secretary to the Court for the Jurisdiction of New 
Plymouth see booke of orders and passages of the Court. 
March Court Ann 1679.80. 



1857.] BY-LAWS OF THE SOCIETY. 239 



OCTOBER MEETING. 

The Society held their stated monthly meeting on 
Thursday, Oct. 8, at noon, in the Dowse Library ; the 
President, Hon. Robert C. Winthrop, in the chair. 

The Librarian announced donations from the Ameri- 
can Antiquarian Society ; William Winthrop, Esq., 
U. S. Consul at Malta ; Moses Kimball, Esq. ; and from 
Messrs. Sibley and Winthrop, of the Society. 

The Corresponding Secretary read a letter from the 
Rev. E. H. Sears, communicating his acceptance as a 
Resident Member of the Society. 

Mr. Robbins, from the Committee on the By-laws, 
reported the same in print ; which, after some explana- 
tory remarks, were, without alteration, unanimously 
accepted and adopted. 



BY-LAWS. 



Chapter I. — Of Members. 

Article 1. — The Regular or Resident Members of the 
Society shall be elected from among the citizens of this Com- 
monwealth, and shall cease to be members whenever they 
cease to be citizens. The Associate or Corresponding Mem- 
bers shall be elected from among those persons who are not 
citizens of this Commonwealth, and shall cease to be members 
if at any time they become citizens. Honorary members may 
be elected at large. 

Art. 2. — A book shall be kept by the Recording Secretary, 



240 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

in which any Resident Member of the Society may enter the 
name of any person whom he may regard as suitable to be nomi- 
nated as a Resident, Corresponding, or Honorary Member ; it 
being understood that each member is bound in honor not to 
make known abroad the name of any person so proposed. But 
no nomination of any member shall be made except by a 
report of the Standing Committee at a stated meeting, nor be 
acted upon at the same meeting to which it is reported ; nor 
shall more than two candidates for membership, of the same 
class, be reported at any one meeting. 

Art. 3. — Nominations of Corresponding or Honorary 
Members shall be accompanied by a brief statement, in 
writing, of the place of residence, and qualifications, of the 
person nominated. 

Art. 4. — All members shall be elected by ballot : and, in 
balloting for members, the law and custom of our forefathers 
shall be observed, by taking the question with Indian corn and 
beans, — the corn expressing yeas ; and the beans, nays. But 
no person shall be deemed chosen, unless there be twenty 
members present at the election, nor unless three-fourths of all 
the members present shall have voted affirmatively. 

Art. 5. — Each Resident Member shall pay ten dollars at 
the time of his admission, and five dollars annually afterwards, 
into the treasury of the Society, for its general purposes ; but 
any member shall be exempted from the annual payment, if, 
at any time after six months from his admission, he shall pay 
into the treasury sixty dollars in addition to what he may 
before have paid. 

Art. 6. — If any person elected as a Resident Member shall 
neglect, for one year after being notified of his election, to 
pay his admission-fee, his election shall be void ; and, if any 
Resident Member shall neglect to pay his annual assessment 
for three years after it shall have become due and have been 
demanded, he shall cease to be a member. Each person who 
shall be elected a member, shall, when notified of it, be far- 



1857.] BY-LAWS OF THE SOCIETY. 241 

nished by the Corresponding Secretary with an attested copy 
of this Article and the preceding one ; and the Treasurer shall, 
as cases may occur, report to the Society those persons who 
have neglected to pay their admission-fee or their annual 
assessments as above required. 

Art. 7. — Diplomas, signed by the President and counter- 
signed by the two Secretaries, shall be issued to all persons 
who have become members of the Society. 

Chapter II. — Of Meetings. 

Art. 1. — There shall be a Regular Meeting of the Society, 
at noon, on the second Thursday of every month, at their 
rooms in Boston ; provided, however, that the Standing Com- 
mittee shall have authority to postpone any such monthly 
meeting for not exceeding two weeks, or to direct it to be held 
at other rooms, whenever a day of public observance shall 
happen on the second Thursday of any month, or whenever a 
different time or place shall, for any cause, be obviously for 
the convenience of the members. Special meetings shall be 
called by either of the Secretaries, whenever requested so to 
do by the President ; or, in case of his absence or inability, by 
one of the Vice-Presidents, or by the Standing Committee. 

Art 2. — At all meetings, the President shall take the chair 
in five minutes after the time appointed in the notification ; 
and the record of the preceding meeting shall then be at once 
read. After which, at all Special Meetings, the special busi- 
ness for which the meeting was called shall be transacted ; 
and, at all Regular Meetings, the order of business shall be as 
follows : — 

The Librarian shall make a detailed report of whatever may 
have been received by him since the last meeting. 

The Cabinet-keeper shall make a similar report. 

The Corresponding Secretary shall read any communications 
he may have received. 

The unfinished business and the assignments of the last 

31 



242 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

meeting shall be announced by the Recording Secretary to the 
President, and taken up in their order. 

The Standing Committee shall be called on to report its 
doings since the last meeting. 

The other subsisting committees that may not have reported 
shall be called on for reports. 

The members who may have any business to propose shall 
be desired by the President to propose it. 

The members generally shall then be invited, so far as time 
may permit, to make any oral communications on any subject 
having relation to the objects of the Society ; and, for the 
orderly accomplishment of this purpose, the Society shall be 
divided into three sections, as nearly equal in numbers as may 
be, each of which sections, in regular sequence, shall be noti- 
fied by the Recording Secretary, that the Society, at the 
next following meeting, will desire to receive from it such 
communications as are above suggested ; and the officer pre- 
siding at the next meeting shall call upon each of the members 
of such section, in his turn, to offer any such communication, 
or propose any such subject ; after which, the communication 
so made, or the subject so proposed, may be discussed by the 
Society generally. Provided, however, that, if the member 
proposing such subject prefer to do it in writing, the Recording 
Secretary shall enter it in the Records of the Society ; and it 
may be discussed either at the time when it is proposed, or at 
any subsequent meeting. 

Art. 3. — Fifteen members shall be a quorum for all pur- 
poses except the election of members, as hereinbefore provided ; 
and excepting, also, alterations of the By-laws, which shall not 
be made unless twenty persons are present, nor unless the 
subject has either been discussed at a previous meeting, or 
reported on by a committee appointed for the purpose. 

Art. 4. — At the request of any two members present, any 
subject proposed for discussion shall be once deferred to a sub- 
sequent meeting before it is finally disposed of. 



1857.] BY-LAWS OF THE SOCIETY. 243 

Art. 5. — All committees shall be nominated by the chair, 
unless otherwise provided for. 

Chapter III. — Of Officers. 

The officers of the Society shall be a President, who shall be, 
ex officio, Chairman of the Standing Committee ; two Vice- 
Presidents ; a Recording Secretary, who shall also be, ex officio. 
Secretary of the Standing Committee ; a Corresponding Secre- 
tary ; a Treasurer ; a Librarian ; a Cabinet-keeper ; and a 
Standing Committee of five, — all of whom shall be chosen by 
ballot at the monthly meeting in April, and shall hold their 
respective offices for one year, or until others are duly chosen 
In their stead. But, at the regular monthly meeting preceding 
any election of officers, a Nominating Committee, consisting of 
three persons, shall be appointed by the chair, who shall report 
to the meeting at which the election is to be made a list of 
members for the places to be filled ; no person being deemed 
eligible to more than one of the regular offices of the Society 
at the same time, and no more than three of the Standing 
Committee being deemed re-eligible. 

Chapter IV. — Of the President. 

The President shall preside in all meetings of the Society, 
when present ; and, when absent, one of the Vice-Presidents, 
in the order of their names. In the absence of all these 
officers, a President pro tempore shall bo chosen by hand- 
vote. 

Chapter V. — Of the Recording Secretary. 

Art. 1. — The Recording Secretary, or, in case of his death 
or absence, the Corresponding Secretary, shall warn all meet- 
ings of the Society, by causing to be sent through the post- 
office, to all the Resident Members, notices of each meeting. 
Notices of the regular meetings shall be issued on the Monday 
preceding. 



244 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [OCT. 

Art. 2. — He shall keep an exact record of all the meetings 
of the Society, with the names of the members present ; enter- 
ing in full all reports of committees that may be accepted by 
the Society, unless otherwise specially directed. 

See Chap. VIII., Art. 6. 

Chapter VI. — Of the Corresponding Secretary. 

Art. 1. — The Corresponding Secretary shall inform all 
persons of their election as members of the Society, sending 
notice of the terms of their election to those chosen to be 
Resident Members, and issuing afterwards the proper di- 
plomas. 

Art. 2. — He shall carry on all the correspondence of the 
Society not otherwise provided for ; and deposit copies of 
the letters sent and the original letters received, in regular 
files, in the Library. 

Chapter VII. — Of the Treasurer. 

Art. 1. — The Treasurer shall collect all moneys due to the 
Society, and shall keep regular and faithful accounts of all 
the moneys and funds of the Society that may come into his 
hands, and of all receipts and expenditures connected with the 
same, — which accounts shall always be open to the inspection 
of the members ; and, at the regular meeting in April, he shall 
make a written report of all his doings for the year preceding, 
and of the amount and condition of all the property of the 
Society intrusted to him. One week before the monthly meet- 
ing in April of each year, he shall give notice to every mem- 
ber of the annual assessment remaining due from him for every 
preceding year. 

Art. 2. — He shall pay no moneys, except on vote of the 
Society, or on voucher of an officer or committee acting con- 
formably to its laws or orders. 



1857.] BY-LAWS OF THE SOCIETY. 245 

Chapter VIII. — Of the Librarian, and of the Library. 

Art. 1. — The Librarian shall have charge of all the books, 
tracts, maps, manuscripts, and other property of the Society 
appropriate to a library ; and shall cause to be made and kept 
exact and perfect catalogues of each and all of them, doing 
whatever may be in his power, at all times, to preserve and 
increase the collections under his care. 

Art 2. — He shall acknowledge each donation that may be 
made to the Library, by a certificate addressed to the person 
making it. 

Art. 3. — He shall, at every monthly meeting of the Society, 
report all donations made to the Library since the last monthly 
meeting, with the names of the donors ; and, at the annual 
meeting, shall present a statement of the condition and wants 
of the Library, with a notice of the important accessions that 
may have been made to it during the year. 

Art. 4. — He shall cause to be kept a regular and exact 
account of all books taken out, with the names of the persons 
who take them, and the dates when they are borrowed and 
returned. 

Art. 5. — He shall report in writing, at each monthly meet- 
ing, the name of every book that has been out of the Library 
for a longer term than is permitted by the By-laws, and shall 
use his discretion in obtaining the return of such books. 

Art. 6. — There shall be an Assistant Librarian, not a mem- 
ber of the Society, appointed by the Standing Committee and 
the Librarian, who shall assist the Librarian in all or any of 
his duties ; who shall also aid the Recording Secretary in noti- 
fying meetings, copying reports, or in any other way that may 
be required ; and who shall render such other services to the 
Society, connected with its Library or its general proceedings, 
as the Standing Committee may direct. 

Art. 7. — The Librarian shall be present in the Library, in 
person or by his Assistant, at the regular hours, and at such 



246 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [OCT. 

other times as may be appointed for keeping it open ; and 
shall endeavor to render it useful to all who may resort to it. 

Art. 8. — Any member of the Society may take from the 
Library three printed volumes at a time, and keep each of 
them four weeks, with a right to renew the loan for four weeks 
more, unless some other member has, in that interval, asked 
for it in writing ; but, if he retains it beyond this second 
period, he must first obtain the written assent of a member of 
the Standing Committee, permitting him to do so, or he shall 
be fined ten cents a week for each volume so retained. 

Art. 9. — At the written request of any member of this 
Society, the Librarian shall permit any person to visit and use 
the Library at such times as the Librarian may be in attend- 
ance ; such member becoming thereby responsible for any 
injury to the property of the Society that may result from such 
introduction of a stranger. 

Art. 10. — At the written request of any member of the 
Society, the Librarian shall deliver to any one person indicated 
in such request, but to no more than one person at the same 
time, any book or books belonging to the Society, which the 
member himself could take out ; such member, by such 
request, making himself responsible that all the rules relating 
to the book or books so taken out shall be as fully observed by 
the person authorized to receive them as if he were a member ; 
and that any injury accruing to the property of the Society, in 
consequence of the privilege thus granted, shall be made good 
by the member at whose request the grant is made. 

Art. 11. — At the meetings in April, July, October, and 
January, the Librarian shall lay before the Society a list of the 
names of those persons, not members, who, during the pre- 
ceding three months respectively, may have had access to the 
Library by permission of individual members of the Society, 
with the names of the members at whose request the privilege 
was granted ; adding a statement of each injury that may have 
been sustained by the property of the Society in consequence 



1857.] BY-LAWS OF THE SOCIETY. 247 

of granting such permission, and the name of the member 
bound to make it good. 

Art. 12. — The Publishing Committee, for the time being, 
shall be permitted to take such books and manuscripts from 
the Library as they may need, in order properly to perform the 
duty assigned to them by the Society : but the Librarian shall 
make an especial entry or record of whatever is so taken ; and, 
as soon as the volume they may have in charge is published, 
he shall demand and obtain from said Committee whatever 
they may have so received. 

Art. 13. — All manuscripts of the Society shall be kept under 
lock and key, and be consulted or used only in presence of the 
Librarian or his Assistant. 

Art. 14. — Persons not members of the Society, but engaged 
in historical pursuits, shall be allowed to consult the manu- 
scripts belonging to the Society, provided an application in 
writing, stating the object or objects of the inquiry, be first 
made to the Librarian, and approved by a member of the 
Standing Committee, who shall make record of the same. 

Art. 15. — No manuscript, and no part of a manuscript, 
belonging to the Society, shall be copied, except on permission 
granted by vote of the Society, after an application in writing, 
specifying the manuscript, or part thereof, desired to be 
copied ; and if any manuscript belonging to the Society shall, 
in consequence of such permission, be published, in whole or in 
part, the fact that it was obtained from the Society shall be 
stated in its publication. But nothing herein required shall 
be construed to prevent the publication of names, dates, and 
other chronological memoranda, without special permission 
obtained as above required. 

Art. 16. — Manuscripts of a confidential nature shall be 
retained in a place of special deposit, and shall be consulted 
only under such regulations as may be prescribed in each case 
by vote of the Society. 

Art. 17. — No maps, newspapers, or books, either of great 



248 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

rarity or of constant reference, shall be taken from the Library, 
except by vote of the Society. 

Art. 18. — All members taking books from the Library shall 
be answerable for any injury done to the same, to such amount 
as may be deemed just by the Standing Committee ; and any 
person neglecting to pay any fines, or assessments for damages, 
one month after he shall have received notice of the same from 
the Librarian, or otherwise abusing his privilege to the injury 
of the Library, shall, by order of the Standing Committee, be 
interdicted from access to the same. 

Art. 19. — All tracts, books, maps, and manuscripts, belong- 
ing to the Society, shall be distinctly marked as its property ; 
and any such tract, book, &c, that may be presented to the 
Society, shall be marked with the name of the donor, and 
recorded as his gift. 

Art. 20. — The Library shall be open on all week-days, 
from nine o'clock in the forenoon to two in the afternoon, 
throughout the year, except on days of public observance, and 
also during the fortnight before the annual meeting in April, 
when it shall be closed for examination ; and all books that 
may be lent are hereby required to be returned previous to 
that fortnight, under a penalty of a fine of one dollar for each 
volume not so returned. 

Chapter IX. — Of the Cabinet-keeper, and the Museum. 

Art. 1. — The Cabinet-keeper shall have charge of all coins, 
works of art, remains of antiquity, and other articles appro- 
priate to the Society's Museum, and shall make and keep 
perfect and exact catalogues of the same. 

Art. 2. — He shall acknowledge each donation he may 
receive, by letter, to the person making it. At every monthly 
meeting of the Society, he shall report whatever may have 
been added to the collection of which he has charge, with the 
names of the donors ; and, at the annual meeting, shall pre- 
sent a full report of the condition of the Museum. 



1857.] BY-LAWS OF THE SOCIETY. 249 

Chapter X. — Of the Standing Committee. 

Art. 1. — The Standing Committee, as vacancies may occur 
in the Society by death or otherwise, shall, at their discretion, 
report nominations for Resident Members to fill the same. 

Art. 2. — They shall pay the current expenses of the So- 
ciety, drawing on the Treasurer, from time to time, for such 
sums as may be necessary for that purpose. 

Art. 3. — They shall annually, in the month of April, make 
a careful examination of the Library and Museum of the 
Society, and also of the Dowse Library ; comparing the books, 
manuscripts, and other articles in each, with their catalogues 
respectively, and reporting at the April meeting, in detail, con- 
cerning their condition. 

Art. 4. — They shall record in full, in a book kept by them 
for the purpose, any permission granted by any one of their 
number for the consultation of the manuscripts of the Society 
by persons not members. 

Art. 5. — They shall meet in the Society's rooms one hour 
previous to every regular meeting, for the fulfilment of their 
appropriate duties, and for the purpose of facilitating the 
transaction of such business as will be brought before the So- 
ciety. 

Art. 6. — They shall, at every meeting, report to the Society 
all their doings since the last meeting, suggesting at the same 
time such business as they may deem advisable to bring before 
it. 

Chapter XT. — Of the Publishing Committee. 

Immediately after the publication of any volume of the Col- 
lections of the Society, or at any other time when the Society 
may order, a Committee of not less than three persons shall be 
appointed by nomination from the chair, whose duty it shall 
be to prepare and publish another volume ; for which purpose, 
free use is granted to them of all the manuscripts, printed 

32 



250 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. (OCT. 

books, and other resources of the Society, except the manu- 
scripts deposited as confidential ; said Committee being required 
hereby to return whatever they may have thus received, so 
soon as their use of the same for the purposes of such publica- 
tion shall have ceased. 



Chapter XII. — Of the Committee on the Treasurer's 
Accounts. 

At the monthly meeting in March, annually, a Committee 
shall be appointed by nomination from the chair, consisting of 
not less than two persons, whose duty it shall be to examine 
the Treasurer's accounts for the year preceding, and at the 
monthly meeting in April to report thereon, and on the state 
of any property of the Society in his hands. 

Chapter XIII. — Rules for the Dowse Library. 

Art. 1. — The room in which the books are deposited which 
were presented to the Society by Thomas Dowse shall be known 
for ever as the Dowse Library of the Massachusetts Histo- 
rical Society. 

Art. 2. — No book shall be taken out of this room. 

Art. 3. — Books may be used in the room by members of 
the Society, and by others introduced by them in person ; but 
no book shall be taken from the cases except by members, or 
by the Assistant Librarian, who shall cause each book to be 
returned to its proper place immediately after it has been 
used. 

Art. 4. — Meetings of the Society may be held in the Dowse 
Library, at the discretion of the Standing Committee ; but the 
room shall not be used for any other meetings. 



1857.] PROCEEDINGS OF NOVEMBER MEETING. 251 

Mr. Warren presented to the Society, on behalf of 
William Durrant Cooper, F.S.A., of London, a Corre- 
sponding Member, " The History of Winchelsea, one 
of the Ancient Towns added to the Cinque Ports ; " and 
a small volume, " printed for private circulation," 
entitled " Seven Letters written by Sterne and his 
Friends, hitherto unpublished, " — the first-named book 
written, and the latter edited, by Mr. Cooper. 

A paper was communicated and read by Dr. Jenks, 
which he entitled " Notice of the Sieur D'Aulnay, of 
Acadie, from the French ; " which was referred to the 
Publishing Committee, and is printed in vol. iv., Fourth 
Series, of the Society's Collections. 



NOVEMBER MEETING. 

The Society held their stated monthly meeting on 
Thursday, Nov. 12, at noon, in the Dowse Library. In 
the absence of the President, Hon. David Sears, one 
of the Vice-Presidents, was called to preside. 

The Corresponding Secretary read letters of accept- 
ance from Mons. Alexis De Tocqueville ; Rev. 
Samuel Osgood, D.D. ; Dr. E. B. O'Callaghan ; and 
Benjamin F. French, Esq. 

The Librarian announced donations from the City 
of Boston ; L. A. H. Latour, Esq. ; William Durrant 
Cooper, F.S. A. ; Dr. E. B. O'Callaghan ; Mons. F. P. G. 
Guizot ; B. F. French, Esq. ; and from Mr. Winthrop, 
of the Society. 



252 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Nov. 

The Recording Secretary presented the following 
communication from Mr. John Bachelder, giving an 
account of his exploration for the purpose of ascertain- 
ing the situation of a trading-house erected by the 
Plymouth settlers on the banks of the Manomet River, 
to facilitate their commercial intercourse with the 
Dutch, as early as 1627 : — 

Monument, Oct. 27, 1857. 

Dear Sir, — The attention of the Natural-History Society 
has recently been invited to a locality of considerable interest 
in civil history, by the presentation of a brick found on the site 
where the Plymouth settlers erected a dwelling and storehouse 
on the banks of Manomet River, in 1627. Possibly the learned 
members of the Massachusetts Historical Society will be pleased 
to learn some facts about this locality which are not generally 
known. 

It is situated about a hundred yards from the south bank of 
the river, and half a mile below the bridge, near the Monu- 
ment Depot, in the town of Sandwich, Mass. It is indicated 
by two depressions, about fifteen feet apart and three feet deep. 
There are a few stones and bricks (most of them fragments) 
scattered around, nearly all of the latter imperfect in form, and 
partially glazed, appearing as if composed of sand and dark 
mud, and (before burning) too soft to retain their form. 
These bricks are already beginning to grow scarce ; and it is 
fortunate that the Natural-History Society has secured a good 
specimen. Since my acquaintance with the locality (fourteen 
years), they never have been very numerous. The stones were 
probably all used about the building ; for such stones are not 
found in the immediate vicinity, the soil being little else than 
alluvial sand. One smooth-faced stone might have been used 
as a stepping-stone. 

Five years ago, myself and an accomplice exhumed the east- 
ern wall of the western pit. It was built of small, flat stones, 



1857.] TRADING-HOUSE ON THE MANOMET RIVER. 258 

with natural faces, neatly laid in shell-lime cement, which still 
preserves considerable cohesion. Near the northern corner, 
there is a little cuddy cut through the wall and in the bank 
behind, lined all around with the same material, and in the 
same neat, workmanlike manner. In this cuddy we found 
bones (entire and fragmentary) of sufficient variety to consti- 
tute a respectable osteological cabinet of a comparative anato- 
mist. Here were found bones of deer, various species of sea- 
fowl and of fish, — all of which (animals) are still found in 
this vicinity. Some of the bones, or fragments, appeared to 
have belonged to other mammals beside the deer. The bones 
of the poggy (it is universally called scup, or scupaug, in 
this region) were very numerous, not only in the cuddy, but 
everywhere mingled with the soil disturbed in our explorations. 
Many entire skeletons of this fish were found, the bones all in 
situ, except such as contained an excess of cartilage : these 
had disappeared. In one specimen, every vestige of the fish had 
disappeared, leaving nothing but an outline of its form, which, 
however, was perfect (except the fractures which we uninten- 
tionally made in exposing it), as if prepared for a cast. It 
was too fragile for preservation. There were also found, in 
this miniature sepulchre, small bits of pottery and glass. One 
piece of glass was of considerable size and thickness. It ap- 
peared to be a piece of a gallon or two-gallon demijohn. It 
was probably, however, not designed to be incased in wicker- 
work, after the fashion of modern demijohns ; for it was colored 
blue, and appeared to contain some traces of superficial orna- 
mental coloring or gilding. The appearance of this little 
receptacle indicated that it had been used at different times 
as a cellar-pantry, a scullery, and perhaps a repository of choice 
wines. There were abundant indications of defective culinary 
economy and taste, at least when tested by modern standards. 
Bones, shells (some of the latter were of very large dimen- 
sions), broken bricks, and pieces of mortar, constituted a con- 
siderable part of the rubbish in the cellar. The most notable 



254 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Nov. 

relics we found were two fragments, — the one, of a knife- 
blade, about two inches in length and half an inch in breadth, 
resembling a broken shoe-knife blade ; the other, of a hoe, 
which must have been of ample dimensions and weight. This 
may be seen in Pilgrim Hall, at Plymouth. The length of the 
cellar-wall was about eighteen feet. 

In the rear of this spot, close to the brink of the river at 
half-tide, an excellent spring of water issues from the sand- 
bank. A semicircular excavation is still plainly perceptible a 
few feet higher up the bank. A few months since, a part of 
the framework erected around the spring to prevent the flow- 
ing in of sand was found in situ. This relic was found 
several feet nearer the brink of the river than it should be (as 
one might infer at the first sight) ; but a little reflection will 
remove the apparent discrepancy between the excavated por- 
tion of the bank and the situs of the well, as indicated by the 
position of a portion of the curb-frame. The bank here is not 
only subject to the action of the ordinary meteorologic agen- 
cies ; but the action of tide-water in the time of spring-tides, 
which cause a gradual recession of the bank, at the same time 
enlarging the circumference of its excavations, not tending at 
all to obliterate them. Hence we find, in this case, that the 
bank has retreated, and the excavation exaggerated, and 
the curb buried in the detritus of the bank, and preserved 
by the saline quality of the soil. The frame, when discovered, 
consisted of four pieces of pine (Pinus rig-ida), hewn to the 
diameter of about four inches square, in the form of a square : 
their ends appeared to have been fastened together with 
spikes. 

In cultivating the field near the cellar-pits, glass beads have 
been found. 

This locality must have been the centre of considerable 
business during a part or the whole of its occupancy : for the 
short piece of road leading towards it is still very plain, and 
deeply worn ; while, probably, much the greater portion of the 



1857.] TRADING-HOUSE ON THE MANOMET RIVER. 255 

merchandise was transported in shallops to a point mucli 
higher up the river. 

I have lately heard that there is a tradition extant among 
some of the descendants of the first settlers of this place, that 
there were two distinct and separate buildings, — one erected 
over each cellar-pit, — the eastern used for storage : the west- 
ern, which was built very strong, was a block-house, and the 
ordinary dwelling-place of the two resident commercial agents. 
The relative position and dimensions of the cellar-pits corrobo- 
rate this tradition. The eastern cellar is about twelve feet 
square ; the western, about eighteen feet by nine, one of its 
long sides facing the eastern pit. There can hardly be a good 
reason given for constructing an oblong cellar, with a greater 
amount of labor and expense in proportion to the space ob- 
tained, except on the supposition that the building erected 
over it was of a form and dimensions corresponding. The posi- 
tion was also favorable for defending the other building in the 
event of an assault. The distance between the two (fifteen 
feet) was sufficient to protect either one from conflagration, 
under ordinary circumstances and with ordinary vigilance, 
in case a like fate had befallen the other. 

These buildings must have fallen to decay before the first 
permanent settlement of this place, which took place as early 
as 1685 : for there is no trace of a tradition or circumstantial 
evidence that the early settlers made any use of them, or 
recognized their existence ; but there is much evidence that 
they never were used for any purpose whatever after the settle- 
ment commenced, or after their abandonment as a commercial 
depot. Although the field containing this relic was a part of 
the possession of the early settlers, they erected their first 
dwelling-house and a block-house about half a mile distant. 
This locality is easily identified. The first settlers were Mr. 
Ezra Perry and his four sons (the latter were all advanced to 
near or quite man's estate). These, one after another, built 
houses, the localities of which are all well known, and the 



256 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Nov. 

occupants of each specified with certainty ; but not one of 
these localities is very near the one described. 

The site of Aptuxet (the old trading-house) had become 
entirely unknown, and had probably remained so for many 
years. If the first settlers were fully acquainted with the 
objects and purposes of these buildings (if they were in exist- 
ence), all trace of such knowledge has disappeared, except a 
confused idea that they were used for storage, and for defence 
against the Indians. Upon the most careful inquiry among 
the oldest and the most intelligent descendants of the early 
settlers, I could get no intelligible account of the time when 
these buildings were constructed, or by whom, or whether they 
were public or private property, or whether trade was con- 
ducted through them. The idea seems to have been, as far as 
I can infer, that a settlement was undertaken by some person 
or persons at some period long before the final settlement, 
and that these buildings were the result. Knowing that the 
Plymouth Trading-House must have been established some- 
where in this vicinity, and having received some documents 
from the ancient records, through the aid of William S. Rus- 
sell, Esq., of Plymouth, who was searching for the same object, 
I was enabled to identify the site beyond a doubt. This dis- 
covery was made in 1850, a brief account of which may be 
found in Russell's " Pilgrim Memorials." 

It is gratifying to see an occasional visitor turning his foot- 
steps to this venerated spot. As it becomes more generally 
known, a greater number will doubtless find pleasure in look- 
ing upon a scene hallowed by such intimate associations with 
the Pilgrims of Plymouth Rock. 

Most respectfully yours, John Bachelder. 

Mr. Robbins presented several manuscripts, among 
which was a letter from Benjamin Franklin to Count 
de Vergennes, — a donation from C. Campbell, Esq., of 
Petersburg, Va. 



1857.] MR. SAVAGE AND THOMAS WELDE. 257 

Mr. Savage exhibited to the Society a bill of ex- 
change, probably the first which was drawn on England 
from this country. It was in the following terms : — 

" Sonne John, I pray paye unto the Bearer Mr, Robt, W, 
Parke, or his assign the Sum of forty one Shillings, wh I owe 
unto him, & so rest, yr loving Father, Jo. Winthrop. Charles- 
town in N. Eng. Sept 9, 1630. 

" Paid this bill, Jan 28 : to Mr Robt Parke." 

Mr. Sears offered a few remarks, describing, in gene- 
ral terms, the contents of a sealed box which he had 
some time since placed in the custody of the Society, 
with a label on the cover designating the time at which 
it should be opened. 

After the usual business had been transacted, Mr. 
Savage called the attention of the Society to a recent 
article in the " Historical Magazine," vol. i. No. 11, 
citing a remark of his in vol. viii., Third Series, of the 
Society's Collections. The remark, said Mr. Savage, 
was the latter part of a sentence, and filled exactly one 
line ; and the writer, who uses the signature of " Hutch- 
inson," considers, not unjustly, this remark an accusa- 
tion of Thomas Welde, as the author of a certain 
book. 

Mr. Savage gave, at some length, his reasons for the 
opinion and judgment which he had expressed in 
the Collections, and in his second edition of Winthrop's 
History, concerning the connection of Welde with the 
publication of the book in question, — " Short Story 
of the Rise, Reign, and Ruin of Antinomianism." 

It would be improper, as Mr. Savage himself sug- 

33 



258 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [DEC. 

gested, that a vindication of the remark alluded to 
should appear on the pages of the Society's publications, 
which are not intended for receptacles of controversy. 

In conclusion, Mr. Savage said, that, one year and a 
half ago, he had taken up the whole matter now brought 
forward by " Hutchinson," and inserted comments, at 
great length, in the notice of Welde which he designed 
for his " Genealogical Dictionary," now nearly ready for 
the press. These comments were read to two or three 
gentlemen of this Society in May, 1856 ; and also to 
another, not one of our associates.. If they did not prove 
the disingenuousness of Welde, he had lost the power 
of drawing a fair inference, as would appear when his 
book should come forth. 



DECEMBER MEETING. 

The Society held their stated monthly meeting on 
Thursday, Dec. 10, at noon, in the Society's Library; 
the President, Hon. Robert C. Winthrop, in the 
chair. 

The Librarian announced donations from General J. 
W, de Peyster ; Rev. Edwin M. Stone ; L. A. Huguet- 
Latour, Esq. ; Hon. Theron Metcalf ; Lucius Boltwood, 
Esq. ; James Lenox, Esq. ; Mrs. John H. Kinzie ; 
J. Francis Fisher ; Winthrop Sargent, Esq. ; and from 
Messrs. Appleton and Sibley, of the Society. 

In the absence of the Corresponding Secretary, the 
President read a letter from General J. W. de Peyster, 
accompanying a donation of books to the Library. 



1857.] RELIEF FOR THE INHABITANTS OF BOSTON. 259 

A letter was also read by the President from Mrs. 
J. H. Kinzie, accompanying a donation of her book, 
entitled " Wau-Bnn ; the Early Day in the North- 
west ; " for which he was authorized by a vote to return 
the thanks of the Society. 

The President read a communication from the Society 
of Antiquaries, accompanying a donation of several of 
their publications. 

On motion of Mr. Quincy, Voted, That the thanks 
of the Society be presented to Mons. Guizot for his 
valuable gift of a series of his works in 17 vols. 

The President communicated a valuable manuscript 
relating to an assessment of taxes in Massachusetts, bear- 
ing the date 1693, from J. Brevoort Carson, Esq., of 
Brooklyn, N.Y. 

General William H. Sumner and Professor Henry 
W. Longfellow were elected Resident Members of the 
Society. 

Mr. Adams, from the First Section, presented a sub- 
scription-list, a copy of which is annexed, dated Aug. 15, 
1774, of contributions made in Virginia to relieve the 
" distressed inhabitants of Boston ; " accompanying it 
with explanatory remarks, and a eulogy of Thomas 
Nelson, jun., the largest subscriber, who was one of the 
signers of the Declaration of Independence, and a man 
of fortune, education, and patriotic zeal. 

We, the subscribers, oblige ourselves to furnish the respec- 
tive sums of money, or quantity of grain or flour, set against 
our names, for the use and relief of the distressed inhabitants 
of Boston, as soon as the same shall be demanded. Aug. 15, 
1774: — 



260 



MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



[DEC. 



T.N.* Dudley Digges . 


. 25 bush, of wheat (delivered). 






Tlios. Nelson, jun 


. . 100 bush, wheat (delivered). 




Pd. 


David Jameson . 


5 pounds (returned). 






William Graves . 


. 20 bush, wheat (not delivered). 






Corbin Griffin 


2 barrels flour. 






Win. Reynolds . 


. 50 bush, corn (not delivered). 






James Shields 


5 bush, wheat. 






Matt. Pierce . 


5 shillings. 






Henry Street . 


. 20 shillings. 




Pd. 


John Dickeson 


15 shillings. 




T.N. 


Starkey Robinson 


. 10 bush, wheat (sent aboard the flat). 


T. N. 


Anth. Robinson 


. 10 bush, wheat (sent 8 bush). 




T.N. 


Thos. Phillips . 


5 bush, wheat (sent aboard the flat). 


T.N. 


Thos. Smith . 


5 bush, wheat (sent aboard Green' 


sflat). 




Wm. Cary . . 


10 shillings. 




T. N. 


Lawr. Smith, jun 


10 bush.wheat (sent aboard Green' 


sflat). 


T.N. 


Wm. Allin . . 


. . 5 bush.wheat (sent aboard Green' 


sflat). 




Wm. Digges, jun. 


25 bush, wheat (not delivered). 






Geo. Wilson . 


. . 10 shillings. 






James Burwell 


. . 25 bush, (not delivered). 






Will. Hewitt . 


. . 15 bush, wheat (not delivered). 




T.N. 


Hugh Nelson . 


. . 25 bush, wheat (delivered). 






Seymour Powell 


. . 10 bush, wheat (not delivered). 






John Moss, jun. 


. . 10 shillings. 






Lawrence Smith 


. . 10 shillings. 




T.N. 


Philip Dedman 


. . 2^ bush, corn (received). 






William Eaton 


. . 5 bush, wheat (not delivered). 






Philip Bullifant 


. . 5 bush, corn (not delivered). 






Will. Ratcliff, jun 


. . 5 bush, corn (not delivered). 




Pd. 


Fleming Bates 


. . 25 shillings. 






James Lynce . 


. . 20 shillings (pd.). 






Wm. Taylor . 


. . 5 bush, corn (not delivered). 




T.N. 


Richard Sclater 


. . 5 bush, wheat. 




T.N. 


John Toomer . 


. . 3^ bush.wheat (sent aboard Green's flat) . 


T.N. 


Henry Howard 


. . 20 bush.wheat (sent aboard Green' 


sflat). 


T.N. 


Robert Kirby . 


. . 5 bush.wheat (sent aboard Green' 


sflat). 




Robert Shield . 


5 bush, wheat. 




T.N. 


Merritt Moore 


. . 5 barrels corn. 





* These are the initials of Thomas Nelson, 
and forwarding the subscriptions. 



jun., and show his agency in procuring 



1857.] 



MR. QU1NCY AND GENERAL GAGE. 



261 



T. N. Thos. Pisard . 

liar wood Burt . 

Allen Chapman 
T. N. Bennet Kirby . 
T. N. John Patrick . 
T. N. Edwd. Baptist . 
T. N. John Wagstaff . 

James Goodwin 

William Moss . 
T. N. Aug. Moore . 

Thos. Archer . 



5 barrels corn. 
2 barrels corn. 

2 barrels corn. 

3 barrels corn (received Apr. 1, 1775). 
3 barrels corn (received). 

1 barrel corn (received Oct. 28). 

1 barrel corn (sent Feb. 9, 1775). 

2 barrels corn. 
2 barrels corn. 

10 bush, wheat (put aboard Green's flat). 
20 bush. corn. 



Mr. Aspinwall contributed a copy of a paper written 
by General Gage in reply to queries addressed to him 
by George Chalmers, author of the " Political Annals." 
The questions related to Braddock's expedition, the 
Stamp Act, and the Revolutionary transactions in Bos- 
ton. The reading of this paper was listened to with 
great interest by the Society. It is copied from a folio 
volume of manuscripts, lettered "Papers relating to 
Canada," in Mr. Aspinwall's valuable collection, and is 
now printed in vol. iv., Fourth Series, of the Society's 
Collections, p. 367. 

Mr. Quincy related an anecdote brought to his recol- 
lection by the subject of Mr. Aspinwall's communica- 
tion. He stated, that, when General Gage refused to 
allow the people of Boston to leave the town, his grand- 
father, who was acquainted with the governor, obtained 
a special permission for his family. They went out in a 
carriage ; and he remembered distinctly, that, on 
arriving at the outside of the Boston lines, they were all 
forced to alight, and go into a small house, where there 
was a fire, into which a person was throwing brimstone. 
Before the fire, was a platform, over which they all 



262 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Jan. 

passed in turn, to be smoked, in order to prevent spread- 
ing the small-pox, which was then in Boston. 

Mr. Savage presented to the Society two " crow's 
feet," made of iron, and so arranged that one prong will 
always project upwards, — an instrument of defence 
formerly in use against the charge of cavalry. They 
were found on the banks of the Susquehannah River, 
where they had been scattered for the protection of a 
small fort against the Indians. 



JANUARY MEETING. — 1858. 

The Society held their stated monthly meeting on 
Thursday, Jan. 14, 1858, at noon, in the Dowse Li- 
brary ; the President, Hon. Robert C. Winthrop, in 
the chair. 

The Librarian announced donations from the Society 
of Antiquaries, London ; the Commissioner of Patents ; 
James Lenox, Esq. ; J. Francis Fisher, Esq. ; Winthrop 
Sargent, Esq. ; James M. Safford, Esq. ; E. R. Straz- 
nicky, Esq. ; Miss Ann L. Gay ; L. A. Huguet-Latour, 
Esq. ; and from Messrs. Appleton, Warren, and Win- 
throp, of the Society. 

The Corresponding Secretary read a letter from Pro- 
fessor H. W. Longfellow, communicating his accept- 
ance as a Resident Member. 

He also communicated a letter from Winthrop Sar- 
gent, Esq., accompanying a volume entitled " The 
Loyalist Poetry of the Revolution," presented to the So- 



1858.] RECORDS OP NOVA SCOTIA. 263 

ciety by himself and J. Francis Fisher, Esq. ; and also a 
copy of a manuscript, entitled " Report of the Lords 
Commissioners for Trade and Plantations, about settling 
the Province of Nova Scotia. London, June 7th, 
1727." The original manuscript of the Report was 
purchased by Mr. Sargent from Waller and Son, in 
London, a few years since. Its condition is good. It 
is neatly written on fifteen folio pages, with the 
autograph signatures, and seal of the Board. The 
present copy is a faithful transcript of its spelling, 
arrangement, &c. Its indorsement is as follows : " 7th 
June, 1727. Report of the Lords Commissioners for 
Trade and Plantations, about settling the Province of 
Nova Scotia. R. 13 June 1727. 8 April 1728." 

" Read to the Committee." 

On motion, the " Report " was referred to the Stand- 
ing Committee. 

The Librarian read a letter from Thomas B. Atkins, 
Esq., accompanying a donation to the Society of a collec- 
tion of the Journals of the Provincial Parliament of Nova 
Scotia, — those of the Legislative Council from 1839 to 
1857, and of the House of Assembly from 1842 to the 
present time, — also a copy of the Index to the ancient 
Journals. Mr. Atkins stated that he had been appointed 
commissioner for examining and arranging the Public 
Records of the Province, with a view to publication ; 
and that he was desirous of obtaining a set of this 
Society's Collections, amongst other works useful in the 
prosecution of his duties. 

The box containing the donation above referred to 
not having been yet taken from the Custom House, the 



264 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Jan. 

subject of Mr. Atkins's communication was laid over to 
the next stated meeting. 

Frederic Tudor, Esq., and Rev. Frederick H. 
Hedge, D.D., were elected Resident Members. 

Dr. Francis Lieber was elected a Corresponding 
Member. 

The President communicated two pamphlets, pre- 
sented to the Society by Charles T. Beke, Ph. D. 
F.S.A., — one a letter to M. Daussy, President of the 
Central Committee of the Geographical Society of 
France ; the other, an " Inquiry into M. Antoine 
d'Abbadie's Journey to Kaffa to discover the Source of 
the Nile." 

Mr. Livermore presented to the Society, on behalf 
of Mr. J. Stimson, a photograph executed by him of the 
homestead of Thomas Dowse. 

Voted, That Mr. Livermore be requested to communi- 
cate to the donor the thanks of the Society for his 
acceptable gift. 

Mr. Savage presented as a gift to the Society, from 
Samuel Whitwell, Esq., a manuscript volume, contain- 
ing the accounts kept by his father, Samuel Whitwell, 
of his receipts and disbursements as Overseer of the 
Poor in Boston from 1769 to 1791. 

Mr. R. Frothingham, jun., read a letter from Joseph 
Hawley, dated Feb. 22, 1775, on the policy of forcible 
resistance by Massachusetts to the Regulations Act, &c. 
See Collections, vol. iv., Fourth Series, p. 393. 



1858.] MEMORIAL TO THE LEGISLATURE. 265 



FEBRUARY MEETING. 

The Society held their stated monthly meeting on 
Thursday, Feb. 18, at noon, in the Dowse Library ; the 
President, Hon. Robert C. Winthrop, in the chair. 

The Librarian announced donations from the New- 
York State Agricultural Society ; the Managers of the 
New- York State Lunatic Asylum ; Lyman C. Draper, 
Esq. ; James Lenox, Esq. ; and from Messrs. Savage, 
Sibley, and Winthrop, of the Society. 

Mr. Winthrop's donation, in addition to ninety-six 
miscellaneous pamphlets, consisted of a complete set of 
the American State Papers, — Documents, Legislative 
and Executive, of the Congress of the United States, 
from the first session of the first to the second session of 
the twenty-second Congress, inclusive ; commencing 
March 3, 1789, and ending March 3, 1833. 

The Corresponding Secretary read letters of accept- 
ance from Frederic Tudor, Esq., and Rev. F. H. 
Hedge, D.D., as Resident Members, and from Dr. 
Francis Lieber as a Corresponding Member, of the 
Society. 

The President communicated the donation by William 
C. Fowler of a copy of his " Memorials of the Chaunceys, 
including President Chauncy, his Ancestors and De- 
scendants ; " for which the thanks of the Society were 
voted to Mr. Fowler. 

The Standing Committee presented for consideration 
a memorial to the Legislature, remonstrating against 
a petition of the " Historic-Genealogical Society " for a 

34 



266 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [FEB. 

change of its corporate name to " The New-England 
Historical and Genealogical Society." This memorial, 
which had already been signed by a majority of the 
members, is as follows : — 

To the Honorable the Legislature of Massachusetts. 

The undersigned, members of the Massachusetts Historical 
Society, respectfully ask your attention to the following state- 
ment : — 

This Society was originally instituted under the simple name 
of " The Historical Society," in the year 1791 ; and was incor- 
porated, by the name of the Massachusetts Historical Society, 
in the year 1794. 

Its object was briefly set forth in the following preamble to 
the Act of Incorporation : " Whereas the collection and preser- 
vation of materials for a political and natural history of the 
United States is a desirable object, and the institution of a 
society for those purposes will be of public utility." 

Among its leading founders were the Rev. Dr. Belknap, the 
Rev. Dr. Eliot, the Hon. George Richards Minot, the Hon. 
Judge Tudor, and Governor James Sullivan ; whose names 
alone, associated as they are with so many of our earliest 
biographical and historical essays and memoirs, are a sufficient 
evidence of the earnest interest with which the objects of the 
Society were undertaken and pursued. 

It was the first organization in our country of its kind ; and 
it commenced its work under many discouragements. Limited 
by its original charter to sixty Resident Members for the whole 
Commonwealth, and restricted to the holding of a small amount 
of real and personal property, it proceeded slowly and econo- 
mically in the accomplishment of its designs. Yet scarce a 
year had elapsed from the date of its institution, before its first 
publications were issued ; and it has now in the press the 
thirty-fourth volume of a series of " Historical Collections," by 



1858.] MEMORIAL TO THE LEGISLATURE. 267 

all acknowledged to contain some of the most valuable mate- 
rials for the history of Massachusetts, of New England, and of 
our whole country. A list of the principal contents of these 
volumes is subjoined, concluding with the invaluable History 
of Plymouth Plantation, by Governor Bradford, recently dis- 
covered, and now published for the first time, and which might 
well find a place in every town-library in the State. 

Meantime, our Society has been gratified to find that its 
example has been followed in so many other parts of the Union ; 
and it has rejoiced to welcome to a common field of labor kin- 
dred associations in New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, Mary- 
land ; in most, if not in all, the New-England States ; and in 
very many of the States in the South and South-west. 

Nor has it failed to recognize with satisfaction and gratifica- 
tion the rise and progress of other important associations of a 
similar character in our own Commonwealth ; among which 
may particularly be mentioned the American Antiquarian 
Society, at Worcester. 

Within the last thirteen years, a society has been instituted 
and incorporated in the same city with our own, — Boston, — 
bearing the name of the Historic-Genealogical Society, for 
whose welfare and success the best wishes were entertained by 
us all. Believing it to be devoted to the interesting subject of 
genealogy, and only incidentally to history, and thus to occupy 
a field distinct from our own, many of our number have gladly 
become associated with it from time to time. Nor would we 
presume to limit or restrict its operations or efforts to the parti- 
cular sphere which its name has hitherto indicated. 

We have observed, however, with regret, that this society 
has recently petitioned your honorable body for leave to change 
its name, so as to make it approach much more nearly to the 
name which it has been our corporate privilege to bear for 
nearly threescore years and ten. It proposes to be called the 
New-England Historical and Genealogical Society. 

It will be perceived, by referring to the Act of Incorporation 



268 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [FEB. 

of the Historic-Genealogical Society, that it was instituted " for 
the purpose of collecting, preserving, and occasionally publish- 
ing, genealogical and historical matter relating to early New- 
England families." The second article of the original 
constitution also specifies the object of the society to be " to 
collect and preserve • the genealogy and history of early New- 
England families." 

From these statements, it is evident that the founders of the 
society contemplated the subject of history as subordinate to 
that of genealogy. The name hitherto employed expresses 
this subordination ; while that which is proposed not only fails 
to designate it, but, on the other hand, gives history the prece- 
dence. 

It has been found, during the last ten years, that the name 
which this society already bears, commencing with the word 
Historic, has occasioned many inconveniences to both societies. 
Of our own, certainly, we can speak with confidence. Our 
officers will bear witness that the two societies have been fre- 
quently confounded with each other, both at the post-office and 
in the public mind. It has often occurred, that communica- 
tions, and contributions of pamphlets and books, have been so 
addressed from a distance as to leave a doubt to which associa- 
tion they should belong ; and not a little trouble has been 
caused to our Secretaries and Librarian in making the rightful 
discrimination and distributions. 

Under such circumstances, it has become greatly desirable, 
that, if any change of name is to be made, it may be one 
which will widen, and not narrow, the difference already exist- 
ing. 

It is true that our own title is the Massachusetts Historical 
Society, and that the association in question propose for them- 
selves the title of the New-England Historical and Genealogical 
Society. And perhaps we might be pardoned for suggesting, 
in behalf of our sister societies in the other New-England States 
as well as in our own behalf, that a title which should thus seem 



1858.] MEMORIAL TO THE LEGISLATURE. 269 

to imply an absorption of all the State Historical Societies of 
New England would hardly be for the advantage of any of them. 
But, waiving this consideration, it is well known that few per- 
sons take the trouble to remember or to write out these long 
compound names. The distinctive name of our Society is the 
Historical Society ; and any other society bearing the same 
name, even as a part only of its whole name, in the same city, 
cannot fail to occasion misunderstandings and mistakes, which 
must, in the end, be inconvenient and injurious to both. Both 
associations having their head-quarters in Boston, and receiv- 
ing their communications through the same post-office, and 
publishing their notices and their occasional proceedings in the 
same newspapers, it seems essential to the maintenance of 
their individuality an d„ identity that their names should not be 
so much the same as to be easily and naturally mistaken the 
one for the other. 

Having held the name of the Historical Society for sixty- 
seven years, and having done, as we believe, no discredit to 
that name, we should hardly be pardoned by any lover of his- 
tory or tradition were we to intimate a willingness to part 
with it. 

We trust that we shall not subject ourselves to any charge 
of discourtesy to an institution of so much more recent 
establishment, if we suggest that the adoption of a different 
name might not be inconsistent with their interests or their 
honor. 

More especially do we feel at liberty to make this suggestion 
at a moment when they are themselves seeking a change of 
name at the hands of the Legislature. 

Many excellent names are open for such an association, 
which it is not necessary for us to specify. But we are con- 
strained to ask of your honorable body, that our ancient Society 
may be permitted to enjoy its original name, within the limits 
of the city of Boston, without interference or infringement, 
and that such other name may be assigned to the association 



270 



MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



[Feb. 



in question as may save us both from the inconveniences which 
have been described. 



Jo si ah Quincy. 
James Savage. 
Nathan Hale. 
Edward Everett. 
William Jenks. 
Joseph Willard. 
Lemuel Shaw. 
Convers Francis. 
George Ticknor. 
Nathan Appleton. 
Rufus Choate. 
William H. Prescott. 
Robert C. Winthrop. 
Charles F. Adams. 
George E. Ellis. 
John C. Gray. 
Nathl. L. Frothingham. 
George S. Hillard. 
William Minot. 
Peleg W. Chandler. 
Lucius R. Paige. 
Solomon Lincoln. 



Chandler Robbins. 
John Langdon Sibley. 
Richard Frothingham, jun. 
Nathaniel B. Shurtleff. 
David Sears. 
Thomas H. Webb. 
George Livermore. 
Francis Parkman. 
Ellis Ames. 
John H. Clifford. 
William Brigham. 
Emory Washburn. 
Samuel K. Lothrop. 
Lorenzo Sabine. 
Thomas Aspinwall. 
Nathaniel I. Bowditch. 
George R. Russell. 
Charles H. Warren. 
James Walker. 
Oliver Wendell Holmes. 
Frederic Tudor. 
F. H. Hedge. 



Boston, Feb. 8, 1858. 



The foregoing memorial was unanimously adopted, 
and ordered to be attested, as the act of the Society, by 
the signatures of the President and Recording Secre- 
tary. 

It was further ordered, that Hon. Josiah Quincy, 
Hon. John H. Clifford, and Hon. Emory Washburn, be 
a Committee to represent the Society before any Com- 
mittee of the Legislature to which this memorial may 
be referred. 

Jacob Bigelow, LL.D., of Boston, and Hon. George 
T. Davis, of Greenfield, were elected Resident Members 
of the Society. 



1858. J COLONEL BROOKS AND CAPTAIN BANCROFT. 271 

Lord Lyndhurst was unanimously elected an Hono- 
rary Member of the Society. 

General Sumner read the following extracts from 
an unpublished memoir of Governor Brooks, relating 
to an affecting interview between Colonel Brooks and 
Captain Bancroft, and to the part these two Massa- 
chusetts officers bore in the Saratoga campaign : — 

In the year 1816, General Brooks having been declared gover- 
nor by the two branches of the Legislature, I was invited out 
to breakfast with him at Medford on the day fixed for his inau- 
guration. Colonel Hall, and one or two others, were present. 
I shall never forget the day, which was one of the pleasantest 
in June. There was a cavalcade formed in Boston, which 
proceeded to Medford, under the command of General Sulli- 
van, to escort the popular governor into Boston to the State 
House, where he was to take the oaths of office. The inhabi- 
tants of Medford, being desirous of rendering all honor to their 
beloved townsman, had watered their streets, that there might 
be no dust, and crowded the windows and tops of the houses 
to see the cavalcade. They had previously appointed peace- 
officers to serve on the occasion, who stopped all carriages at 
the ends of the various streets which entered the village, so 
that the procession should be uninterrupted. It was under- 
stood that the escort would arrive at Medford at nine o'clock. 
We sat down to breakfast at eight. While at our meal, Gene- 
ral Brooks saw through the window a tall old gentleman, 
dressed in his Sunday clothes, with a cocked hat and a long 
cane. He said to Colonel Hall, " Pray, look out at the door, 
and see if that is not Captain Bancroft who is passing by. I 
think it is, and that he is come down to witness the ceremonies 
of this occasion, and is going by my house, being too modest to 
present himself. Pray, go out, and ask him in." He was 
right in his conjecture ; and Colonel Bancroft (for, after he 



272 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Feb. 

was discharged from the army, he took command of a regiment 
of militia, which he held a long time) modestly entered the 
side-door. This was the distinguished officer who commanded 
a company in the eighth regiment, under the command of 
Colonel Brooks, in the battle of Bemis's Heights, between the 
armies of General Gates and Burgoyne f during the Revolu- 
tionary war, on the 7th of October, 1777. After the usual 
salutations between those two officers, who had so much dis- 
tinguished themselves on that occasion, General Brooks asked 
Colonel Bancroft to take a cup of coffee, and remain until the 
procession came up ; and added, " There is no man whom I 
am more glad to see on this occasion than yourself." To 
which the other answered (the parties, forgetting their present 
rank, addressed each other by the titles they held in the Revo- 
lutionary army), " There is no one, Colonel Brooks, who 
rejoices in it more than I do. I breakfasted at Reading, and 
came down on purpose to witness the ceremonies of this occa- 
sion. The choice of a governor which the people have made 
delights my heart. I can truly say, that, if you make as good 
a governor as you did a colonel of a regiment, you will render 
yourself distinguished, and the people will be blessed in your 
administration." Tears flowed down both their cheeks as they 
clasped each other's hands. To the remarks of Captain Ban- 
croft, Colonel Brooks replied (they still shaking hands hear- 
tily), " I thank you, Captain Bancroft, for your kind expressions 
of confidence. I did not seek the office to which the people 
have elected me, and I fear I do not possess the qualifications 
for it ; but I can truly say, that if, in the office of governor, I 
have such support as I had as colonel of a regiment in taking 
Breyman's Fort, on Bemis's Heights, I shall hope to do the 
State some service." 

The cavalcade now entered the streets of Medford amid the 
acclamations of the citizens. General Brooks mounted his 
charger ; and, by his request, I rode by his side, as a volunteer 
aid. On the way, as. we were ascending Winter Hill, General 



1858.] COLONEL BROOKS AND CAPTAIN BANCROFT. 273 

Brooks remarked, " Perhaps you do not know, sir, the reason 
why the meeting between Captain Bancroft and myself was so 
affecting. I will explain : — 

" On the 7th of October, the day of the last battle with General 
Burgoyne, General Arnold and several officers dined with Gene- 
ral Gates. I was among the company, and well remember that one 
of the dishes was an ox's heart. While at table, we heard a firing 
from the advanced picket. The armies were about two miles from 
each other. The firing increasing, we all rose from table ; and Gene- 
ral Arnold, addressing General Gates, said, ' Shall I go out, and see 
what is the matter ? ' General Gates made no reply ; but, upon being 
pressed, said, ' I am afraid to trust you, Arnold.' To which Arnold 
answered, ' Pray, let me go : I will be careful ; and, if our advance does 
not need support, I will promise not to commit you.' Gates then told 
him he might go, and see what the firing meant. Arnold lost no time in 
advancing with his brigade ; and, finding that the attack was serious, 
engaged the left of the enemy's right, where, meeting with great 
obstacles, he ordered me (I was then commanding the eighth, or Jack- 
son's regiment, as it was commonly called) to get a position upon the 
enemy's right flank. This was protected by Breyman's Fort, mounting 
several brass pieces, and was rather a breastwork, or redoubt, with 
guns mounted on three sides, than a fort. I advanced under cover of 
the woods ; and, as the regiment deployed out of them in front of the 
fort, the enemy, surprised at our sudden appearance, fired a volley of 
musketry at us. Seeing what they were about to do, as their heads 
rose above the parapet, the company on the left flank of the regiment, 
which was most exposed, immediately covered themselves from the 
discharge by dropping down behind a partridge-log. I thought the vol- 
ley had shot them all down, and rode to the extreme left in great 
haste to ascertain what was the matter. I was greatly agitated, and 
met Captain Bancroft, who commanded the left wing. He also had 
quit his place to see what disaster had occurred. At this moment the 
company all rose up, and we were relieved from our apprehension. I 
was still, however, greatly agitated ; and, speaking sharply to Captain 
Bancroft, I said, ' What business have you here, sir ? ' The cap- 
tain said, ' I came to see what had happened to the company on the 
left.' I said, ' You are out of place, sir.' With the submissive spirit 
of a good soldier, he replied, ' I am ready to obey your orders, colonel.' 
With great perturbation I responded, ' My orders are, that you ad- 

35 



274 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [FEB. 

vance, and enter those lines, sir.' The captain, smarting under the 
reproof, quickly gave the word, ' Come on, my boys, and enter that 
fort.' Then, leading the way himself, he made a rapid movement for- 
ward, and his company ascended the parapet. Surprised at the 
suddenness of the assault, the enemy retired from the fort, and the 
whole regiment entered it. 

" General Arnold, whose energy gave spirit to the whole action, 
having been wounded in the foot, Brigadier- General Learned assumed 
the command of the brigade. 

" As the day was far spent, the men threw themselves down to 
rest, when General Learned called the officers together, and, in hear- 
ing of the men, said, ' I have called you together, gentlemen, to see 
whether you agree with me in opinion, that it is best to return to our 
position. I am clearly of opinion, that we cannot hold this place till 
morning: we may all fall a sacrifice in making the attempt.' The 
officers of my regiment were the only ones who dissented from this 
opinion. I said I thought it was time enough to retreat when the ene- 
my appeared. If he does not attempt to retake the fort, it will be 
an everlasting disgrace for us to abandon it ; and if he does, and we can- 
not defend it, there will be no dishonor in retreating. At any rate, 
my men are fatigued, and want rest and refreshment before they can 
move anywhere. The soldiers cheered us as we returned from the 
council. 

" Shortly afterwards, General Learned (who was a weak man) called 
another council to advise with the officers again ; and, as I was going 
to the meeting, my men said, ' For God's sake, colonel, don't retreat : 
we have taken the work, and we are able to keep it ; ' and cheered again. 
At the second council, but one other officer sided with me. Before the 
council broke up, an officer (who turned out to be an aide-de-camp 
of General Gates) rode up in great speed, and cried out, ' Who 
commands here ? ' The answer was, ' Brigadier-General Learned.' 
As he appeared, the officer said, ' My orders from General Gates 
are, that you should retain the possession of this fort at all hazards ; ' 
and rode back with as much speed as he came up. 'There, now, 
Colonel Brooks,' said General Learned, ' I dare say you like that ; and, 
as your regiment had a principal hand in taking the work, I will com- 
mit to them the defence of it.' 

" It is sufficient to say, that this great trophy of the victory over 
General Burgoyne's army remained in the hands of the regiment all 
night, and that the American troops were never afterwards dispossessed 



1858.] COLONEL BROOKS AND CAPTAIN BANCROFT. 275 

of it ; for, after the battle, General Burgoyne fell back, and, about 
a fortnight afterwards, surrendered his whole army to General 
Gates. 

" It is somewhat remarkable, that, at the dinner at General Gates's 
that day, the chief point of discussion among the officers was, whether 
we should commence the attack, or receive General Burgoyne behind 
our breastwork at the lines, should he attempt to advance. Arnold 
contended for the former, saying, ' that the assailant had the advantage : 
for he can always take his own time, and choose the point of attack ; 
and, if repulsed, he has only to retreat behind his own lines, and form 
again.' General Gates said, on the contrary, ' If undisciplined militia 
were repulsed in the open field, and the enemy pressed upon them in 
their retreat, it would be difficult to form them again, even behind their 
own breastworks ; for, if they were under a panic, they would keep on 
retreating, even after they had passed their own lines.' 

" The opinion General Arnold expressed in this discussion was pro- 
bably the cause why Gates was afraid to trust him to go out when the 
firing was first heard, lest he should bring on an engagement in 
the open field, and contrary to his own opinion of its expediency." 

It appears from an original paper in my possession, addressed 
to Mr. Tubout, and signed by Lientenant-Colonel J. M. Hughes, 
who was an aide-de-camp to General Gates, called " Notes 
relative to the Campaign in 1777 against Burgoyne," that 
" General Gates took command of the Northern army in 
August, then reduced, by sickness, desertion, and skirmishes, 
to a small number ; and, from that time until September, he 
was employed in creating a new army, providing it with arms, 
ammunition, &c, and in giving to it new animation ; when he 
commenced his march towards the enemy, who was then on 
his march towards him, and had halted at Stillwater; and, 
on the 3d of September, he took position on Bemis's Heights." 

It is not strange that General Gates did not dare to trust his 
raw troops in the open field against the disciplined force of a 
regular army ; but it is a wonder that such a force should 
have contended with that army in a bloody battle, in a fort- 
night after it took up its position, and, in three weeks after- 
wards, have repulsed the enemy in that general engagement 



276 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Feb. 

on the 7th of October, in which Captain Bancroft bore so dis- 
tinguished a part. 

Captain Bancroft, as it appears from a letter of his in my pos- 
session, written to his family, dated " Camp, three miles above 
Stillwater, Sept. 30, 1777," was not with his regiment in the 
battle of the 11th, not having returned from home until 
the 30th. On that day he dined in company with Colonel 
Brooks, his townsman ; and wrote home to his wife, giving 
some account of the severity of the battle, which lasted from 
one o'clock until sunset. He says, further, that " an engage- 
ment is daily expected ; and, if it should happen, it will, I 
hope, be the cause of good news to you all." The letter is so 
characteristic of the man (whom I well knew, having served 
in the General Court with him when he represented the town 
of Reading), that I cannot forbear transcribing the latter 
clause of it : — 

" When I left home, my feelings, and my inability to govern my 
passions, forbade my saying much to you, or any of my family, which 
otherwise I should be glad to have said ; which I hope you will not 
impute to want of affection. The necessity of leaving my wife, family, 
and friends, at such a time as this, for so long a period, must needs cause 
some painful thoughts ; but I hope, in due time, a joyful meeting will 
more than compensate for the pain of separation. In the mean time, 
let us arm ourselves with patience and fortitude to meet whatever 
trials await us, and be resigned to the disposal of Divine Providence, 
whatever may be allotted to us. Especially may it be our care and 
concern to be prepared for a better meeting in a better world, where 
we shall be separated no more by wars and commotions, but peace, 
love, and harmony shall reign triumphant for ever." 

The foregoing gives the reader a just idea of the character 
of the man who was the champion of the regiment ; and the 
extracts from his wife's letter, which follow, not only corrobo- 
rate Governor Brooks's account of Captain Bancroft's distin- 
guished bravery, but show what an incentive to glorious deeds 
the sentiments of a patriotic and pious wife inspire. 



1858.] CAPTAIN BANCROFT AND HIS FAMILY. 277 

It is to bo regretted that the letter of Captain Bancroft, 
giving an account of the battle of the 7th of October, is not 
among the papers of the family. The reader will perceive, by 
the date of Mrs. Bancroft's letter in reply to it, the difficulty 
there was in transmitting letters at that time. They were 
generally confided to the private hands of persons going to or 
coming from the army. The whole of Mrs. Bancroft's letter is 
extremely well expressed ; yet I will make only those extracts 
from it which apply to my present purpose. It is directed to 
" Captain James Bancroft, Colonel Jackson's regiment, South- 
ern Camp," and begins thus : — 

"My Dear, — We received yours, in which you mention the cap- 
ture of Lieutenant- General Burgoyne. We congratulate you, sir, 
upon this early success, in which your regiment was distinguished for 
their valor and good conduct. 

" Dr. Hay desires especially to present his compliments of congra- 
tulation upon the great success attending the American arms under 
General Gates, in which you had an active part. 

" The children all present their duty, and express their joy to hear 
that you endure the fatigues of war with so much spirit, and so little 
prejudice to your health. 

"As you take a particular concern for your domestic affairs, we 
have the further satisfaction to acquaint you that our crop of corn 
turned out remarkably well. We have cider enough for our family ; 
and our work goes on well. 

" General Burgoyne's officers are quartered principally in Cam- 
bridge ; the men, on Prospect Hill ; the German troops, upon Winter 
Hill. All friends desire their respects may be given you, and that you 
would embrace every opportunity to acquaint us with the situation of 
the army. No more to add at present, but an earnest desire that you 
may prosper in arms as long as the service of our country shall require. 
Honor ever be the concomitant of your actions ; and, in due time, may 
you be returned to your loving family in health, and laden with divine 
mercy. 

" I remain your loving wife, 

" Sarah Bancroft. 
" Reading, Dec. 18, 1777." 



278 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Feb. 

General Sumner also read an original manuscript, 
entitled " Notes relative to the Campaign against Bur- 
goyne," by J. M. Hughes, aid-de-camp to General 
Gates, in the handwriting of Major Hughes. The 
manuscript was presented to the Society, and is here 
printed : — 

Campaign of 1777 against General Burgoyne. 

August, General Horatio Gates took the command of the 
Northern army, which then had retired to Van Schaick's 
Island, about nine miles from Albany, under the command 
of General Schuyler, reduced, by sickness, desertion, skir- 
mishes, to a small number. 

From this time to about the beginning of September, Gene- 
ral Gates was employed in creating a new army, providing it 
with arms, ammunition, &c, and giving it new animation; 
when he commenced the march of the army towards the 
enemy, who was then on his march towards him ; and halted 
at Stillwater. On examining the ground in advance, it was 
found that it was more favorably disposed for a defensive posi- 
tion than that at Stillwater ; and on the 3d of September, or 
thereabouts, the army again marched, and established its posi- 
tion at Bemis's Heights, the right on the North River, and 
the left extending towards Saratoga Lake, with a large ravine 
in front. The enemy continued approaching by slow marches ; 
when he took a position about three miles in advance of Gene- 
ral Gates's front, in which situation both armies were employed 
constructing works and lines for their mutual protection until 
the nineteenth day of September, when the first conflict took 
place, which commenced on the part of the enemy about one 
o'clock, and continued till dark, with various success on both 
sides. Both armies, after this, continued in a state of prepa- 
ration, but without any thing important happening, until the 
7th of October, when it was perceived by the advanced picket, 



1858.] CAMPAIGN AGAINST GENERAL BURGOYNE. 279 

about twelve o'clock at noon, that the enemy were in motion, 
and that a body of troops with artillery and intrenching tools 
were disposed to fix themselves on an eminence that lay oppo- 
site to our left, which would have annoyed our lines if they had 
been successful. Upon this information, General Gates ordered 
an attack to be made, the army then being at the lines. This 
attack was seconded by the New-Hampshire and New- York 
lines, part of the Massachusetts and some Connecticut militia. 
It was long and bloody. The enemy were driven from their 
advanced intrenchments ; many prisoners and field-pieces 
were taken ; great numbers killed and wounded. This vic- 
tory put a stop to the enemy's ideas of conquest ; and, on the 
night of the 10th of October, they abandoned their advanced 
position, and retreated to Saratoga, leaving their hospital-camp 
to the clemency of General Gates. On this event, General 
Gates proceeded with his army, as fast as bridges could be pre- 
pared and impediments removed, which the enemy had thrown 
in the way on their retreat, to hang on General Burgoyne's 
rear, and came up with him, on the 12th of October, at Sara- 
toga, where he found General Burgoyne had occupied the 
high grounds north of the Fish Creek. Preparations were 
immediately taken to render it impracticable for him to 
retreat. Bridges were thrown across Fish Creek and the 
North River ; the militia from the eastward were placed 
between him and the lake ; dispositions were made for a gene- 
ral assault on the lines ; troops marched to commence the 
attack, but were recalled, on account of the fog and the dan- 
ger of falling into an ambuscade, until the 15th, when the 
enemy beat a chamade, and Colonel Kingston, the British 
Adjutant-General, appeared with a flag, proposing a cessation 
of hostilities until articles of capitulation could be agreed on. 
This was consented to, and terms were agreed to finally on the 
seventeenth day ; and, on the eighteenth, the enemy piled their 
arms on the low grounds of General Schuyler's farm, about 
ten o'clock, a.m., of that day, when General Burgoyne sent an 



280 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Feb. 

officer to inform General Gates that he was approaching. 
General Gates at that time was mounted on horseback, with 
his family, reviewing the general situation, when General 
Burgoyne arrived with General Philips, Lord Petersham, 
General Reidheisal, and a number of others composing his 
suite ; — with General Gates, Colonel Wilkinson, Colonel 
Troup, Major Armstrong, Major Pierce, Major Hughes, Colonel 
Lewis, D. Q. M. General, and a number of other officers. 
The general officers, if I recollect right, were at their posts. 
The salutations were familiar and polite ; and the two suites, 
&c, retired to a large marquee that had been prepared for their 
reception. I do not recollect the circumstances about General 
Burgoyne presenting his sword in token of a surrender : this 
can be procured from General Gates. The army was, on that 
day, drawn up in two lines, colors flying, — the head of the 
lines beginning at Fish Creek, and so extending towards head- 
quarters, under the command of General Glover ; and, about 
eleven o'clock, the British began their march through them, 
with colors cased, which was not completed till late in the 
afternoon. On the entrance of the British front, the music 
beat " Yankee Doodle," and so continued till the march was 
completed. The Americans behaved with admirable order, 
with shouldered arms ; and not a single insult was given. 

J. M. Hughes, 

Tlien Aid-de- Camp to Major- General Gates. 
For Mr. Tubout. 



SPECIAL MEETING, Feb. 25. 

The Society held a special meeting on Thursday even- 
ing, Feb. 25, at half-past seven o'clock, at the house of 
the President, No. 1, Pemberton Square. 

A letter was communicated from Charles Stoddard, 



1858.] PROCEEDINGS OF SPECIAL MEETING. 281 

Esq., executor of Dr. John Pierce, announcing the 
decease of Mrs. Pierce, and the fact of his having for- 
warded to the Society's library Dr. Pierce's Memoirs, in 
eighteen bound volumes. 

On motion of Mr. Warren, it was Voted, That the 
Memoirs be referred for examination to a Special Com- 
mittee, consisting of three members. Messrs. Warren, 
Ellis, and Bowditch were appointed a Committee of 
Examination. 

The President read a communication from George 
Adlard, Esq., of New York, entitled " Some Account of 
the Dudleys of Massachusetts, by George Adlard ; in 
which Cotton Mather's more particular Account of 
Governor Thomas Dudley is brought to Light." After 
an interesting conversation, it was referred to a Special 
Committee, consisting of Messrs. Willard, Deane', and 
the Librarian. 

The Librarian presented a small volume, entitled 
" Ten Chapters in the Life of John Hancock, now first 
published since 1789 ; being a Collection of the Writings 
of ' Laco,' as published in the ' Massachusetts Centinel ' 
in the months of February and March, 1789, with the 
addition of No. vii., which was omitted," — a gift to 
the Society by Waldo Higginson, Esq. 

The President presented a pamphlet, written by Pre- 
sident Madison, but not published, with the title, " Jona- 
than Bull and Mary Bull ; " printed for presentation, by 
J. C. Maguire, Washington, 1856. 

Mr. Brigham exhibited a deed from John Quincy, of 
Braintree, to John Franklin, tallow-chandler, &c, &c, 
bearing date, Aug. 8, 1750, conveying a tract of land 

36 



282 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [FEB. 

at Shed's Neck. Mr. Quincy stated that the spot 
referred to in the deed was undoubtedly the same on 
which the " Sailors' Snug Harbor " now stands. 

Mr. R. Frothingham, jun., read a spirited and 
patriotic original letter from William Ellery, dated 
Newport, March 27, 1775, from the papers of Judge 
March ant. 

Mr. Frothingham also, after remarking on the large 
amount of evidence there is in the handwriting of Gov- 
ernor Hutchinson to show how urgently he counselled 
additional restraints adverse to the rights of the people 
of Massachusetts, read a letter written by him soon 
after his arrival in London, dated London, July 23, 1774, 
of which the following is an extract : — 

" I am not only free from any share in the three Acts of 
Parliament (Act altering the Government of Massachusetts, 
Act for the Administration of Justice, and the Boston Port 
Bill), but I am also willing to own, that they are so severe, 
that, if I had been upon the spot, I would have done what I 
could, at least, to have moderated them ; and, as to the first 
of them, I have all the encouragement to hope and believe 
that my being here will be the means by which the town of 
Boston will be relieved from the distress the Act brings upon 
it, more speedily and effectually than otherwise it would have 
been. Lord Dartmouth has more than assured me, that he is 
of the same opinion, and that he should have been glad to 
have seen me here, if he had no other reason for it than that 
alone. I wish for the good opinion of my countrymen, if I 
could acquire it without disturbing the peace of my own 
mind." 

Mr. Asfinwall exhibited a valuable volume of origi- 
nal manuscripts belonging to his library, entitled 



1858.] PROCEEDINGS OF MARCH MEETING. 283 

" Yong's Voyage to Virginia and Maryland ; " consist- 
ing of three parts, — 1. A letter to Sir Tobias Mat- 
thew. 2. A letter to Secretary Windebank. 3. A 
relation of the voyage, sent to the Secretary Windebank 
with the preceding. In introducing the volume to the 
notice of the Society, Mr. Aspinwall offered interesting 
remarks. 

The President presented a pedigree of Saltonstall, — 
a gift to the Society from Leverett Saltonstall, Esq. 

Mr. Livermore offered for examination the original 
manuscript of Dr. Franklin's " Articles of Belief, and 
Acts of Religion ; in two parts. Philadelphia, Nov. 20, 
1728." 

Mr. Bowditch exhibited a curious ancient volume, 
the titlepage of which is as follows : " The Tragedies, 
gathered by John Bochas, of all such princes as fell 
from their estates, through the mutability of fortune, 
since the creation of Adam untill this time. Translated 
in English by John Lidgate, Monke of Burye. Im- 
printed at London by John Wayland, at the signe of the 
Sun, Fleet Street, 1558." 



MARCH MEETING. 

The Society held their stated monthly meeting on 
Thursday, March 11, at noon, in the Dowse Library; 
the President, Hon. Robert C. Winthrop, in the 
chair. 

The Librarian announced donations from the Ameri- 
can Philosophical Society; the Chicago Historical So- 



284 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [MARCH, 

ciety ; the New-York State Agricultural Society ; the 
Mercantile-Library Company, Philadelphia; Hon. Joseph 
White ; Thomas S. Kirkbride, M. D., Philadelphia ; 
Leverett Saltonstall, Esq. ; Dr. S. A. Green ; E. H. 
Derby, Esq. ; and from Messrs. Appleton, Robbins, 
Savage, Sibley, Sumner, and Winthrop, of the Society. 

The Corresponding Secretary communicated a corre- 
spondence between himself and the Secretary of the 
State of Pennsylvania, with reference to the completion 
of the set of " Colonial Records," or " Minutes of the 
Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania," of which 
the first ten volumes only were already in the Library of 
this Society. He announced the reception of the six 
volumes, numbered xi. to xvi. inclusive, which were 
needed to supply the deficiency; and also of twelve 
volumes of Pennsylvania Archives, 1664 to 1790. 
Whereupon it was Voted, That the thanks of the Society 
be presented to the Executive of the Commonwealth of 
Pennsylvania for this valuable donation to the library 
of the Massachusetts Historical Society. 

The Corresponding Secretary also read a letter from 
William H. Trescott, Esq., accepting his appointment 
as a Corresponding Member of the Society. 

Hon. Stephen Salisbury, of Worcester, and Henry 
Austin Whitney, Esq., of Boston, were elected Resi- 
dent Members. 

The Chair appointed Messrs. Lincoln, Gray, and 
Brigham a Committee to nominate, at the annual meet- 
ing in April, a list of officers for the ensuing year. 

The chair nominated Messrs. Bowditch, Tudor, and 
Russell a Committee to examine the accounts of the 
Treasurer. 



1858.] miss belknap's donation. 285 

Mr. Ticknor, after a few prefatory remarks, announced 
to the Society that he had been authorized by Miss Eli- 
zabeth Belknap, the daughter and sole surviving child 
of Rev. Jeremy Belknap, D.D., to present to the Massa- 
chusetts Historical Society " all the manuscripts, books, 
and pamphlets, relating to American history, which had 
been left many years ago by her father." 

In explanation of the wishes and intentions of the 
donor, Mr. Ticknor read the following letter : — 

George Ticknor, Esq. 

Dear Mr. Ticknor, — It has long been my intention to 
devise to the Massachusetts Historical Society all the manu- 
scripts, books, and pamphlets, relating to American history, 
left many years ago by my father, the Rev. Jeremy Belknap, 
D.D., believing that he himself would eventually have made 
this disposition of them. As none of his immediate family 
now survive, except myself, whatever duty remains to be ful- 
filled in relation to them devolves upon me. I accept, 
therefore, your kindly offered assistance to put my long-che- 
rished intentions into execution ; and I hereby authorize you 
to present to the Massachusetts Historical Society all the 
manuscripts of whatever kind, and such of the books and 
pamphlets as you and those who may be associated with you 
shall judge to be most valuable to them. But in case you find 
among the books and pamphlets any that are duplicates of 
those already in the possession of the Society, or any that do 
not relate to American history, those I authorize you to pre- 
sent to the Public Library of the city of Boston, if you shall 
judge that to be the safest and most proper place for their 
deposit and preservation. 

Hoping that such portion of this collection as may be given 
to the Historical Society may prove useful to future American 
historians, and that the remainder may be of some value to 



286 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [MARCH, 

the citizens of Boston, where my father was born and where 
he died, and in whose welfare he always- felt a deep interest, 
I intrust them, with great pleasure and entire confidence, to 
the two institutions above named. 

With many thanks for the kind interest you have taken in 
the fulfilment of my intentions, I remain, with much respect, 
Your obliged friend, 

Elizabeth Belknap. 

Mr. Ticknor stated that the books and manuscripts 
had been sent to his library, and that he had requested 
the assistance of Mr. Deane, of the Society, in examin- 
ing them, and obtaining such a general description of 
their character as might enable him to give to the Socie- 
ty, in advance, some idea of the value of the donation. 

At his suggestion, Mr. Deane communicated the 
result of the examination, as far as he had found oppor- 
tunity to conduct it, substantially as follows : — 



REPORT ON THE BELKNAP DONATION. 

BY CHARLES DEANE, ESQ. 

The account I am able to furnish at this time, of the books, 
pamphlets, and manuscripts in this large collection, must 
necessarily be a very general one ; and a few of those only will 
be specially noticed which attracted attention as rare and 
valuable. Many others, possibly of equal value, must be 
passed over. Among the books may be noticed — 

Higginson's " New-England Plantation. The third edition, 
enlarged." London, 1630. — This is probably the copy from 
which the reprint was made in the first volume of our Col- 
lections. There were three editions of this work printed in 







2jz*^***^4^£^^&^^ 



1858.] THE BELKNAP DONATION. 287 

1630. Rich erroneously places the first edition under the 
year 1628. Dr. Young reprinted it in the " Chronicles of 
Massachusetts." , 

" The Glorious Progress of the Gospel amongst the Indians 
in New England." London, 1619. " Strength out of Weak- 
ness ; or, a Glorious Manifestation of the Further Progress of 
the Gospel amongst the Indians in New England." London, 
1652. — These are the originals of two of the series of tracts 
on the progress of the gospel among the natives here, commu- 
nicated in letters from Eliot, and others engaged in that cause. 
The most of the series will be found reprinted in the fourth 
volume, Third Series, of the Society's Collections. 

" An Essay for the Recording of Illustrious Providences," 
&c. By Increase Mather. Boston, 1684. — This contains, 
for the first time, the account of the celebrated shipwreck 
of Anthony Thacher, in 1635, in sailing from Ipswich to 
Marblehead in a boat belonging to Mr. Allerton, in which 
were twenty-three persons ; all of whom, except Thacher and 
his wife, perished. The story is told in a letter from Mr. 
Thacher to his brother Peter in England. The book has been 
recently (1856) reprinted in London. 

Scottow's " Narrative of the Planting of the Massachusetts 
Colony," &q. Boston, 1694. — This copy belonged to Prince, 
the annalist, and, before him, to Rev. Mr. Bailey, and was pre- 
sented to the latter by the author, " Sept. 18, 1694." In Mr. 
Bailey's hand, on the titlepage, is written, " By Mr. Scotway." 
The author's name does not appear in the book as printed. 
There is a copy of this narrative already in the library of the 
Society, wanting the title. The work was reprinted in the last 
volume of the Collections. Scottow also published, in 1691, 
" Old Men's Tears for their own Declensions," &c. 

" A Brief Narrative of the Success which the Gospel hath 
had among the Indians of Martha's Vineyard (and the Places 
adjacent), in New England," &c. By Matthew Mayhew. 
Boston, 1694. 



288 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [MARCH, 

" Massachusetts ; or, the First Planters of New England." 
Boston, 1696. — This contains Dudley's Letter to the Countess 
of Lincoln, written in March, 1631, and here first printed ; 
one of the most interesting and authentic documents in our 
early history. It contains, also, the Humble Request ; Allin 
and Shepard's Preface to their Defence of the Answer to the 
Nine Questions; and John Cotton's Preface, in Latin, to 
Norton's Answer to the Questions of Apollonius. Farmer, 
the antiquary, had an early manuscript copy of Dudley's Let- 
ter, which contained more than the printed copy ; and, in 1834, 
he published it in the New-Hampshire Historical Society's 
Collections. Mr. Force printed it subsequently in one of his 
volumes of tracts, from this manuscript copy of Farmer. The 
latter supposed that manuscript to be the one from which 
the print was first made. 

Calef 's " More Wonders of the Invisible World." London, 
1700. Written in reply to Cotton Mather's " Wonders of the 
Invisible World." — This work was published in London, 
probably on account of the unwillingness of publishers here 
to incur the wrath of the Mathers. Eliot states that copies 
were burnt in the college-yard by order of Increase Mather, 
the president. This copy belonged to Cotton Mather ; and he 
has written on the inside of the cover the following : " Job 
xxxi. 35, 36. My desire is — that mine adversary had written a 
book. Surely I would take it upon my shoulder, and bind 
it as a crown to me. Co. Mather." This book was reprinted 
in Salem in 1796 and in 1823. The following concerning Calef 
was copied by Dr. Belknap into one of his memorandum- 
books : — 

" Robert Calef, author of ' More Wonders of the Invisible World/ 
printed at London in 1700, was a native of England; a young man of 
good sense, and free from superstition ; a merchant in Boston. He 
was furnished with materials for his work, by Mr. Brattle, of Cam- 
bridge ; and his brother, of Boston ; and other gentlemen, who were 
opposed to the Salem proceedings. — E. P." 



1858.] THE BELKNAP DONATION. 289 

Mather was seriously exercised in his mind by the opposi- 
tion of Calef, and by the publication of his book ; and he gave 
free vent to his feelings in his manuscript Diary, extracts from 
which we here furnish. These extracts are chiefly from the 
recovered portions of the Diary found among the Belknap 
papers. The 10th of June, 1698, was set apart by Dr. Mather 
for the exercise of a secret fast ; and the concluding part of 
the entry, under this date, is as follows : — 

" Moreover, the Lord is furnishing of me with one special oppor- 
tunity for the exercise of his graces, under a trial of a very particular 
importunity. There is a sort of a Sadducee in this town ; a man who 
makes little conscience of lying, and one whom no reason will divert 
from his malicious purposes. This man, out of enmity to me for my 
public asserting of such truths as the Scripture has taught us about 
the existence and influences of the invisible world, hath often abused 
me with venomous reproaches and most palpable injuries. I have 
hitherto taken little notice of his libels and slanders ; but this con- 
tempt enrages him. I understand that he apprehends the shortest 
way to deliver people from the belief of the doctrines which not I 
only, but all the ministers of Christ in the world, have hitherto enter- 
tained, will be to show the world what an ill man I am. To this end, 
I understand he hath written a volume of invented and notorious lies, 
and also searched a large part of the books which I have published, and, 
with false quotations of little scraps here and there from them, endea- 
vored for to cavil at them. This volume he is, as I understand, 
sending to England, that it may be printed there. And now I thought 
it high time for me to look about me. 

" Wherefore, in my supplications, I first of all declared unto the 
Lord, that I freely forgave this miserable man all the wrongs which 
he did unto me ; and I prayed the Lord also to forgive him, and to do 
him good, even as to my own soul. But then 1 pleaded with the Lord, 
that the design of this man was to hurt my precious opportunities of 
glorifying my glorious Lord Jesus Christ ; and I could not but cry unto 
the Lord, that he would rescue my opportunities of serving my Lord 
Jesus Christ from the attempts of this man to damnify them. I submit- 
ted my name unto the disposals of the Lord, owning my deserts to have 
it vilified, and begging his help to bear it prudently and patiently if it 
must be vilified. But yet I earnestly besought the Lord, that, for the 

37 



290 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [MARCH, 

sake of the calumnies which ray Lord Jesus Christ once did suffer for 
me, I might be delivered from such calumnies as might unfit me to 
serve him : so I put over my calumnious adversary into the hands of the 
righteous God, unto whom I made my appeal against him. In those 
hands I left my adversary, as not having any other to appeal unto. 

" And I now believe that the holy angels of my Lord Jesus Christ, 
whose operations this impious man denies (which is one great cause of 
his enmity against me), will do a wonderful thing on this occasion." 

The 5th of November, 1700, was set apart as a day of 
fasting on account of an epidemical sickness. 

" But this was not all the occasion of my being thus before the Lord. 
Some years ago, a very wicked sort of a Sadducee in this town, 
raking together a crew of libels which he had written at several times, 
(especially relating to the Wonders of the Invisible World, which have 
been among us), wherein I am the chief butt of his malice (though 
many other better servants of the Lord are also most maliciously 
abused by him) ; he sent this vile volume to London to be published. 
Now, though I had often and often cried unto the Lord, that the cup 
of this man's abominable bundle of lies, written on purpose, with a 
quill under a special energy and management of Satan, to damnify my 
precious opportunities of glorifying my Lord Jesus Christ, might pass 
from me, yet, in this point, the Lord has denied my request. The 
book is printed, and the impression is this week arrived here. The books 
that I have sent over into England, with a design to glorify the Lord 
Jesus Christ, are not published, but strangely delayed ; and the books 
that are sent over to vilify me, and render me incapable to glorify the 
Lord Jesus Christ, — these are published. 

"I set myself to humble myself before the Lord under these 
humbling and wondrous dispensations, and obtain the pardon of my 
sins, that have rendered me worthy of such dispensations. I also set 
myself to beseech the Lord that he would assist me with his grace to 
carry it prudently and patiently, and not give way to any distemper 
under the buffets which are now likely to be given unto me, but imi- 
tate and represent the gentleness of my Saviour. 

" And I resigned the whole matter unto the Lord, praying that my 
opportunities to glorify my Lord Jesus Christ might not be preju- 
diced. Other supplications proper on this occasion I carried before the 
Lord, and a sweet calm was produced in my mind. I am assured 
there will fall out a remarkable thing." 



1858.] THE BELKNAP DONATION. 291 

"4d. 10 ra. Wednesday. — My pious neighbors are so provoked at 
the diabolical wickedness of the man who has published a volume of 
libels against my father and myself, that they set apart whole days of 
prayer to complain unto God against him ; and this day particularly. 
Wherefore I also set apart this day for prayer in my study (but 
in the afternoon I went and prayed and preached with my neighbors) 
on that occasion. 

" I humbled myself before the Lord, and confessed and bewailed 
my sins, which gave a triumph unto his justice, in the humbling dispen- 
sation which was now upon me ; and I cried unto him, that I might be 
supported under it, and it might be sanctified unto me, and that my 
precious opportunities to glorify my Lord Jesus Christ might be pre- 
served. So I left the matter with the Lord." 

"28d. 10 m. Saturday. — The Lord has permitted Satan to raise 
an extraordinary storm upon my father and myself. All the rage of 
Satan against the holy churches of the Lord falls upon us. First 
Calf's book, and then Colman's, do set the people in a mighty ferment. 
All the adversaries of the churches lay their heads together, as if, by 
blasting of us, they hoped utterly to blow up all. 

" The Lord fills my soul with consolations, inexpressible consola- 
tions, when I think on my conformity to my Lord Jesus Christ in the 
injuries and reproaches that are cast upon me, and in my being so 
much forsaken by those that should appear with more vigor for the 
evangelical interests. 

" But I think it very necessary to be much in prayer at so critical 
a time as this, that the Lord would now stand by me (according to 
Jer. i. 19), and assist me to an exemplary patience and courage and 
watchfulness under the present storm, and hasten the period of 
it, and wonderfully defeat and confound the enterprises of mine and 
his church's adversaries, and bring out of it vast benefits unto me 
and unto his churches. 

"Wherefore I set apart this day also for prayer, with fasting, 
before the Lord on this occasion. 

" The devotions of the day were much carried on by me with sing- 
ing agreeable psalms. But I had one circumstance about it, that my 
psalm-book always opened so that the first psalms I cast my eye upon 
were still the most agreeable, perhaps, of any that I could have 
chosen. This observation may easily be abused unto superstition ; 
but yet sometimes there is an angelical agency in those occurrences." 



292 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [MARCH, 

In February, 1700-1, he says, — 

" In this place, it may not be amiss for me to record one passage 
more : — 

" Neither my father nor myself thought it proper for us to publish 
unto the churches our own vindication from the vile reproaches and 
calumnies that Satan, by his instrument Calf, had cast upon us ; but 
the Lord put it into the hearts of a considerable number of our flock, 
who are in their temporal condition more equal unto our adversary, to 
appear in our vindication. They came to us desiring that we would 
furnish them with memorials and evidences concerning matters of fact 
which they might produce on our behalf, and offering then to write 
what might be for the satisfaction of all good men concerning our con- 
duct. My father hereupon gave them divers letters of attestation 
from very considerable persons to his fidelity in his agency, and added 
a further instrument under his hand relating to that matter. I also 
sent them a large letter, signed by my own hand, concerning the chief 
of the points wherein I had been myself aspersed and abused. The 
brethren, being thus furnished, composed an handsome answer unto 
the slanders and libels of our slanderous adversary, and inserted into 
their answer the memorials which we had given them. Seven of them 
were by the rest pitched upon to set their names unto it ; and they 
did so. The book being hereupon printed, the Lord blesses it for the 
illumination of his people in many points of our endeavor to serve 
them, whereof they had been ignorant ; and there is also set before 
all the churches a very laudable example of a people appearing to vin- 
dicate their injured pastors, when a storm of persecution is raised 
against them. The Lord accept and reward this work of our faithful 
people! It is entitled ' Some Few Remarks.'" 

" 12 d. 12 m. Wednesday [1700-1]. — I happen to begin this new 
year of my life with a very agreeable employment. The six 
friends who published my vindication from the abuses of our calumni- 
ous and malicious adversary (the first of the seven is gone to a better 
world) being willing to commit their good cause into the hands of the 
Lord Jesus Christ, I sent for them, and spent this day with them in 
my study, where we fasted and prayed, and sang psalms ; and we also 
put over our adversary into the hands of our Almighty Lord, with 
supplications that he would send his angel to stop that ill man from 
going on any further in his wicked enterprise." 



1858.] THE BELKNAP DONATION. 293 

" 5 d. 2 m. Saturday [1701]. — I find the enemies of the churches 
are set with an implacable enmity against myself ; and one vile fool, 
namely, R. Calf, is employed by them to go on with more of his filthy 
scribbles to hurt my precious opportunities of glorifying my Lord 
Jesus Christ. I had need be much in prayer unto my glorious Lord 
that he would preserve his poor servant from the malice of this evil 
generation, and of that vile man particularly. 

" I set apart this day for prayer, with fasting, before the Lord on 
this occasion : and I obtained assurance from heaven, that the Lord 
will gloriously defend me and employ me, and rescue and increase 
my opportunities ; and I shall quickly see a wonderful thing." 



" Some Few Remarks upon a Scandalous Book against the 
Gospel and Ministry of New England, written by one Robert 
Calef," &c. Boston, 1701. — This is the attempted Reply to 
Calef alluded to by Mather in his Diary above quoted. The 
motto on the title is significant, " Truth will come off Con- 
queror." 

" Entertaining Passages relating to Philip's War." By 
Thomas Church. Boston, 1716. — An edition of this book 
was published by Mr. S. G. Drake in 1827, in which he speaks 
of this first edition, but says he had never met with a copy of it. 
Mr. Drake printed from the second edition, published at New- 
port in 1772. I have heard that Dr. Stiles edited the Newport 
edition. It was embellished with a fanciful and frightful 
picture of the Indian king, Philip, from the graver of Paul 
Revere ; and an equally fanciful one of Colonel Church ; 
for I think the latter was taken from a picture of Charles 
Churchill, the poet, with the addition of a powder-horn slung 
around his neck. The first edition contained no portraits. 

" Bonafacius. An Essay upon the Good that is to be 
Devised and Designed by those who Desire to Answer the Great 
End of Life, and to Do Good while they Live," &c. Boston, 
1710. The running title is, " Essays to do Good." — « When I 
was a boy," writes Dr. Franklin to Dr. Samuel Mather, from 
Passy, May 12, 1784, " I met with a book entitled ' Essays to 



294 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [MARCH, 

do Good,' which, I think, was written by your father. It had 
been so little regarded by a former possessor, that several 
leaves of it were torn out ; but the remainder gave me such a 
turn of thinking as to have an influence on my conduct 
through life: for I have always set a greater value on the 
character of a doer of good than any other kind of reputation ; 
and if I have been, as you seem to think, a useful citizen, the 
public owes the advantages of it to that book." 

" The Prey taken from the Strong ; or, an Historical Ac- 
count of the Recovery of one from the Dangerous Errors of 
Quakerism. By Peter Pratt, the Subject of that Mercy," &c. 
New London, 1725. 

Also " The Annals of Yale College," by Thomas Clap, 
New Haven, 1766 ; " A Faithful Account of God's Goodness to 
Mr. Ebenezer Taylor, of Yarmouth, Cape Cod," &c, by George 
Weeks ; a Tract, being the original of Franklin's " Narrative 
of the late Massacres, in Lancaster County, of a Number of 
Indians," 1764 ; a Discourse, by Cotton Mather, on Michael 
Wigglesworth, the author of the " Day of Doom," Boston, 
1705 ; a curious pamphlet, printed at Newport, on the De- 
structive Doctrines of James Macsparran, 1753 ; a copy of 
Washington's Farewell Address, printed at Boston by John 
Russell, 1796, and believed to be the first edition of this cele- 
brated paper printed in a book-form. 

Funeral Sermons and other occasional Discourses by Mather, 
Prince, and other of our New-England worthies, are too nume- 
rous to mention here. A few of the books named above are 
already in the library of the Society. 

Among the manuscripts in this collection is a large quan- 
tity of Dr. Belknap's Sermons ; covering, probably, the whole 
period of his ministry. One parcel was labelled " Sermons 
preached during the Revolution." Another parcel appears to 
have been selected for publication after his decease, and pro- 
posals were issued for such publication ; but, it is believed, it 
was never made. 



1858.] THE BELKNAP DONATION. 295 

There is a largo quantity of manuscript material written 
out by Dr. Belknap in preparing his historical and biographi- 
cal works, with the last " copy " of much that was sent to the 
press. In a large number of memorandum-books, duodecimo 
and quarto, besides much that has been printed, there is con- 
siderable preparation made for a continuation of his American 
Biography, which he evidently intended to bring down to 
his own time. These books contain also a variety of original 
and selected matter on historical subjects, conversations with 
distinguished men of his day, anecdotes, <fcc, &c. The many 
letters carefully preserved among his papers show the large 
correspondence which he must have had with distinguished 
historical and literary as well as other public men throughout 
the country. 

His correspondence with Ebenezer Hazard, the Postmaster- 
General under the old confederation, and the editor of the 
two volumes of " Papers " which bear his name, was exten- 
sive. I find nearly two hundred and fifty of his letters ; 
and it would be desirable to recover Dr. Belknap's part of 
that correspondence, which is in possession of some member 
of the family of Mr. Hazard. Dr. Belknap kept but com- 
paratively few copies of his own letters. 

There is quite a number of the Letters of Dr. John Eliot 
to Dr. Belknap, written mostly during the residence of the 
latter at Dover, N.H., and penned with all the freedom which 
their intimate personal relations would inspire. 

His Account of his " Tour to the White Mountains " in 
1784, in company' with Rev. Mr. Little of Wells, Dr. Cutler of 
Ipswich, Dr. Fisher of Beverly, and a few others, would be 
read with interest. 

There are thirty-four interleaved Almanacs of Dr. Belk- 
nap, from 1758 to 1798 inclusive (a few years being want- 
ing), which contain memoranda, in his hand, more or less ex- 
tensive, on a great variety of subjects, private and public. 
The extracts from some of the later ones here given are not 



296 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [MARCH, 

without interest. The following are minutes of the debates in 
the Massachusetts Convention which met in Boston in January, 
1788, for ratifying the Federal Constitution : — 

" Wednesday, Jan. 9. — The Convention of this Commonwealth 
met at the State House in this town to consider the new Constitution 
of Government for the United States. 

" Thursday, 10th, p.m. — The representatives' room being too small 
to contain them, they removed to Mr. Thacher's meeting-house. 

" Friday, 11th. — The meeting-house being too large and high to 
hear one another, they got tired of it ; and on — 

" Saturday, 12th, returned to the State House. The number of 
them this day was three hundred and twenty-nine. A mixture of all 
sorts of characters ! Some of the insurgents of last winter among 
them ; several of Shays's captains and counsellors.* 

"Monday, 14th. — They complain of the place as too much 
crowded, and the air unwholesome ; but the weather is, and has been 
for some days, extreme cold. However, on — 

" Tuesday, 15th, they chose a Committee to provide some other 
place. This Committee came to me to speak for our meeting-house in 
Long Lane. I informed our society's Committee of it, and they agree 
to meet them to-morrow. 

" This day, a.m., the Convention were passionate and clamorous. 
p.m. — More mild. It is now said, that, if a vote were to be taken at 
this time, it would be against the Constitution. Some are determined 
against it, others for it. All the hope is that converts will be made 
among the moderate men. 

" Wednesday, 16th. — Our meeting-house in Long Lane preparing 
for the reception of the Convention to-morrow. Rainy. Several 
carpenters and other tradesmen exerted themselves to fit the house ; 



* " The Convention now sitting here is the largest and most complete representation 
that ever was made of the State of Massaclmsetts. Men of all professions, of all 
ranks, and of all characters, good, bad, and indifferent, compose it. The numbers 
against the Constitution are great. They have a few noisy leaders, — Widgery, Thomp- 
son, and Nason. Taylor is another: he is cunning and loquacious, but, more decent. 
The best men, the best speakers, are in favor of it; and, by the discussion, new light 
breaks out daily, so that the friends of it are strengthened and confirmed; and, it is 
said, converts are made among the moderate and silent members. How this is, time 
will discover. Several of Shays's officers are among the number." — Note by Dr. Belk- 
nap, under date of January. 



1858.] THE BELKNAP DONATION. 297 

and Thursday, P.M., the Convention removed into it. Debates on 
fourth paragraph, about the apportionment of representatives and 
taxes by numbers, — three freemen to five slaves. 

" Friday, 18th. — The same subject continued through the day. 
p.m. — Dana made an excellent speech ; spoke like an honest patriot, 
and a man of firmness. Gerry had been sitting, and biting the head of 
his cane, till this p.m., when a question was asked him, which he desired 
might be reduced to writing.* It was ; and, after a debate, he was 
desired to give his answer in writing. The question was, why 
Georgia had three representatives to our eight, and yet their last tax 
was but one-thirteenth of ours. 

" Saturday, 19th. — The Continental Senate under consideration. 
The speakers as follows : — 

" Cooley (querist) moved to pass it over. 

" Singletary, from Sutton, against it : the time for which they are 
chosen too long. 

" Deacon Davis, of Boston, spoke in favor of it. 

" Dr. Taylor, of Douglas, against it. 

" Thomas Dawes, pro. 

" Singletary, from Sutton. — Danger to posterity. 

" Cooley (querist to query). 

" General Brooks, jun. — Senate under sufficient checks. 

" Then Gerry's answer in writing was read. The tax was by 
compromise. Massachusetts moved for more than eight representa- 
tives, but could not obtain it. 

" Rufus King explained and enlarged on the same subject : said 
that no certain rule ever had been in the power of Congress, there- 
fore laid their taxes as they found the States able; the judgment 
founded on conjecture ; and the money paid considered as so much 
loaned on credit by each State, and to be settled hereafter. The case 
of Georgia was, before the war, small ; much harassed by it ; since 
rapidly increasing ; the number of representatives no more than what 
they had, or would have, a right to, considering their increasing popu- 
lation. 

" Parsons asked whether they had not suffered by Indian wars. 



* Monday, Jan. 14. — " An order was made and passed, that Hon. Elbridge Gerry, 
Esq., be requested to take a seat in the Convention, to answer any questions of fact 
from time to time that the Convention may ask respecting the passing of the Constitu- 
tion." — Debates of the Massachusetts Convention. 

38 



298 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [MARCH, 

" Thompson brought in the case of Bagaduce, or Penobscot, in 
which we had advanced more than our proportion. 

" King answered : We never should gain a recompense but by such 
a Constitution as now proposed. 

" Thompson. — A parcel of pathetic nonsense. 

" Dawes reads requisitions of Congress about money proportioned 
among the States. 

" Dalton answers Thompson : The present Constitution gives us an 
advantage over Georgia and other small States. The confederation 
gave each one vote : now we have eight to their three ; or, taking in 
New Hampshire, nine to three. 

" Widgery asks whether their influence in the Senate was not as 
much as ever. 

" Dalton answers : Gain, upon the whole. 

" Snow. — Something about a porcupine. 

" Dana. — The Senate represents and secures the sovereignty of 
each State ; therefore equal voice. 

" Strong. — A detail of proceedings in Convention about Senate ; 
that Gerry was of the Committee about proportioning the Senate ; that 
the Committee was appointed because the small States were jealous 
of the large ones ; and the Convention was nigh breaking up but for this. 

" Dawes. — Query : Was the same Committee about representa- 
tives? Answer: No. 

" Jones, of Bristol, objected to the duration of the Senate. 

" Ames. — The Senate is to prevent the consolidation of the States, 
and keep alive their individuality and sovereignty. 

" ShurtlifF objected to consolidation of the States. 

" Parsons. — Distinguish consolidation of the States from that of 
the Union: if the former, then all States swallowed up in one; 
but the Union is rendered firm and indissoluble by the Constitution. 

" Jones renews objection. 

" King answers : Senate will be checked by the Continental repre- 
sentatives ; by the Legislature of each State, who have a right to 
instruct ; and he is very bold who will dare disobey. It is necessary 
they should have a long duration ; nature of business requires it. 

" Taylor for recalling delegates within the year. 

" Cooley. — Queries : Whether a majority of senators present make 
treaties, if only three ? 

" Dana answers : 'Tis no Senate without a quorum. Two-thirds 
of a quorum necessary. 



1858.] THE BELKNAP DONATION. 299 

" Gerry informed the President that he was stating a number of 
facts respecting the Senate. (He had been writing at the table for 
some time.) 

" Dana adverted to the transaction of yesterday, and moved, that, if 
Gerry was preparing any thing, it was proper that a question should 
be proposed to him in writing. Gerry attempted to speak. Parsons 
insisted on his right, as a member, to be heard. A long altercation 
ensued about Gerry's attendance ; his right to state facts and give 
reasons ; and the time for adjournment came without his having oppor- 
tunity to give in what he intended, though a question was reduced to 
writing by Widgery to this purpose : ' That Mr. Gerry be desired 
to give information respecting the Senate.' 

REMARKS. 

" It appeared to me that Gerry was premature in offering his 
statement before he was called upon ; that Dana was right in moving 
for a written question. And I suppose, had not many other members 
interposed their opinions, the matter might have gone on ; but, as they 
also insisted to be heard, the matter was protracted till one o'clock. 
Gerry certainly was the first yesterday to insist on' having a question 
in writing. He then acquiesced in the determination to give his an- 
swer so. As he had now been preparing a written statement, he ought 
to have either waited till a question was proposed, or to have pri- 
vately procured somebody to put the question : his offering it was 
premature and irregular. After the adjournment, and before they got 
out of the house, Gerry and Dana had some pretty high words on the 
affair. It is my opinion, that, if Gerry had any regard to his own per- 
sonal dignity, he would not sit there to be moved as a machine only by 
the pull of both parties. 

"Monday, Jan. 21, a.m. — An intimation in the paper of this day, 
that an attempt had been made to bribe some members of the Con- 
vention, occasioned the appointment of a Committee to inquire into 
the matter. The article respecting the power of Congress to regulate 
the time, place, and manner of holding elections was under conside- 
ration. The speakers, King, Dana, Parsons, and Ames. Substance 
as follows: Sect. 4. It had been objected that this would give 
Congress power so to control elections as to perpetuate themselves. 
Answer : Representatives must be chosen according to numbers, 
and the people divided into districts. The first elections must be 
made by the State Legislatures. Men so chosen will not be fond of 



300 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [MARCH, 

altering the mode of election, if they mean to keep themselves in 
power. 

" If this State could confide in its own Legislature to regulate the 
election of its own members for Congress, yet what control could they 
have on the Legislatures of other States, if they were to do wrong ? 
The control must be in the General Government. Rhode Island have 
now a bill before them to confine elections to corporations, as in Eng- 
land ; and this is one of the great grievances complained of in England. 
They want to reduce Newport and Providence to two members only, 
as the smaller towns. Connecticut is represented by corporations 
also ; South Carolina, by districts. Charlestown sends thirty. The 
back counties complain of inequality : they want an alteration in their 
Constitution. It cannot be made. But Congress are now to have 
power to see that the people are represented on the great principle of 
numbers. 

" The Senate and Representatives cannot play into one another's 
hands ; for the place of election of senators is limited, and the repre- 
sentatives cannot alter it. The principle on which representatives are 
elected is numbers ; and this is unalterable. 

" Friday, 25th. — A Mr. Smith, of Lanesborough in Berkshire, 
made an excellent speech in Convention, in which he gave a detail of 
the sufferings of the peaceable people in that quarter, last winter; 
deducing from thenCe the necessity of such a form of government 
as that now under consideration, and adducing several arguments 
and answers to objections in plain, familiar style, with a number of 
natural comparisons, in a strain of natural eloquence that was very 
pleasing and popular. 

" Monday, 28th. — Mr. King, in speaking on the Inspection Laws 
(Sect. 10, 1st Article), said this was introduced on account of the 
State of Virginia, where it is the custom to lodge the tobacco in pub- 
lic warehouses for inspection and for safety ; that the owner receives 
a certificate from the inspecting officer of the quantity of tobacco 
lodged there ; that the State insures it, while there remaining, from 
fire and other accidents ; that these certificates pass from one to an- 
other as bank-bills, and that the tobacco is delivered to the person 
who demands it, on presenting the certificate ; that, on receiving it, he 
pays the charge of inspection and storage, and a premium of insu- 
rance, which goes into the public treasury, and amounts to a duty on 
exportation. 

" P.M. — Mr. Coffin Jones read a letter from Alexandria in 



1858.] THE BELKNAP DONATION. 301 

Virginia, informing that that State had laid new duties on certain 
enumerated articles imported: among the rest, twenty per cent on 
beef, which amounts to a prohibition. This was to show the necessity 
of uniform imposts, as proposed in the Constitution. 

" The Executive Power (Art. 2) then came on. Mr. Gorham 
explained the nature of the President's office ; the advantage of the 
responsibility of one man, &c. 

" Mr. King stated the reasons for not appointing a Council, which 
were that the small States would insist on having one, at least ; and 
that would make another body similar to the Senate. Therefore it was 
thought, if in some cases the Senate might answer, and in others the 
President might require the opinion of the officers of State, that, 
in this case, secrecy, despatch, and fidelity were more to be expected 
than where there is a multitudinous executive. 

" Bishop, of Rehoboth, a noted insurgent, urged objections, which 
were founded, as usual, on a supposed breach of trust and suspicion of 
roguery in the President and Senate ; as that he might combine with 
foreigners ; make treaties to transport troops to any part of the 
world ; and then, having the power of pardon previous to conviction, 
might screen himself and other offenders. It was answered by Dana, 
Parsons, and King, that it was necessary to have power of pardoning 
previous to conviction, to prevent people, who might be led astray, 
from suffering ignominy ; that, if pardons were granted for secret 
offences, they could avail nothing, unless pleaded and recorded, — this 
would bring the crime to light ; that money was necessary to transport 
forces, and appropriations for this must be made by Congress, &c, &c. 
Old White said, that, if the President had the power of life, he had 
also the power of death, and that without a jury ; that, in our for- 
mer controversy with Britain, all the cry was, 'A jury, a jury, a jury ! ' 
but now we were giving up this darling privilege, &c. This raised an 
universal laugh. After it had subsided, Mr. S. Adams observed that his 
friend was mistaken ; that the President had no power to put any man 
to death, but either to pardon him, or put him to his jury for trial. 

" The Federalists now seem to be sure of carrying the Constitution. 
Thompson, one of the Antifederalist champions, said this day publicly 
in the House, that, if the Constitution should be carried (a thing which 
he never before would admit as possible), it would be but by a bare 
majority. 

" Tuesday, 29th. — Rainy. I did not attend. This day the judi- 
ciary power was under consideration. 



302 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [MARCH, 

" Wednesday, 30th, p.m. — Pater West gave the Convention an 
excellent lecture on morality ; the necessity of their acting on princi- 
ple by reason, judgment, and conscience ; that if any of them had 
made a promise that they would vote against the Constitution, and 
were now convinced that it was right, they ought to repent of their 
wicked promise, and vote according to their judgment, &c. 

" Thursday, 31st, a.m. — On tests. Then the general question 
came on. Governor Hancock informed them of some propositions 
he intended to make p.m. 

" P.M. — The house very full. Hancock proposed some amend- 
ments. Adams spoke in favor of them ; Taylor and Thompson against 
them. Thompson adverted to what Smith had said some days ago. 
This brought up Smith, who gave a recital of the origin and progress 
of opposition to Government in Berkshire for seven or eight years 
past; said the same spirit appeared here, &c. Insurgents vexed; 
grew warm and passionate. Sedgwick explained. Smith made a 
concession, and went on ; told them a story of Dr. Bellamy preaching 
against swearing, &c. Nason made bustle about the galleries crack- 
ing. Dana said it came from those who wish to crack the Constitu- 
tion. Gorham vindicated the delegates to Philadelphia against the 
charge of exceeding their commission. 

" Pay-roll ordered to be made out to next Tuesday, 

" Hancock's Proposals to be printed. 

" Saturday. — A Committee to consider the propositions. 

" Monday. — Reported some additions. 

" Debate continued on the propositions for amendments till Mon- 
day ; and many proselytes were thereby gained to the Federal side. 
The Antifederal party, finding themselves weakened, began to think 
of an adjournment, which was openly moved for on — 

" Tuesday, 5th. — The reason assigned was, that, as new matter 
was brought forward, — viz., amendments, — it was proper they should 
consult their constituents. After a whole day's debate, the question 
was put and carried against the adjournment by a majority of ninety- 
nine ; the whole house being three hundred and twenty-nine. 

" Wednesday, Feb. 6, a.m. — S. Adams offered some additional 
amendments to secure the rights of conscience, liberty of the press, 
right to keep arms, protection of persons and property from seizure, 
&c. ; which gave an alarm to both parties. The Antifederalists sup- 
posed that so great a politician would not offer these amendments, 
unless he thought there was danger on these points. The Federalists 



1858.] 



THE BELKNAP DONATION. 303 



were afraid the new converts would desert. Adams perceived the 
mischief, and withdrew his proposal. Another renewed it ; but it was 
voted out, and Adams himself was obliged to vote against it: and four 
o'clock, p.m., was assigned to take the great question, which was done 
by yea and nay ; when the numbers were thus, — whole, three hundred 
and fifty-five : — 

"For the Constitution, with proposal of amendment .... 187 
Against it *"° 

Majority in favor of it 19 

355 
N.B. — There were nine absent members . . 9 

364 in all.* 

" Several leaders of the minority acknowledged they had been can- 
didly used, and fairly beaten ; and promised, that, now the Constitution 
was established, they would submit, and use their influence to pro- 
mote peace and union. 

" Then, for two or three days, the town was over head and ears in 
joy, — bells, drums, guns, processions, &c. 

" It was matter of speculation how Mr. Adams came to propose 
such amendments. Many suspicions were formed ; and some thought he 
meant to overthrow the Constitution. Certainly it was the worst blow 
which had been given to it. In a week or two afterward came along 
a protest of the Pennsylvania minority, in which these very things are 
objected to the Constitution which he proposed to guard against by 
his motion. It is said the copies of these protests were purposely 
detained on the road ; but it is supposed Adams had a copy in a letter 
before the Convention was dissolved. 

" An attempt was made by the Antifederalists in Pennsylvania to 
throw an odium on the post-officers for detaining these and other 
papers ; but, in fact, the office has nothing to do with them. The car- 
rying of newpapers is a matter entirely between the printers and the 
riders, and is allowed to the latter as a perquisite. 

" N.B. — The tradesmen's meeting at the Green Dragon, previous 



* " Feb. 6, at five, p.m., the Convention ratified the Federal Constitution. It is 
remarked, that the same day ten years ago, and at the same hour of the day, the treaty 
between France and America was signed at Paris." — Note by Dr. Belknap. 



304 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [MARCH, 

to the sitting of the Convention, did a great deal of good. The story 
of it is : — 

" On . . . day of December, the twelve delegates chosen for Boston 
dined together at Governor Bowdoin's, by his invitation. There 
S. A. disclosed sentiments opposed to the Constitution, which were 
combated by the other gentlemen. At parting, A. said he was open to 
conviction. This took air on Friday. Saturday, J. A. and some 
others took care to spread it among the tradesmen (for it must be 
noted that a part of what S. A. said was that the tradesmen were against 
it). On Monday evening, a tradesmen's meeting was held, at which 
some a propos resolves were passed, which were published on Tues- 
day, and which helped to settle some wavering minds among the dele- 
gates, — J. H., J. W., C. J., and S. A. (as is supposed). Adams, in the 
course of debate in Convention, said but little : what he said was 
rather in favor of the Constitution. When it came to the last pinch, 
his introduced amendments had well-nigh overset it. When he per- 
ceived the uneasiness in the minds of both parties, he withdrew his 
motion. One of the Antifederalists revived it. Adams then opposed 
it; said he should vote against it, and actually did so. But it is 
thought his manoeuvre lost several votes for the Constitution. It 
is said C. J. was with him three evenings previous, persuading him not 
to make the motion ; but could not prevail." 

The following miscellaneous entries appear under this same 
year : — 

" This month of July, a brief issued by the Governor, by advice of 
the General Court, was sent to all the religious societies in the State 
for the purpose of collecting money as a fund for the lately insti- 
tuted society for propagating the gospel among the Indians and 
others." 

" Aug. 6. — At Governor Hancock's table, Mr. Gorham related 
to me the following instance of Indian fidelity, which happened the 
present summer : — 

" A company of gentlemen, interested in the lands lately purchased 
of this State, went up into the country of the Six Nations in order to 
get a deed from them of the same lands. When they had advanced 
into their country, the Indians (mistaking them for a company of 
Yorkers) sent them a message desiring them not to come any farther, 



1858.] THE BELKNAP DONATION. 305 

as they might meet with difficulty. They paused and deliberated. At 
length, Major Schuyler said he would write to Butler, a British officer 
at Niagara, with whom he was acquainted, to see if by his interest 
they might not be allowed to hold a treaty with the Indians. He gave 
this letter to an Indian, who promised to deliver it, and bring back an 
answer. The gentlemen tarried where they were. Major Schuyler 
was taken sick, and was obliged to be sent down the country. In his 
absence, the Indian returned. The gentlemen received him, and asked 
him if he had got an answer. He answered by the interpreter, Bean, 
' Yes ; but,' looking round, ' I do not see the man who is to receive it.' 
They told him he was taken sick, and was absent ; but they were of his 
company, and had the same interest in the matter, and asked him to 
deliver it to them. He refused. They consulted among themselves, 
and offered him fifty dollars. He spurned at the proposal. They con- 
sulted again, and concluded, as there was enough of them present, to 
take it from him by force ; and, as there was no danger of his escape, 
they desired the interpreter to communicate to him their intention. 
He did. The Indian drew his knife, clinched the letter in his hand, 
and declared, that, if they offered violence, he would plunge the knife 
into his own heart, and not survive the disgrace. They desisted from 
their proposal, told him the whole case, and asked him if he was will- 
ing to go a hundred miles to deliver the letter to the person to whom it 
was directed. He answered, ' Yes : ' he did not value fatigue, but would 
never be guilty of breach of trust. He accordingly went. The letter 
was favorable to their views ; and they have since bought the land." 

" Last June, the Rev. Mr. Little, of Kennebunk, visited the Penob- 
scot Indians, by order of the General Court, to require the ratification 
of the treaty made with them the summer before last, by General 
Lincoln, at Condiskeag. It happened that they were at home. He 
took with him several persons who were witnesses to the said treaty, 
which was about the cession of lands on each side the river. Having 
proceeded to the old Town, situate on an island about twelve miles 
above the head of the navigation, he was received with suitable 
respect in their council-house ; he being seated on one side, and the 
sachems on the other. When he attempted to begin, they told him 
they were not ready. Presently an old blind sachem was led in, and 
seated : then they were ready. This old man was incapable of busi- 
ness ; but such is their respect to age, that, when any important affairs 
are to be transacted, their old men must be present. Mr. Little 

39 



306 MASSACHUSETTS HISTOKICAL SOCIETY. [MARCH, 

recited the agreement; held up the parchment; produced the wit- 
nesses, whom the Indians recognized; told them' the conditions were 
fulfilled on the part of Government, and that they were required to 
sign the parchment. After consulting about an hour by themselves, 
they ' absolutely negatived the proposition.' Orsong Neptune, their 
orator, pleaded their right to the soil, from five hundred years' posses- 
sion ; from the general peace among the French, Americans, British, 
and Indians ; from the promise of General Washington and the Gene- 
ral Court, in 1775; from their being of the religion of the King of 
France, and intending to remain so. He said, ' We know nothing 
about writing. We mean to have a right heart and a right tongue ; but 
we do not mean to have any thing to do with the treaty at Condiskeag, 
or that writing? 

" Mr. Little answered, ' Brothers and chief fathers of this tribe, 
it is true the great God made you, and put you on this earth to serve 
him. England, France, America, and you are at peace. But remem- 
ber that the lands you now hold were given you by the Massachusetts 
Government. General Lincoln told you at Condiskeag, that, by a for- 
mer war in Governor Pownal's day, you lost your right to this part of 
the country ; that, in 1775, the Massachusetts Provincial Congress at 
Watertown gave you six miles on each side the river from the head of 
the tide, on which you must now rest your claims.' He assured them 
that they should not be disturbed in their religion ; but requested 
them, in the name of the Government, to fulfil their agreement. They 
pleaded that their young men were not present at the treaty of Condis- 
keag. Little replied that the chiefs are now here who were then there, 
and they speak for the whole tribe. They said, ' Formerly governors 
used to speak kind to us ; but now [here the orator was growing pas- 
sionate, but the chiefs interrupted and checked him], — but now they 
speak otherwise. We did not understand what was then done ; we 
were urged and led contrary to our inclination.' 

" Little : ' You asked then for the blankets, powder, shot, and 
flints : Government now gives you all which you then asked, and has 
fulfilled their part. This parchment, signed by the Governor, conveys 
four times as much land as you had before ; and the articles are on 
board the vessel ready. Will you abide by the agreement, and put 
your hands to the seals ? ' 

" They answered, ' We have put our hands to many papers, but 
will not put our hands to that or any other hereafter, for ever.' 

" Little then told them, ' that, after breaking such an agreement, they 



1858.] THE BELKNAP DONATION. 307 

must not expect any more prosperity from Heaven or any favors from 
Government. Government will consider the agreement binding as 
established by words and witnesses, and will expect the same from 
you.' 

" lie then addressed them on the subject of Peal's death,* and told 
them a court would meet at Pownalboro' in two weeks ; and that two 
of their chiefs and such witnesses as they thought proper might go, and 
be supported at the expense of Government. They promised an 
answer in three days. 

" The answer was, * That their young men were going out on a 
hunt ; that Peal's wife and son were at Passamaquody ; that they 
should leave all matters of evidence to us, and rely on the judgment 
of the court.' This conference was on the 21st of June. About 
forty of their principal men present." 

" Oct. 20. — This evening, Captain Robert Wier told me, that, in 
1759, he was owner and master of a transport-schooner in the expe- 
dition to Quebec. From the foretop, he saw the landing of the troops 
at Montmorenci, and their attempt to ascend the very steep cliff, at 
the top of which the French troops were intrenched. They fired down 
upon them with great briskness. It was a clear day : all at once, 
from a small black cloud there came some drops of rain. Before he 
could descend the mast, he was wet through. This shower put an end 
to the action, as they could not maintain their fire, and gave the 
British an opportunity to make their retreat, which they did with 
great loss. He also said, that, on the day when the final battle was 
fought, he was about two miles distant above. He took out his watch 
when the firing began, and held it in his hand till it ceased, which was 
but ten minutes. 

" This battle as well as that at Montmorenci were desperate 
attempts, which such a prudent commander as Amherst would never 
have made. The natural strength of the country was such that no 
ordinary manoeuvres could succeed. Rashness was necessary, and 
Wolfe was rash enough." 

" Nov. 6. — Attended a meeting of the Society for propagating 
the Gospel. Mr. Dexter sent in two letters assigning reasons why he 
disapproved the institution, and declined to be a member ; upon which 

* An Indian, who had been murdered by a white man. — D. 



308 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [MARCH, 

a vote was passed that we would excuse him. His reasons were, that 
it would be to no purpose to send missionaries among the Indians, 
while we ourselves set them so bad an example, not acting according 
to the religion which we profess ; that he could not encourage a Cal- 
vinist mission ; and that the Indians had better not be taught at all, 
than taught Calvin's doctrines ; that, as to the English settlers at the 
Eastward and elsewhere, they might, if destitute, be supplied with 
Bibles and other religious books, and read them themselves ; that, as to 
baptism, he did not see the necessity of ministers to perform it, since 
the Dissenters in England thought any other person might do it, &c. 

"The amount of collections, in consequence of the late brief, is two 
hundred and eighty-seven pounds cash, and one hundred and forty- 
three pounds in various species of paper. A Committee chosen to 
advise and assist the Treasurer in placing the money in good hands, at 
interest." 

" The first sabbath in this month, a Popish chapel was opened in 
this town ; the old French Protestant meeting-house in School Street. 
A clergyman, who was dismissed from the French fleet in disgrace, 
officiates." 

The following is selected from the memoranda of the year 

1789: — 

" At overseers' meeting, Oct. 6, after dinner, Governor Hancock 
related the following anecdote : He was Chairman of a Committee 
of the town upon occasion of the massacre in 1770. They waited on 
Governor Hutchinson at his house, and demanded the removal of the 
regiments. He gave his consent to the removal of the twenty-ninth, 
the obnoxious one. They told him they knew no distinction, and 
demanded to have both removed ; and told him there were ten thou- 
sand men armed, and ready to come into town upon his refusal. He 
desired time for consideration, and trembled as he spoke. 

"The Committee met him again at the Council Chamber,* the 
commanding officer of the regiments being present (Colonel Dairy m- 
ple). They renewed their demand. He endeavored to represent it 
as not in his power to order the king's troops, but wished the com- 
manding officer to do it. He said he waited the General's orders; 



* Samuel Adams has always been represented as the Chairman of the smaller Com- 
mittee who waited on Hutchinson the last time to urge the removal of the troops. — D. 




Eng^by'Win.E. Marshall, from a Portrait by GuUigher.lieloriging, to E. Belknap Esq. 



<smm ' dbskke 



1858.] THE BELKNAP DONATION. 809 

and finally Hutchinson was obliged to give orders for their removal, 
sorely against his will, because he wanted to retain one regiment in 
town. 

" The Committee communicated his orders, removed the guard and 
the sentries, and the troops began to prepare for a removal. Colonel 
Dalrymple came to Mr. Hancock, and told him, that, two of the com- 
panies being posted at the west part of the town, he feared some 
mischief from their marching so far through an enraged populace ; 
and desired that one gentleman of the Committee would march with 
them. Accordingly, Mr. Hancock sent for Mr. W. Molineux ; and he 
consented to go. Molineux walked alongside of the two companies 
from West Boston to Wheelwright's wharf, where they embarked for 
the Castle." 

The brief entry relating to Washington's visit to Boston 
in 1789 may properly find a place here. The portrait alluded 
to, taken by Gullager, is now in the possession of Mr. Edward 
Belknap, of New York. 

" Oct. 24, Saturday. — General Washington arrived at Boston from 
New York. In the morning he reviewed General Brooks's militia, on 
Cambridge Common; then proceeded through Brookline and Roxbury, 
and was received at the entrance of the town by the selectmen and 
citizens, drawn up in two lines extending from Deacon Brown's green- 
house to the Lamb Tavern, arranged according to their several pro- 
fessions, distinguished by proper flags and devices. As soon as the 
President passed, the procession closed, and followed to the State 
House, where a temporary gallery was erected, and an arcade with 
suitable inscriptions. Here an ode was sung. Then the procession 
passed, and saluted the General. He viewed the Independent Com- 
panies, and retired to his lodgings, Mrs. Ingersol's, in Court Street. 

" 25th. — He attended divine service at Trinity Church, a.m. ; and 
at Brattle Street, p.m. 

" 27th. — General Washington having appointed this day for the 
clergy of this town to wait upon him, we went at ten o'clock to his 
lodgings, and paid him our respects ; after which, he went to the 
chapel, and heard music, and then dined at Faneuil Hall by invi- 
tation of the Governor and Council. A very large company was 
invited. 



310 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [MARCH, 

" N.B. — While he was in the chapel, Gullager, the painter, stole a 
likeness of him from a pew behind the pulpit. 

" When I was introduced to General Washington, he said to me, 
' I am indebted to you, sir, for the " History of New Hampshire ; " and 
it gave me great pleasure.' 

"N.B. — Gullager followed General Washington to Portsmouth, 
where he sat two and a half hours for him to take his portrait; which 
he did, and obtained a very good likeness : after which, he laid aside 
the sketch which he took in the chapel ; which, however, was not a bad 
one." * 

The following entries occur under the years 1795 and 
1797: — 

1795, "July 7. — I set out in the mail-stage for Providence, 
Norwich, and Lebanon, to visit the family of the late Governor 
Trumbull, and select papers for the Historical Society. 

"9th. — Got to Lebanon ; staid there till 13th; then set out for 
home ; and arrived safe, 15th, at five o'clock, p.m. 

" Dec. 12. — Arrived at my house, the chests and boxes of papers 
from Governor Trumbull's at Lebanon. They were sent from Nor- 
wich, carted across Cape Cod, and thence brought up to Boston in a 
vessel from Barnstable. f 

1797, "June 19. — Sailed from New Bedford to Cuttehunk Island, 



* In Washington's " Diary from the 1st of October, 1789, until the 10th day of 
March, 1790," recently printed, is the following: " Tuesday, 3d [November, 1789, at 

Portsmouth]. — Sat two hoixrs in the forenoon for a Mr. , painter, of Boston, at the 

request of Mr. Brick [probably Samuel Breck, Esq.], of that place, who wrote Major 
Jackson that it was an earnest desire of many of the inhabitants of that town that he 
might be indulged." 

Some Boston gentlemen, who thought that the painter should be rewarded for his 
trouble, made a raffle to raise a sum sufficient to purchase this picture. It fell to 
the lot of Daniel Sargent, jun., who presented it to Dr. Belknap. As stated above, the 
picture is now in the possession of Mr. Edward Belknap, of New York, a grandson of 
Dr. Belknap: and to his liberality the Society is indebted for the engraving from it, 
inserted on the preceding page; as also for the engraving of Dr. Belknap, on page 2S5, 
from a red-chalk drawing, taken after death, — both executed expressly for this volume. 
— D. 

f These valuable papers are in the cabinet of the Society. A letter from David 
Trumbull, the son of Governor Trumbull, requesting the Society to send a person to 
select these papers, may be seen in vol. ii., Fourth Series, of our Collections. — D. 









1858.] THE BELKNAP DONATION. 311 

and returned 20th. I there found the island in the pond where Cap- 
tain Gosnold built his fort and house, 1602. The cellar remains. 
" 21st. — Returned to Boston." 

In 1796, Dr. Belknap and Dr. Morse were appointed by the 
Commissioners of the Scots' Society for propagating Christian 
Knowledge, &c, a Committee to visit the Indians who were 
the objects of the Society's missions at Oneida and New 
Stockbridge, under the care of the Rev. Mr. Kirkland and the 
Rev. Mr. Sargeant. The Committee, in execution of this 
trust, set forward on what they say was " a long and tedious 
journey of over six hundred miles, in the heat of summer," 
on the 9th of June of that year ; and were absent about four 
weeks. The report which they made will be found published 
in the fifth volume of our Collections. Dr. Belknap kept a 
private journal of that tour, which has never been published, 
and which is preserved here among his papers. It will be 
found well worthy of perusal, and perhaps of publication. 

Besides the large amount of manuscripts connected with 
Dr. Belknap personally, — that is, either written by him or 
addressed to him, — there are many earlier papers, collected 
by him as materials of history and biography. Some of these 
will here be noticed. 

An autograph letter of Thomas Dudley to Governor Win- 
throp, one from the Apostle Eliot to Governor Endicott, and one 
from Roger Williams to John Cotton, of Plymouth, are deemed 
of sufficient interest to be copied entire. 

Thomas Dudley to John Winthrop. 

S r Since my cominge home I haue read over M r Lechfords booke, 
and find the scope thereof to be erroneous and dangerous, if not hereti- 
call, accordinge to my concepcon. — His tenet beinge that the office of 
apostleship doth still continew and ought soe to doe till Crists coming, 
and that a Church hath now power to make apostles as our Saviour 
Crist had when hee was heere, other things there are, but I pray you 



312 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [MARCH, 

consider of this & the insepable consequences of it : I heare that 
M r Cotton & M r Rogers know somethinge of the matter, or man, 
w th whome you may if you please conferre : I heare also that hee 
favoureth M r Lentall & hath so exprest himselfe since M r Lentall was 
questyoned by the ministers : It is easyer stoppinge a breach when it 
begins, then afterwards, wee sawe our error in sufferinge M rs Huchin- 
son too longe : I haue sent you the book herew th that in stead of 
puttinge it to the presse as hee desireth it may rather be putt into the 
fire as I desire : But I pray you lett him know that I haue sent the 
booke to you, that after you haue read it (vv ch I think you said you had 
not yet done) it may be restored to him : I rec yesterday a Ire from 
my lovinge freind M r Burdett to excuse himself of the sclaynder laid 
vpon him for baptiseing any ; w th some high straynes of other matter, 
w ch I haue answered. This is all I haue at present, w th due respect — 
therefore I take leave restinge Yo vs 

Tho : Dudley. 
Eocksbuky dec. 11. 1638. 

I suppose the booke to be rather coppyed out then contryved by 
M r Lechford hee beinge I thinck, not soe good a grecyan & hebritian 
as the author vndertakes to be. 

There was one heere to day of waymouth to buy treacle (as I 
heare) who reported that there are 60. psones sicke there of the spotted 
feaver except 3. of them of the small pox : If this be true the plague 
is begun in the Campe for this sinne of Peor. 

Labelled " Brother Dudley about Mr. Lechford's Book." 



John Eliot to John Endicott. 

Right W r pfull S e This Sachem, the bearer hereofF saith y* his 
name is in the record of the Sachems who submited to your Govnrn*, 
by the name of Ousamequin, though now his name be changed to 
Matchippa. Also he saith that Wompontupont Sachem of Quabaog 
was included in that submission, being under Nashshauanon the 
Sachem of Nashauwog, & was. one who chose Nashshauanon to act 
on his behalfe, & is included in his submission, & also did contrybute 
unto that collection for a p r sent of 200 fathom, w ch they p r sented to 
the p r sent Governour. these things p r mised, they crave the benefit 
of your pmise w c h you made them at the time of their submis- 
sion, viz. Ptection. for Unkas did, 16 days sine, make a cruel 



1858.] THE BELKNAP DONATION. 313 

slaughter on your subjects, three he slew, one man & two women. 
& caryed away five captives, they laugh at the name of o r Gov- 
no r , because they have a major whom they confide in. they desire 
justice, & they desire theire captives, they humbly request the 
pformance of your p r mise. on this Arrand he is now sent, & desired 
me to write his petition, for to make knone the sume of what he hath 
to say, & thus requesting your pdon for my boldnesse, I remaine 

Your w r ps to serue you in o r . Lord 

John Eliot. 

Natik this 28 of the 1* 61. 

postscript, the leader of those that did this slaughter, & also did 
make a slaughter on your subjects last year'e, is the sonne of Sasakoos 
his wife, whom Unkas married. & begineth w*h these, to begin his 
revenge for your slaughter of his Freinds & kindred, the Pequots. 
this message he sent to the Sachems under your protection, he begineth 
w th your skirts first. 

[Addressed] To the right wsf 11 M 1 ' Endecot 

Govrno r of the Massachusets 

these P r sent. 

Roger Williams to John Cotton, of Plymouth. 

Providence, 25 March, 1671 (so called). 

Sir, — Loving respects premised. About three weeks since, I 
received yours, dated in December,* and wonder not that prejudice, 
interest, and passion have lift up your feet thus to trample on me as on 
some Mahometan, Jew, or Papist; some common thief or swearer, drunk- 
ard or adulterer ; imputing to me the odious crimes of blasphemies, 
reproaches, slanders, idolatries ; to be in the Devil's kingdom ; a grace- 
less man, &c. ; and all this without any Scripture, reason, or argument, 
which might enlighten my conscience as to any error or offence to God 
or your dear father. I have now much above fifty years humbly and ear- 
nestly begged of God to make me as vile as a dead dog in my own eye, 
so that I might not fear what men should falsely say or cruelly do 
against me ; and I have had long experience of his merciful answer to 
me in men's false charges and cruelties against me to this hour. 

My great offence (you so often repeat) is my wrong to your dear 
father, — ■ your glorified father, &c. But the truth is, the love and honor 

* " 10 br " in the original. The orthography of this letter is here modernized. — D. 

40 



314 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [MaKCH, 

which I have always showed (in speech and writing) to that excellently 
learned and holy man, your father, have been so great, that I have 
been censured by divers for it. God knows, that, for God's sake, I 
tenderly loved and honored his person (as I did the persons of the 
magistrates, ministers, and members whom I knew in Old England, and 
knew their holy affections, and upright aims, and great self-denial, to 
enjoy more of God in this wilderness) ; and I have therefore desired 
to waive all personal failings, and rather mention their beauties, to pre- 
vent the insultings of the Papists or profane Protestants, who used to 
scoff at the weaknesses — yea, and at the divisions — of those they 
use to brand for Puritans. The holy eye of God hath seen this the 
cause why I have not said nor writ what abundantly I could have done, 
but have rather chose to bear all censures, losses, and hardships, &c. 

This made that honored father of the Bay, Mr. Winthrop, to give 
me the testimony, not only of exemplary diligence in the ministry 
(when I was satisfied in it), but of patience also, in these words in a 
letter to me : " Sir, we have often tried your patience, but could never 
conquer it." My humble desire is still to bear, not only what you 
say, but, when power is added to your will, an hanging or burning from 
you, as you plainly intimate you would long since have served my 
book, had it been your own, as not being fit to be in the possession of 
any Christian, as you write. 

Alas ! sir, what hath this book merited, above all the many thousands 
full of old Romish idols' names, &c, and new Popish idolatries, which 
are in Christians' libraries, and use to be alleged in testimony, argu- 
ment, and confutation ? 

What is there in this book but presseth holiness of heart, holiness 
of life, holiness of worship, and pity to poor sinners, and patience 
toward them while they break not the civil peace ? 'Tis true, 
my first book, the " Bloody Tenent," was burnt by the Presby- 
terian party (then prevailing) ; but this book whereof we now speak 
(being my Reply to your father's Answer) was received with 
applause and thanks by the army, by the Parliament, professing 
that, of necessity, — yea, of Christian equity, — there could be no 
reconciliation, pacification, or living together, but by permitting of dis- 
senting consciences to live amongst them ; insomuch that that excel- 
lent servant of God, Mr. John Owen (called Dr. Owen), told me before 
the General (who sent for me about that very business), that, before I 
landed, himself and many others had answered Mr. Cotton's book al- 
ready. The first book, and the point of permitting Dissenters, his 



1858.] THE BELKNAP DONATION. 315 

majesty's royal father assented to ; and how often hath the son, our 
sovereign, declared himself indulgent toward Dissenters, notwithstand- 
ing the clamors and plottings of his self-seeking bishops ! And, sir (as 
before and formerly), I add, if yourself, or any in public or private, 
show me any failing against God or your father in that book, you shall 
find me diligent and faithful in weighing, and in confessing or replying 
in love and meekness. 

Oh ! you say, wrong to a father made a dumb child speak, &c. 
Sir, I pray forget not that your father was not God, but man, 
— sinful, and failing in many things, as we all do, saith the Holy 
Scripture. I presume you know the scheme of Mr. Cotton's Con- 
tradictions (about church-discipline), presented to the world by Mr. 
Daniel Cawdrey, a man of name and note. Also, sir, take heed 
you prefer not the earthen pot (though your excellent father) before 
his most high eternal Maker and Potter. Blessed that you were born 
and proceeded from him, if you honor him more for his humility and 
holiness than for outward respect, which some (and none shall justly 
more than myself) put upon him. 

Sir, you call my three proposals, &c, abominable, false, and wicked ; 
but, as before, thousands (high and holy, too, some of them) will won- 
der at you. Captain Gookins, from Cambridge, writes me word that 
he will not be my antagonist in them, being candidly understood. Your 
honored Governor tells me there is no foundation for any dispute with 
Plymouth about those proposals ; for you force no men's conscience. 
But, sir, you have your liberty to prove them abominable, false, and 
wicked, and to disprove that which I have presented in the book con- 
cerning the New-England churches to be but parochial and national, 
though sifted with a finer sieve, and painted with finer colors. 

You are pleased to count me excommunicate ; and therein you deal 
more cruelly with me than with all the profane, and Protestants and 
Papists too, with whom you hold communion in the parishes, to which 
(as you know) all are forced by the bishops. And yet you count me a 
slave to the Devil, because, in conscience to God, and love to God and 
you, I have told you of it. But, sir, the truth is (I will not say I excom- 
municated you, but), I first withdrew communion from yourselves for 
halting between Christ and Antichrist, — the parish churches and 
Christian congregations. Long after, when you had consultations of 
killing me, but some rather advised a dry pit of banishment, Mr. 
Peters advised an excommunication to be sent me (after the manner 
of Popish bulls, &c.) : but this same man, in London, embraced me, 



316 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [MARCH, 

and told me he was for liberty of conscience, and preached it ; and 
complained to me of Salem for excommunicating his distracted wife, 
and for wronging him in his goods which he left behind him. 

Sir, you tell me my time is lost, &c, because (as I conceive you) 
not in the function of ministry. I confess the offices of Christ Jesus 
are the best callings ; but generally they are the worst trades in the 
world, as they are practised only for a maintenance, a place, a living, 
a benefice, &c. God hath many employments for his servants. Moses 
forty years, and the Lord Jesus thirty years, were not idle, though 
little known what they did as to any ministry ; and the two prophets 
prophesy in sackcloth, and are Christ Jesus his ministers, though not 
owned by the public ordinations. God knows, I have much and long 
and conscientiously and mournfully weighed and digged into the 
differences of the Protestants themselves about the ministry. He 
knows what gains and preferments I have refused in universities, 
city, country, and court, in Old England, and something in New 
England, &c, to keep my soul undefiled in this point, and not to 
act with a doubting conscience, &c. God was pleased to show me 
much of this in Old England ; and in New, being unanimously 
chosen teacher at Boston (before your dear father came, divers 
years), I conscientiously refused, and withdrew to Plymouth, because 
I durst not officiate to an unseparated people, as, upon examination 
and conference, I found them to be. At Plymouth, I spake on the 
Lord's days and week-days, and wrought hard at the hoe for my 
bread (and so afterward at Salem), until I found them both professing 
to be a separated people in New England (not admitting the most godly 
to communion without a covenant), and yet communicating with the 
parishes in Old by their members repairing on frequent occasions thi- 
ther. 

Sir, I heartily thank you for your conclusion, — wishing my con- 
version and salvation ; without which, surely vain are our privileges 
of being Abraham's sons, enjoying the covenant, holy education, holy 
worship, holy church or temple ; of being adorned with deep under- 
standing, miraculous faith, angelical parts and utterance ; the titles of 
pastors or apostles ; yea, of being sacrifices in the fire to God. 

Sir, I am unworthy (though desirous to be), 

Your friend and servant, 

Roger Williams. 

To Mr. John Cotton, at his house in N. Plymouth, 
these Present. 



1858.] THE BELKNAP DONATION. 317 

There is a fragment of several leaves in the handwriting of 
Governor Winthrop, which appears to consist of original memo- 
randa, the substance of some of which was afterwards incorpo- 
rated into his journal. It may prove that some of these 
memoranda have never yet been printed. It requires labor 
and patience to decipher Winthrop's hand. 

The " Descriptive and Historical Account of New England, 
in Terse," by Governor Bradford, — published in the third 
volume, pp. 77-84, of our Collections, — is here found in the 
autograph of the author. An early copy of these verses exists 
in our archives, by which the part wanting can be supplied. 
The true heading to this production is, " Some Observations 
of God's merciful Dealing with us in this Wilderness, and his 
gracious Protection over us these many Years. Blessed be his 
Name." 

There is here an original diary of Increase Mather, 1675 and 
1676, which will probably repay perusal. Dr. Belknap copied 
pretty extensively from another diary of Mather, covering the 
period from 1674 to 1687 inclusively, and which was doubtless 
the same that was once in the possession of Prince, but, unhap- 
pily, is wanting among these papers. A few of Dr. Belknap's 
" extracts " from this diary here follow : — 

" 1674. — The college in a low, sinking state. 

"July 16. — Cotton, having received some discouragement at the 
college, by reason that some of the scholars threatened him, &c, as 
apprehending that he had told me of their miscarriages, he returned 
home to me. 

"Oct. 13. — The General Court summoned the President (Dr. 
Hoar) and scholars to appear, and give an account of the state of 
affairs, &c. The issue was, that the deputies voted to dismiss the Pre- 
sident from his place. The magistrates not so fully assenting, it was 
voted, that, if the college did not [blank] by the next General Court, 
the President should be dismissed without any further hearing of the 
case. 

"Nov. 15. — The scholars, all except three whose friends live in 
Cambridge, left the college. 



318 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [MARCH, 

" Dec. 24. — Mr. Oxenbridge was taken ill in the midst of his ser- 
mon, as he was preaching his Lecture : his sight failed him, that he 
could not read his notes ; also his memory failed. He continued 
speaking, but immethodically, about a quarter of an hour ; but forced to 
leave off, and was carried home in a sedan. He continued lethargical 
till 29th of 10th month, and then ceased his labors. 

" 1675, 11th day, 1st month. — I did, by the unanimous desire of 
the Overseers of the college, then assembled, accept of a Fellowship 
in the college. 

" 15th day, 1st month. — Dr. Hoar resigned his Presidentship to 
the Overseers of the college, who, with the corporation, desired Mr. 
Oakes to be President, pro tempore, till after the commencement. 

"26. — The corporation met at Cambridge to consider about choos- 
ing Fellows, &c. Mr. Richards and I voted for Mr. Corbet ; Mr. Oakes, 
Mr. Shepard, and Thacher voted for Mr. S. Danforth ; Mr. Gookin 
was neuter. I told the corporation that Mr. Danforth would meet 
with opposition among the Overseers, because of his subscribing against 
the former President ; and I thought it was no prudence to revive those 
matters, but studiously to avoid temptations of that [blank]. But Mr. 
Shepard's spirit was raised ; and he said that now he was resolved 
more for Mr. D., and against Mr. C, than before ; and, if the Overseers 
did object that against him, he would take that as to himself. Mr. 
Oakes also said, that, except the Overseers would declare an absolute 
amnesty as to what was done against the former President, he would 
not accept of the Presidentship pro tempore ; and so he desired 
there might be an Overseers' meeting to clear that matter. 

" At night I went to the Governor's, and acquainted him with pro- 
ceedings, and mentioned that of another Overseers' meeting. He was 
not free that there should be any meeting before the General Court. 

" I desired of the corporation, that the scholars might have their 
studies as formerly ; viz. , that they might have them who last pos- 
sessed them : but it was objected, that that would be to put more respect 
upon those scholars that continued in the college till the last than upon 
those who opposed the doctor, &c. And so it could not be granted, 
except my urgency did cause a concession; but I was not willing that 
it should be on my account, and said that I would not urge it, only 
propound it. 

" By these (in my weak judgment) wilful and selfish motions, the 
hopes of the college's reviving are at present dashed. It may be, the 
sin for which this desolation is come upon the college is not seen and 



1858.] THE BELKNAP DONATION. 319 

lamented as [it] ought to be ; and so the Lord is pleased to frown still. 
I believe that the violenee of the [blank] eonduct is one special cause 
of this calamity; but (Mr. Oakes, &c.) better men than myself will not 
believe that there is such guilt. Lord, help and guide ; and let thy 
servants see wherein they have failed. 

" Sept. 30. — The Overseers met to consider the state of the col- 
lege. It was a very uncomfortable meeting. Sad heats and reflec- 
tions. This time the Lord kept me, that I did not speak one passionate 
word (that I remember), but expressed my dissatisfaction in some 
particulars (especially that of abusing freshmen as they come into the 
college) moderately and lovingly. Yet Mr. T. did strangely turn upon 
me (though none heard but myself what he said), that he wondered at 
my great [blank] against his son. I asked him what he meant ; told 
him he was [blank], and in a passion, and grieved the spirit of God by 
such words [blank]. At evening, I went to his house to know what 
he intended. He told me those words were suddenly spoken ; he 
was sorry for them, &c. ; only he was troubled that I had deprived his 
son of two of his pupils. I told him I had only taken my own son, 
and gave my reasons for it ; at which he seemed to think I had just 
cause for what I did. 

" Ah, poor New England ! thou art sick in the head and in the 
heart, and not like to live long ! 

" Nov. 28. — Dr. Hoar died, having been brought into a consumption 
by the grief he sustained through afflictions when President of the col- 
lege. A solemn stroke ! It will occasion (in probability) this country 
[to] be ill thought of in England, that such a man should have his 
heart broken among his friends in New England. 

" 26th day, 11th month. — I heard, that, whereas at New York they 
had passed an order that no corn should come to Boston, their corn 
was rusty, moulded, and there sold for eighteen pence the bushel ; and 
now they are willing that Boston should be supplied with it. 

" 10th day, 12th month. - — A dismal providence this day. Lancas- 
ter was set on by the Indians. Mr. Rowlandson pastor of the church 
there. His house was assaulted. They took some of them alive, 
among whom was Mrs. Rowlandson. The Lord now speaks solemnly 
to ministers, inasmuch as a minister's family is fallen upon, and his wife 
and children taken by the enemy. 

" 1676, May 3. — Election Day. This day Mrs. Rowlandson was, 
by a wonderful hand of Providence, returned to her husband, after she 
had been absent eleven weeks in the hands of the Indians. 



320 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [MARCH, 

" May 14. — Mr. Usher died. A sad stroke to the town and coun- 
try ; God having blessed him with a great estate and a public spirit, 
willing to do good generally. He was very helpful at this time in 
lending money to carry on the war against the Indians. Alas that 
such men should be taken away when there is most need of them ! 
He was a special friend to ministers, who weekly met at his house. 
The nextjnight, Mr. Russell, the magistrate, died ; .also Mr. Danforth 
taken sick ; so that there could be no court sitting, because not a com- 
petent number of magistrates. Awful providences ! 

" June 7. — The army abroad took twenty-nine Indians, and brought 
them to Boston. One was that squaw that domineered over Mrs. 
Rowlandson. 

" Aug. 12. — This day, Philip was killed. 

" 1677, July 8. — A Quaker woman dressed herself up after a hor- 
rid manner, and came into [blank] meeting-house. Many women 
thought she had been the Devil ; were frightened into fits. One mis- 
carried, and died. 

" 1681, July 24. — Precious Mr. Oakes died suddenly. 

" Sept. 22. — There were three persons executed in Boston, — an 
Englishman for a rape ; a negro man for burning a house at North- 
ampton; and a negro woman who burnt two houses at Roxbury, 
July 12, in one of which a child was burnt to death. The negro 
woman was burned to death, — the first that has suffered such a death 
in New England." 

The diary, or journal, of Lawrence Hammond is fortunately 
recovered among this collection. It was once in the possession 
of Prince, who cites it among his authorities thus (Annals, 
i. 7) : " An Original Journal of the late Capt. Lawrence Ham- 
mond, of Charlestown and Boston, from 1677 to 1694, inclu- 
sively." 

A copy of the preface to Hubbard's History is also found 
among these papers ; not in Dr. Belknap's hand, but in that of 
a contemporary. The unavailing efforts made to recover the 
missing portions of this History may be seen in vol. iii., Third 
Series, of our Collections. The preface here follows : — 



1858.] THE BELKNAP DONATION. 321 



Preface to Hubbard's History. 

It is now near fifty years since a great number of religious people 
transported themselves and families into America. It cannot but be 
expected, that, after so long a time, some account should be given of 
the success of the enterprise ; which, although it hath long since been in 
part endeavored, and in some particulars performed, yet a general dis- 
course of the whole affair hath never before this [been] taken in hand : 
which may in some measure excuse the imperfection of the present 
work, the whole design of which is only to render a just account of the 
proceedings of that people, together with the merciful providences of 
the Almighty towards them. 

It is granted on all hands, that the principal intendment of that 
plantation, from the very beginning thereof, was religion, and liberty 
of conscience ; and the civil government there established by the 
royal charter was so contrived as to be most suitable thereunto. 

As for the sad occurrences that of late have happened among them, 
wherein they have been buffeted by the messengers of Satan, and so 
have been called to make use of the sword as well as the trowel, an 
account hath formerly been given thereof ; * which hath occasioned 
some, that were concerned in the publication of that business, to search 
more narrowly into the beginning of things relating to that plantation, 
tracing them to their first original ; the series and order of which is 
here presented, that it may appear to the view of all from what begin- 
ning, and by what degrees, they have been carried on to the state 
wherein they now stand. Truth and faithfulness, with plainness of 
speech, are attended by them who have had any hand in the compiling 
thereof; nor is any thing material, that might help to a right and full 
understanding of the state and condition of that place and people, 
willingly by them omitted, and not taken notice of, or recited to a con- 
trary end than it was intended : for, they having had no small advantage, 
by many years' experience, to attain unto a full understanding of all 
the most considerable passages, with the several circumstances that 
have there fallen out, more credit belongs to the report. 

The compiler of this History was carried into the country of New 
England about forty-eight years since, all which time he hath spent in 
that part of the world, save two or three years, when he was absent 



* Hubbard published a Narrative, in 1677, embracing an account of Philip's 
war. — D. 

41 



322 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [MARCH, 

in his native country ; * and, being of years able to observe many pas- 
sages of Providence when he was first transported thither, it is proba- 
bly to be supposed he could not be ignorant of the most important 
affairs that were transacted during the whole time of his abode here. 
And, for other things, he hath not wanted the best advantages to be 
acquainted with all such matters as may be thought were worthy to 
be communicated to posterity, either by the original manuscripts of 
such as had the managing of those affairs under their hands, or were 
related by the persons themselves concerned in them, being upon the 
place at the time when such things were transacted, and so were eye- 
witnesses thereof. 

Cotton Mather's manuscript diary for the years 1681, 1693, 
1697, 1700, 1705, and 1718, is here brought to light. Our 
Society were already in possession of the portions which relate 
to the years 1683, 1685, 1686, 1698, 1701, 1702, 1706, the con- 
clusion of the year 1718, 1721, and 1724, which probably came 
to us from Dr. Belknap's family. The part for the year 1681 
lacks one or more leaves at the beginning. A considerable 
portion of Mather's diary is in the library of the Antiquarian 
Society. Some extracts relating to Calef's book have been 
given above. Much, worthy of publication, might be gathered 
from this diary ; and the whole now known to be extant should 
be submitted to some judicious person for that purpose. 

There is a curious manuscript autobiography of Rev. Hugh 
Adams, who was pastor of a church at Dover, N.H., for a num- 
ber of years. The following is a portion of the title : — 

" A Narrative of Remarkable Instances of a Particular Faith, and 
Answers of Prayers, vouchsafed by the Sovereign Grace of God in 
Christ Jesus ; Pre-ordinated so, apparently, for the Confirmation of such 
Singular Truths as have been so Revealed in and by the Holy Scrip- 
tures of the Prophets and Apostles. For the Glory of Christ Jesus, 
Emmanuel ; and for the Growth of his True Church, to Her Edifica- 
tion in Knowledge and Wisdom, Grace and Comfort ; And to increase 



* " By this account, it appears that Mr. Hubbard came to America about two years 
after Boston was first planted ; and he was one of the first class of graduates in Cam- 
bridge College." — Note of the Transcriber. 



1858.] THE BELKNAP DONATION. 323 

the Number of Her Genuine Children. By the Example of Mercy and 
Judgment in the Life of Hugh Adams, A.M., Pastor of a Church in 
Dover, in the Province of New Hampshire, alias Piscataqua. Recol- 
lected by him (in the Strength of that Promise in John xiv. 26) at 
his spare Hours from Dec. 7, 1724, to March 27, 1725. And the 
preceding Thesis also," &c. 

The following notice of Adams's book, as appears from a 
paper before me, is from the Records of New Hampshire : — 

" In the House of Representatives, May 20, 1725. — Whereas the 
Rev. Mr. Hugh Adams hath addressed a manuscript to his Honor 
the Lieutenant-Governor and General Assembly, entitled a 'Theoso- 
phical Thesis,' &c, with an Appendix under the title of ' Remarkable 
Instances,' &c, praying the countenance and grant of the Government 
for the publication thereof : Now, forasmuch as the contents of said 
manuscript are principally controversial points of divinity, and some 
enthusiastical accounts of God's judgments, &c, and therefore more 
properly the object of consideration for an ecclesiastical than a civil 
council, — Voted, That the Rev. the gospel ministers of this Province 
be, and hereby are, desired to take the said whole manuscript under 
their consideration, and report to his Honor and the General Assem- 
bly their opinion thereon, to the end that the publication thereof may 
be countenanced or discouraged, and the said manuscript disposed of 
as may be most for the glory of God. 

"James Jeffrey, Cler. Assy. 
" In Council, ead. die, 

" Read and concurred. " R. Waldron, Gl. Con. 

« In Council, Dec. 29, 1725. — Voted, That the report of the Rev. 
ministers upon the manuscript entitled a ' Theosophical Thesis,' &c, be 
accepted, and that the Rev. gentleman have the thanks of the Govern- 
ment for the same ; and Ordered, that the said manuscript be lodged in 
the Secretary's office; and that the Clerk of the Council be, and is 
hereby, directed not to give a copy of the said manuscript, or any part 
thereof, directly or indirectly, to any person, on any pretence whatever, 
without the leave or consent of the General Assembly. 

" R. Waldron, Gl. Gon. 

"In House of Representatives, Jan. 1, 1725-6. 

" Read and concurred. " James Jeffrey, Gl. Assy." 



324 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [MARCH, 

From this narrative, which seems to be only the Appendix 
to the " Theosophical Thesis," here wanting, we are told that 
the author was brought up in Boston, and was educated at 
Cambridge ; where, as appears from the Triennial Catalogue, 
he was graduated in 1797. The next year, he went to South 
Carolina, remaining there till about 1706, when he returned 
to New England. In 1707, he was settled at Braintree, Mass. ; 
in 1711, he removed to Chatham, Cape Cod ; in 1716, he re- 
sided for a short time at Georgetown, on Arrowsick Island, in 
Maine ; and the next year he removed to Dover, where, for a 
number of years, he was minister of the Oyster-River Parish, 
now included in the present town of Durham. The following 
notice of him by. Dr. Belknap, chiefly gathered from this nar- 
rative, is found among his papers : — 

"In 1716, during his residence at Arrowsick, he received a visit 
from Sebastian Ralle, a French Jesuit, who was then in the sixtieth 
year of his age, and was missionary to the Norridgwock tribe of Indians 
on Kennebec River. Ralle was troubled with an arthritic tumor, and 
pains in his shoulders, and applied to Adams as a physician, who in 
two or three days completed his cure, and did it gratis ; by which 
means he supposed Ralle was laid under such obligations as would 
for ever prevent his influencing the Indians to any further hostilities 
against the eastern settlers. When Ralle's letters to the Government 
of Massachusetts discovered his intentions to abet the Indians in the 
mischief they were meditating, Adams looked upon it to be such an 
atrocious act of ingratitude, that he had a warrant to pray for his 
destruction, which he did for three years together ; and he also published 
a prophecy in the newspaper, which he entitled ' A Watchword of 
Warning to the Beaver-loving Friend of the Eastern Indians ' 
(' Courant,' December, last week, 1722) ; and when Ralle was 
killed, in 1724, he triumphed in the event as a fulfilment of his 
prediction. 

" About the same time, there was a considerable revival of singing 
among the people of New England ; the old, irregular method being, 
in many places, laid aside, and a decent, regular one adopted, agree- 
ably to the rules of music. Adams fell in with this new mode ; and 
his predilection for it rose to such an height, that, recollecting the cir- 



1858.] THE BELKNAP DONATION. 325 

cumstance of a victory gained by Jehoshaphat after he had appointed 
singers to go before the army (2 Chron. xx. 21), he confidently 
expected some great advantage would be gained over the Indians ; 
and when four of them were killed within the bounds of his parish, on 
June 10, 1724, — one of whom, by his dress and ornaments, he sup- 
posed to be a natural son of the Jesuit Ralle, — he publicly gave out 
that his expectation was answered : and the taking of Norridgwock he 
gloried in, as an unanswerable demonstration of the truth of his 
opinion. In the like strains of enthusiasm, he supposed that the com- 
mand given to the Israelites, to sound an alarm with trumpets when 
they went out to war (Num. x. 9), was obligatory on him ; but, not 
being able to provide trumpets of silver, he got two horns, and made 
two of his sons blow them before his house, while his eldest son was 
gone out as a volunteer in a scouting-party : and to this circumstance 
he ascribed the preservation of his whole family during the Indian 
war, in an exposed frontier settlement, — Oyster River. 

" In the year 1717, the Indians at the eastward appeared to threaten 
mischief, and many people were afraid of a war; but Adams thought, 
if he could gather a church, or, as he phrased it, ' plant a vine- 
yard,' at Oyster River, he might depend on four years' suspension of 
the war ; grounding his confidence on the parable, Luke xiii. 6, &c. 
Upon this he went about persuading his parishioners to form into a 
church; and in March, 1718, he collected ten brethren, and was 
ordained over them as their pastor. When some of his people, 
observing the surly behavior of the Indians, asked his advice about 
removing to garrisons, he told them it was needless, for there could be 
no war till the ' three years ' were expired wherein the Master should 
come ' seeking fruit.' At the beginning of the fourth year (1722), he 
gave them warning, that, unless they * bore fruit,' that would be the 
last year of peace ; and it accordingly happened so. 

" He had taken a great dislike to the wearing of wigs and hoop- 
petticoats ; and his zeal against them was so high, that he wrote a 
thesis, which he published* at the commencement 1722, inveighing 
bitterly against these ' idolatrous ' modes, and prognosticating judg- 
ment upon the land if they were not laid aside. Some of his lines 
on this occasion are as follow : — 



Probably not printed. — D. 



326 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [MARCH, 

* Therefore I must adventure to divine, 
If reformation can't among you shine 
Quickly in wigs and hoops ; the mistake's mine 
If on frontier's food savages shan't dine 
Before one year's expired, &c. 
Alas ! such Frenchified fashions will, 
I fear, cause them much English blood to spill 
In a short time, by the united skill 
Of French and Indians' howling voices shrill, 
With guns and hatchets, spied on every hill ; 
Cutchillas, too, to scalp poor captives, till 
Few in such trespass dare to go on still. 

Ps. lxviii. 21. 
The rules whereby I thus prognosticate 
So sacred are, none should abominate 
To view the same here quoted, not too late : 
Whereon I pray you well to meditate. 

Luke xiii. 8, 9 ; Lev. xxvi. 22-25, 33 : Deut. xxviii. 58, 61 ; Isa. v. 26, vii. 18 ; 
Jer. xxviii. 16 ; Zeph. i. 8, 11 ; Mai. iii. 9.' 

" He supposed, that for ' the anti-Christian hairy scalps of the men, 
and the women's Diana of great hoops, there must be the scalping of 
so many inhabitants and soldiers at our frontiers till at least three 
years be expired.' He was not so fortunate in another prophecy 
which he tacked to this ; viz., ' After a little cessation, except refor- 
mation therein be regarded, seven times three years' war more may be 
feared and expected; from Lev. xxvi. 21, 23, 24, 28.' " 

Something further concerning Adams may be found in the 
New-Hampshire Historical Society's Collections, vol. v. p. 135. 

A manuscript of Jabez Fitch, pastor of the North Parish, in 
Portsmouth, N.H., from 1724 to his death in 172T. The fol- 
ing is the title : — 

" A Brief Narrative of several Things respecting the Province of 
New Hampshire, in New England, in Four Chapters. 1. Of the 
Bounds, first Settling, and Government of the said Province. 2. Of 
Piscataqua River. 3. Of the several Towns within this Province, and 
the Ministers thereof, that have been, and are at Present. 4. Of the 
Troubles with the Indians within this Province, from the first Begin- 
ning of the Indian Wars to the last Pacification. By Jabez Fitch, 
V.D.M. In Portsmouth." 



1858.] THE BELKNAP DONATION. 327 

Dr. Belknap, in the preface to his " History of New Hamp- 
shire," acknowledges the aid he derived from the manuscripts 
of Mr. Fitch. He obtained from them facts which he could find 
nowhere else. The narrative is dedicated " To the Honorable 
John Wentworth, Esq., Lieutenant-Governor and Commander- 
in-Chief in and over his Majesty's Province of New Hampshire, 
in New England." 

Here are found fifty autograph, unpublished, letters of Dr. 
Isaac Watts to Dr. Colman, from 1723 to 1747. Mr. Turell, 
in his admirable Memoir of Dr. Colman, says, " From his long, 
endearing, and intimate friendship and correspondence with 
Dr. Isaac Watts, our country and churches have reaped many 
advantages." 

There is " An Account of the Life and Death of John 
Loring, of Hull, who died Sept. 19, 1714, eighty-four years of 
age ; drawn up by his son, Israel Loring, in 1749." 

There is the Letter-book of Edmund Quincy, the father of 
Mrs. Hancock, and the author of a treatise on hemp-husbandry, 
containing a correspondence with his daughter and Mr. Han- 
cock at Philadelphia, written during the siege of Boston, and 
dated at Lancaster, Mass., to which place he had retired while 
Boston was occupied by the British troops. These letters 
exhibit great spirit and intelligence, and many of them will be 
found worthy of publication. 

This notice of the Belknap donation might be greatly ex- 
tended ; but it is not my purpose to furnish a catalogue of 
this collection, but rather to give some general idea of its con- 
tents and character. I will remark, however, that the number 
of early manuscripts, besides those I have named, is not large.* 
The whole collection exhibits Dr. Belknap's great industry, his 
true appreciation of authorities in his historical studies, and 
the plans he had made for the future. Ample evidence here 



* A collection of valuable manuscripts, embracing the period from 1665 to 1776, 
once in the possession of Dr. Belknap, and now forming three volumes of " Belknap 
Papers," have, for many years, been in the cabinet of our Society. — D. 



328 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [MARCH, 

exists, if it had been wanting, of his agency in founding our 
Society, and of his continued interest in it. In the midst of 
his labors, which were full of activity and usefulness, Dr. 
Belknap was suddenly called away. The last entry he made 
in his almanac was under date of May 12, 1798.* On the next 
page, in another hand, is the following : " 20 June, Jeremy 
Belknap died in his house in Lincoln Street, Boston, of apo- 
plexy, and was placed in the family tomb, near the south-east 
corner of the burial-ground on Tremont Street." 



On motion of Mr. Ticknor, the following orders 
were unanimously adopted : — 

Ordered, That the grateful acknowledgments of this 
Society be presented to Miss Elizabeth Belknap for her 
gift of the very valuable manuscripts of her father, the 
late Rev. Jeremy Belknap, D.D., together with such of 
his printed books and tracts relating to American his- 
tory as are not already in its possession. 

Ordered, That be a Committee with full powers 

to cause the manuscripts, books, and tracts, thus pre- 
sented by Miss Belknap, to be arranged and bound for 
careful preservation, in a manner becoming their rarity 
and value, and the great respect felt by the Society for 
Dr. Belknap, its founder. 

Ordered, That the President be requested to address 
a letter to Miss Belknap, enclosing the preceding orders, 
and expressing the satisfaction felt by the Society in 
receiving such a striking proof of kindness and regard 
from a still surviving member of the immediate family 

* The last entry in his Meteorological Journal was on the evening of June 19, the 
day before his death. — D. 



1858.] PORTRAIT OF MR. QUINCY. 329 

of one to whose talents, labors, and sacrifices this 
Society was so deeply indebted during the earliest and 
most difficult period of its past history. 

Ordered, That the Committee appointed under the 
second of these orders report, in writing, when they 
shall have completed their duties. 

The President nominated Messrs. Ticknor and Deane 
to constitute the Committee provided for in the second 
order. 

Mr. Robbins, after a few remarks, presented to the 
Society, as a gift from the class of 1829, a portrait of 
Hon. Josiah Quincy, the senior member of this Society, 
which had been painted for the purpose by Mr. Wight, 
of Boston. In explanation of the circumstances under 
which the gift was suggested and had been provided for, 
he laid before the meeting the following correspond- 
ence : — 

Boston, Jan. 16, 1858. 
Hon. Josiah Quincy. 

Dear Sir, — At the annual dinner of the class of 1829, 
on Tuesday, the 14th of January, your name was mentioned, 
as is our custom, with great gratitude and respect. Allusion 
was also made to the fact that your birthday is near at hand ; 
and the suggestion was offered, that it would be a most appro- 
priate, and to all your friends a most desirable, mode of 
signalizing that anniversary, to request you to sit for your 
portrait, that your likeness, just as we now see you, may be 
preserved for us and for our children. 

I need not assure you that the suggestion was received 
with cordial approbation. Before any general action was 
taken towards procuring the means of carrying it into effect, 
— provided your consent Gould be obtained, — - a classmate, 



330 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [MARCH, 

who sat at my right hand, whispered to me his desire, on 
account of his deep sense of gratitude to you, to be allowed 
to furnish the sum necessary to obtain a portrait on behalf of 
the class, and to present the picture to the Massachusetts His- 
torical Society. He immediately gave me an order for an 
amount more than sufficient ; and, requesting me to conceal 
his name for the present, authorized me to announce to the 
class that the subscription was complete, and afterwards to 
take any steps that might appear to me proper towards attain- 
ing the desired end. 

What step should I take other than that of writing to 
yourself, dear sir, frankly stating the whole truth as to the 
feeling cherished and expressed towards you by the first class 
which graduated under your fostering influence, confessing 
the generous rivalry which exists among us in honoring and 
loving your name, and praying you not to deny the boon 
which we solicit with one consent? 

With lasting respect, &c, 

Your friend and servant, 

Chandler Bobbins. 

P. S. — I ought to add, that my friend proposed to give the 
portrait to the Historical Society because I mentioned to him 
that its halls would be an appropriate place for it, and that I 
knew that a strong desire was felt among its associates to 
obtain the likeness of its oldest member. 

Rev. Chandler Robbins, D.D. 

Dear Sir, — I cannot sufficiently express my grateful 
sense of the respectful remembrance of me by the class of 
1829, nor of the consenting spirit in which you have com- 
municated their expression of it. The existence of such a 
feeling in such a body of men is honor enough. No material 
token can add to its value. It was one of the felicities of my 
connection with Harvard University in 1829, that the leading 



1858.] PORTRAIT OF MR. QUINCY. 331 

class consisted of young men qualified and willing to give a 
favorable tone to the seminary, and a promise of an honorable 
and useful course of life, which in after-time they nobly ful- 
filled. At this day, I have the happiness to witness the realiza- 
tion of that promise, in seeing among their number ornaments 
of every profession ; lights of the judicial bench, both state 
and national ; diversified genius in the walks of literature ; and 
a master-spirit in the abstrusest of all the sciences. Be 
assured, sir, that indications of regard and respect from such 
men sink deep into the heart, from which they can never be 
obliterated. 

The subject of the portrait requires consideration and con- 
sultation, on which I shall hope for an interview with you this 
evening, or any other which your engagements may permit. 

Respectfully your friend and servant, 

Josiah Quincy. 

No. 5, Park Street, 18th January, 1858. 

On motion of Mr. Savage, it was unanimously Voted, 
That the thanks of the Massachusetts Historical Society 
be presented to the class of graduates at Harvard Col- 
lege in 1829 for their present of the portrait of the 
Hon. Josiah Quincy ; under whose happy auspices, as 
President of that Institution, they were the first to par- 
take the graces of his official benediction ; and that 
their gift, this day received, is accepted with the highest 
satisfaction, as a faithful likeness of the oldest member 
of our Society, which he has honored for more than 
sixty years, and as coming, in token of respect for him, 
from the first company of his academical disciples, 
including so distinguished ornaments in each of the 
learned professions, and envied only as being the pre- 
cursors of that successive renown, which in the annual 



332 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [MARCH, 

harvests of that blessed university, for sixteen follow- 
ing years, extended the prosperity of their native land, 
and enhanced the embellishment of the republic of let- 
ters, the common mother of us all. 

Mr. Washburn, from the Committee appointed to 
represent the Society before a Committee of the Legis- 
lature to which was referred the memorial of this 
Society, relating to a petition of the Historic-Genealogi- 
cal Society for a change of its corporate name, made a 
report of the doings of the Committee in discharging 
the duty assigned to them ; in the course of which, he 
read a sketch of the arguments used on the occasion of 
the hearing at the State House before the Joint Stand- 
ing Committee on Education. 

On motion of Mr. Lothrop, Voted, That the Committee 
be requested to prepare a minute and extended account, 
in writing, of the remarks made by them before the 
Legislative Committee, for preservation or publication, 
as the Standing Committee may direct. 

On motion of Mr. R. Frothingham, jun., it was una- 
nimously Voted, That the thanks of the Society be pre- 
sented to the Committee appointed to take charge of 
our late memorial, for their valuable services ; and that 
the President be requested to communicate to our 
respected senior member the grateful acknowledgments 
of his associates for his efficient personal services in pre- 
venting the meditated infringement upon our old corpo- 
rate name. 

Mr. Savage presented, from a lady in Europe, a copy 
of the " Haarlemsche Courant " of the 8th of January, 
1856, being a reprint, with the same types originally 



1858.] PROCEEDINGS OF SPECIAL MEETING. 333 

used, of the " Haarlem Courant " of the 8th of Jan- 
uary, 1656, printed in Haarlem for Abraham Caste- 
leyne, in the house of his father, Vincent Casteleyne, 
on the Market Place, in the chapel. It has the follow- 
ing item of American news : — 

" Plymouth, 22d December, 1655. — Three Dutch vessels, 
pressed by bad weather, and coming from New Netherlands, 
have run in here. They are said to have conquered again, in 
that country, the Fort Catamirus, and all the fortifications 
which the Swedes there had taken from us ; and to have deli- 
vered of that nation the whole river, from the head to its 
mouth. The said vessels bring with them the person who was 
the commander of the Swedes." 



SPECIAL MEETING, March 26. 

The Society held a special meeting on Friday evening, 
March 26, at the house of N. I. Bowditch, Esq., No. 9, 
Pemberton Square ; the President, Hon. Robert C. 
Winthrqp, in the chair. 

The meeting was called to order at eight o'clock. 

The President stated, that a box of books, which had 
been sent to the Society several months ago by William 
Winthrop, Esq., American consul at Malta, had at 
length arrived. The vessel, which had not been heard 
from for a long time, had put into St. Thomas in dis- 
tress, and reached this port yesterday. The consignee 
of the vessel had immediately forwarded the box to the 
library, without charge for freight or truckage. 



334 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [MARCH, 

The President had examined the books, and presented 
a paper, giving an account of the most important 
volumes. 

The Librarian communicated a letter from Mr. At- 
kins, Record Commissioner of Nova Scotia ; and moved 
that a set of the Society's Collections be presented to 
the library of the Legislative Assembly of Nova Scotia. 

The motion was accepted. 

Mr. Felton presented a pamphlet entitled "Wash- 
ington and his Army, during their March through and 
return to New Jersey in December, 1776, and January, 
1777 ; being an Address read before the Literary and 
Philosophical Society of New Jersey, by C. C. Haven, 
one of its Vice-Presidents." 

Mr. Felton stated that Mr. Haven had occupied some 
of his leisure time in topographical investigations of the 
military movements of that period, and in collecting 
local and traditional information, by which he had been 
able to throw much valuable light on points which had 
been left obscure by historians. Especially was this the 
case with regard to the battle of the Assumpink, which 
intervened between the capture of the Hessians and the 
attack on the British at Princeton, and which Mr. 
Haven regarded as of much greater importance than 
was commonly known. He had also explained, more 
clearly than before, the circumstances of Washington's 
brilliant strategy, by which he defeated the over-con- 
fident generalship of Lord Cornwallis, who had been 
stopped on his way to Europe, and sent back to the 
command of the British forces, after the capture of 
the Hessians. 



1858.] TOWN OF TRENTON, AND GEN. WASHINGTON. 66b 

Mr. Felton informed the meeting that he had lately 
enjoyed the pleasure of passing a day at Trenton, and of 
going over the ground of these memorable transactions 
under the instructive guidance of Mr. Haven, who had 
shown the most exact topographical knowledge, and 
explained to him all the movements in the town of 
Trenton, at the bridge over the Assumpink, and on the 
other side of that little river where Washington had his 
head-quarters. He took the visitor to a small house, 
now occupied by the clergyman of a German society, in 
one of the lower rooms of which — a very small and 
low apartment — Washington held the memorable 
council of war at which the nocturnal march upon 
Princeton was determined on. The room remains 
unchanged in form. The little round table at which 
Washington and his officers held that eventful coun- 
cil, and on which the candle was left burning when 
the council broke up, is still preserved, in the possession 
of a most respectable family in Trenton. The candle, 
as it burned down, left its traces upon the table ; 
which are still to be seen. Some particulars were com- 
municated, now first ascertained, by Mr. Haven with 
regard to Colonel Rahl, the commander of the Hessians, 
and the manner in which he passed the night previous 
to Washington's attack. 

It appears, that, being fond of cards and punch, he 
had joined a small party at a whist-table, with a large 
punch-bowl at hand, and had given strict orders that he 
should not be interrupted. A letter which had been 
sent to warn him of the movements of his assailants, 
after having been conveyed to him with difficulty, was 



336 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [MARCH, 

placed in his hands by a servant as he was about to 
deal the cards ; and, not being deemed of immediate 
consequence, was thrust into his pocket, and forgotten. 

Under these circumstances, he was first admonished 
of danger by the sound of the enemy's cannon. 

Mr. Felton then alluded briefly, but with great force 
and animation, to the recent honors emulously bestowed 
on the character of Washington, — to the Biography by 
Washington Irving, the Eulogy by Mr. Everett, and the 
bronze statue, recently inaugurated at Richmond, by 
Crawford ; and to the painful and offensive contrast 
presented by the publication, just at the same time, of 
Mr. Thackeray's untrue and wholly unjustifiable repre- 
sentation of Washington, in his novel under the name 
of the " Virginians." 

Mr. R. Frothingham, jun., read to the Society several 
extracts from " Phineas Pratt's Narrative," which is to 
appear in the forthcoming volume of the Society's Col- 
lections ; accompanying the reading with explanatory 
remarks. 

The President read an interesting correspondence 
between Governor Bowdoin and General Lafayette from 
the papers of the former, which are now in Mr. Win- 
throp's possession. 

On motion of Mr; Livermore, it was Voted, That the 
President be requested to make a special acknowledg- 
ment of the very valuable donation to the Society's 
library recently received from William Win thro p, Esq., 
of Malta. 

Mr. Brigham presented to the Society, as a donation 
from George Gardner, Esq., a valuable collection of 



1858.] BOSTON TOWN-HOUSE. 337 

original papers relating to the history of the Town 
House in Boston. 

Whereupon it was Voted, That the thanks of the 
Society be communicated to Mr. Gardner for his highly 
acceptable contribution to its archives. 

Among the papers comprised in Mr. Gardner's dona- 
tion are the following : — 

Subscriptions for the building of y e Towne house. 

Whereas thear is giuen a Considerable sume by Capt : Keyn 
towards the Building of a towne house w ch sume will not at- 
taine the Building w ch he mentioneth in his Will, now Consi- 
dering the vsefulnes of such a Structure wee whose names are 
vnder written doe ingage our selues our heires executors for to 
giue towards the Building of such a house and also a Conditt 
in the Market place the seuerall sumes vnder written : — 

paid Robert Raynals 1 — . 

paid John Lake 01—10 . 00 

paid Robert Sanderson 01 — 00 . 00 

paid Raphfe Mason 01 — 00 — 

paid Richard Carter by goodman Baker .... 01 — 00 — 

paid M r John Anderson 02—00— 

paid Nathaniell: Greene 01 — 10 . 

paid Joseph Rocke six pounds 06 — 00 — 

paid Gammaliel Waite 01 — 00—00 

M r Ransford 01—00—00 

paid John Shaw fisherman • . . . . 00 — 10 — 00 

paid Mical Willis cutler 01—00—00 

Thomas Leader 00—10—00 

paid William Whitwel 01—10—00 

paid Joseph Moore 01—00—00 

paid Bartholomew Barloe 01 — 00 — 00 

paid Hene Williams 02—00—00 

Marke Hams 01—00—00 

paid JohnSweete 02—00—00 

43 



338 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [MARCH, 

paid John farnam in worke or other pay .... 01 — 00 — 00 

paid Tho : Clarke in Bondes at springe 10 — 00 — 00 

paid Evan Thomas will pay in literedg 01 — 10 — 00 

paid John Baker 01—10— 

paid John Lewes 1 — — 

Deacon Trusdell 

paid M r Dauid Eavens p r Cap* Oliuer 2 . 00—00 

paid William Browne 2 . 10 . 00 

paid William Beamslleay 01—00—00 

paid Zakary Phillips 01—00—00 

paid Willm Wenborne 01—00—00 

paid William Cotton 01—10—00 

paid Alexander Becks 00 — 05 — 00 

paid John Richards three pounds 03 — 00 — 00 

paid Edward Lane p r mise to pay by the hands of Lei* 
Rich. Cooke fiue pounds and tenn shillings I 

say 5 . lOf 

paid M r Bishop 2 . 00— 

M rs Richards Re 10 s 1—10— 

paid Alex : Adames promis 01 — 10 — 00 

M r Edward Belcher p r M r Hill 10—00—00 

paid Deacon Trusdell 01—00—00 

pd William Brenton in [ ] . . . 10—00—00 

paid Jo Checkley 02—10— 

Simon Lynde Fiue pownds £5 „ „ 

paid Henry Blake 02—10—0 

paid M r Henry Webb 20— 0— 

paid Capte Pendleton 05 — — 

pd Richard Taylor . 00—15—0 

John Parker Shewmaker 01 — 00 — 

paid Abraham Busby 02 — 10 — 

M r Webb Shewmaker 00—10— 

paid M r Houchin 05—00—00 

paid M r Alfford 01—10—00 

Power Conferred by the Gomittee for the Town house — 1657. 

Wee whose names are vnder wrighten having full power 
given vs by the Town of Boston to Agree with workmen, & in 
their behalfe to Engadge the Town, In the Payment of any sum 



1858.] BOSTON TOWN-HOUSE. 339 

or sums for the building Erecting & Compleating of A house 
for the Town both for the forme & dimentions &c. according 
as we shall Judge meet, They the s d Towne having Engadged 
themselves to own & stand by vs and performe what promises 
Covenants or Engadgm ts wee should make in order to the 
accomplishing of the premises, And to facillitate the s d worke 
we the s d subscribed doe make choyce of M r Edward Hutchin- 
son & John Hull in o r behalfe to Agree & Compound with 
workmen & Engadge paym* in everie respect for the s d worke 
& we doe hereby oblidge o r selves to stand by, own, & performe 
what the s d M r Ed : Hutchinson & Jn° Hull soe deputed shall 
doe or Engadge themselves in as iff it was the personall act of 
everie one off vs & heervnto we subscribe o r . hands, by this 
binding o r selves likewise to own what the s d prtyes have all- 
ridy done in the s d worke signed this 31 of the 6 th month 1657. 

1 Tho: Marshall 
Townesmen I Samuell Cole 
Comisioners \ William Paddy 

J Josh: Scottow 

Jer: Howchin. 

Agreem! for the Town House — 1657. 
Boston August 1. 1657. 

Wee whose Names are vnder wrighten Being chosen by & in 
behalfe of the Town of Boston, to bargain & Contract with some 
able workemen about A house for the Town, we have Bargained 
& Contracted, & by these presents doe bargain & Covenant 
with Thomas Joy and Bartholomew Bernad of Boston ; & the 
s d Thomas Joy & Barth Bernad, are heerby bound & doe 
oblidge themselves vnto the s d Town of Boston (& in vn[to] 
In their behalfe) that they will Prepare & Erect, a very sub- 
stantiall and Comely building In the place Appointed by the 
s d Town ; The dimentions of w ch Edifice shall be sixty six foot 
in Length, and thirty six foot in Breadth from out side to out- 
side, set vpon twenty one Pillers of full ten foot high between 



340 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [MARCH, 

Pedestall & Capitall, & well brased all four waies, placed vpon 
foundation of stone in the bottome. The wholl Building to 
Jetty over three foot without the Pillers everie way : The 
height of the s d House to be ten foot betwixt Joynts above 
the Pillers, and a halfe storie above that, with three gable 
Endes over it vpon each side : A walke vpon the Top fourteen or 
15 foote wide with two Turretts, & turnd Balasters and railes, 
round about the walke according to A modell or draught Pre- 
sented to vs, by the s d Tho: Joy, & Barth: Bernad. The 
s d Tho : Joy & Barth : Bernad Likewise, finding all things 
necisarie and meet for the s d Building, viz : Timber in in everie 
respect & of everie sort, substantiall & meet according to Pro- 
portion & Art, Plank for the sides & ends three Inch thick,* 
well groved one into another, and into the timbers allso an 
Inch and halfe ; well plained & smoothed one Both sides, two 
Inch plank for the Lower floor, and full Inch for the vpper 
floor, Both smoothed, and vpon the walk duble boarded and 
well groved ; the Rooff well boarded & shingled, with gutters 
sufficiently made. 

Bringing all to the Place, Erecting, finishing & Compleating 
the whole Edifice viz The Frame, foundations, Floores, staires 
(viz Two pair halfe paced staires & turnd staires vp into the 
walke) doores, window Cases & Casements, mantle peeces, 
Inclosures, Pertitions f &c The wholl Edifice to be Erected, by 
the thirty daye of the fourth month called June next ensuing 
the date heeroff ; and Covered & shingled within six weekes after 
that. The Town finding all the Iron worke, as nailes hookes 
hinges &c. glass with glasing & Lead for the Gutters masonrie 
worke as the chimnies, foundation of the Pillers with stone 
brick & Lime belonging to the same the afiVs? Tho : & Barth : 
all the other worke as affor sd The Town finding help at the 
raysing. 

* Only we alow of Two Inch plank for the sids & ends above the Plates & beames. 
t There is to be both Roomes from the chimnies closed one both sides and one Cross 
partition in one of the Roomes; beside the stair Case. 



1858.] BOSTON TOWN-HOUSE. 841 

In consideration of the premises we doe heerby oblidge our- 
selves (according to order & in behalfe of the s d Town of 
Boston affors d ) To give & Assigne over vnto the s d Tho : Joy 
& Bartholl : Bernad, or to either of them or their assignes the 
three Hund : Pounds w c . h is that Part of the Legacy of Cap* 
Rob* Keyne (deceased) designed & bequeathed vnto the 
s d Town in his Last will for ther vse, and also one hund. 
Pound more we heerby oblidge o r selves to Pay or Cause to be 
paied vnto the s d Thomas & Bartholomew or their Assignes In 
good English goods at prise Currant, and likewise to doe our 
vttmost that one fiffty pound of this above mentioned paym* (viz 
out of the thre Hund d ) may be made in mony for the more 
lively cavsing an end of the afiV s d worke. 

The Time of w ch Payment shall be as folio weth viz : one 
Hund. Pound at the Bringing of the Timber to the Place A 
seccond Hund : at the raysing A third Hund : at the Inclo- 
sure & Covering A fourth at the finishing & Compleating vnto 
all these premises aboves d we doe heerby Joyntly & severaly 
mutualy & Interchangeably bind o r selves by o r hands & seales 
this first of August 1657. 

We doe also engadge that the three Hund : pound in the 
Legacy aboves d shall be made good vnto the s d workmen 
Thomas & Bartholomew. 
Wittneses heer vnto 

Joseph Newgate Edward Hutchinson [seal.] 

James Browne John Hull, [seal.] 

Henry Powning 

Relating to y e Town House Rents. Read March 10** 1711-12. 

Wheras the Rents reserved to the Town of Boston for seve- 
ral spare Rooms in, under, and Adjoyning to the late Town 
House beside all rooms made use of there for Publick 
Occasions, did according to the Rates they were lett, or might 
have been Lett at amount to Eighty pounds P r annum. 

And the Great and Gen 11 Court or Assembly of this Province 



342 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [MARCH, 

haveing lately directed, That there be a House built in or neer 
the place where the Old Town House stood, For Publick meet- 
ings on Civill Occasions, For Province County and Town, 
Viz! For the Meeting of the Gen 11 Assembly, The holding of 
Councills and Courts of Justice and Town Meetings, the Charge 
therof to be born the One halfe by the Province, the Other 
halfe by the Town of Boston and County of Suffolk in Equall 
proportion, unto which proposal the Inhabitants of Boston have 
Yoted their Concur ranee. 

And since there is prospect of as great if not greater improve- 
m ts and advantage by such spare room in the s d new building 
now to be Erected, it may not be unseasonable for the Inhabi- 
tants of this Town now to make Sutable provision to secure 
that priviledge and benefitt to themselves and their succes- 
sors. 

And altho other Arguments might be of weight for their 
being so benefitted, Yet rather then forego and loose the same, 
May it not be adviseable for them to agree upon bearing some 
Additional Charge in y e s d building as an Equivalent, That so 
they may be thereby Effectually Intitulled to the benefit and 
improvement of all such rooms and spaices in under and ad- 
joyning to the s d New building which shall be conveniently 
capable of being inclosed and Improved for distinct uses, and 
otherwise not needfull to be made use of for those afore men- 
tioned Intentions proposed by the Gen 11 Court, and thereby to 
Lessen the Charge of the Province, Town and County in their 
respective proportions as aforesaid. The which additionall 
Charge, together with the Charge of Incloseing and fitting of 
shops &c. there, may (if the Town sees meet) to very good ad- 
vantage be defrayd out of that their money w ch is the Effects of 
Lands sold and in Equity ought to be so layd out as to raise 
and perpetuate an income to the Town. 

And in case sutable Application be made to the Gen 11 Court 
on the behalfe of this Town relating to the premisies, under 
the consideration of their Excessive growing Charge & Ex- 



1858.] BOSTON TOWN-HOUSE. 343 

pences, & their so great a loss by the Late Fire, & that the Late 
Town-House w ch was built at the Charge of y e Inhabitants of 
this Town was for neer fifty years past made use of for all 
Publick Occasions w th out any other Charge to the Public then 
that for some of the Later years they have born part of y e Charge 
of y e Repaires. 

And that the Town of Boston being the true and proper 
Owners of all that Land on w ch the said New building is now 
to be erected. It is presumed that they will readily agree unto 
so just and reasonable a proposal. 

Proposed By Joseph Prout Read at y e begining of y e Town 
meeting y e 10 th of March 1711-12. 

Gen 1 ! Court directions ah 1 building a Town House — 1711. 

1711 Octo. Committee Appointed by the Gen! Court viz 
Elisha Hutchinson Samuel Sewall Nathan 1 Payn & Thomas 
Noyes Esq rs of the Council, Samuel Appleton, Josiah Chapin, 
John Clark & James Warren Esq rs Maj r Thomas Fitch, Cap* 
Simon Davis & Cap* Samuel Phipps of the House of Repre- 
sentatives. 

The Above Committee Advise that there be a house built in 
or near the place where the old Town house stood for the uses 
mentioned in the Memorial as convenient as may be without 
incomoding the street the Breadth not to Exceed thirty six feet 
the Length so as to be Convenient for the Ends mentioned in 
the Addresse. That a Committee be Appointed by this Court to 
take Care for the Building as speedily & prudently as may be, 
The Charge thereof to be born the one half by the Province 
the other halfe by the Town of Boston & County of Suffolk in 
Equal proportion. 

By ord r of the Major part of the Committee. 

Elisha Hutchinson. 

November 10 1711 Read & Accepted And a Committee 
Raised and Directed to Advise with his Excellency and such 



344 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [MARCH, 

skilful Gent? as they may think fit to be Consulted with about 
the Model of the House. 

Copy of the Minutes 

Is A Addington Secry. 

Note. That the House is for Publick Meetings, on Civil Occasions; for the Pro- 
vince, County & Town, viz* for the Meeting of the General Assembly The Holding of 
Councils, and Courts of Justice and Town meeting. 



In accordance with a vote of the Society, passed at 
their stated meeting, March 11, the speech of the Hon. 
Josiah Quincy before the Committee of the Massachu- 
setts Legislature to whom was referred the petition of 
the New-England Historic-Genealogical Society, and the 
remonstrance of the Massachusetts Historical Society, 
is here printed : — 

SPEECH OF THE HON. JOSIAH QUINCY. 

Gentlemen, — I regret the necessity which compels me to 
appear on this occasion. I have arrived at a period of life at 
which it is becoming and wise to abstain from mingling in the 
controversies of the day, for which I have as little inclination 
as comparative power. But a Society of which I am the 
oldest member has seen fit, without any thought or wish of 
mine, to call upon me for this service ; and, after reflection, I 
have not found sufficient cause to justify me in declining. 
Having been admitted into it in the year 1797, and been 
acquainted with all the original founders of it, the opinion 
seems to have been entertained, that my services might be 
useful on this occasion. 

At first view, to a thoughtless mind, and one not acquainted 
with the circumstances which influence the character, power, 



1858.] SPEECH OF THE HON. JOSIAH QUINCY. .°>45 

and convenience of individuals and societies, the point in con- 
troversy might appear strange and somewhat ludicrous. Two 
Societies, of respectable standing, are in contest about a name; 
the one striving to get, the other striving to retain a name it 
has exclusively possessed more than sixty-four years without 
interference. But names are things, — sometimes, in their 
application to human character, very serious things, — and, in 
respect of societies, may, by identity with some other, affect 
both their interest and convenience. 

The Society I represent has been, as I have said, known to 
the world, upwards of sixty-four years, by the name of the 
Massachusetts Historical Society. No other association of men 
ever thought of assuming it until about twelve years ago, when 
the Society now petitioning for the same name was formed, 
with a name approximating, but not identical with, that of the 
Society I now represent. It called itself The New-England 
Historic- Genealogical Society, — a name long enough, one 
would suppose, to satisfy the taste or the appetite of any hu- 
man being, or of any association of human beings, were they 
Spaniards or Frenchmen. After enjoying this name for twelve 
years without question or molestation, they suddenly find 
it is not long enough ; and come to the Legislature of Massa- 
chusetts, almost with tears in their eyes, to lengthen it out by 
adding al to historic, so that they may be hereafter known as 
The New-England Historical Genealogical Society. Was 
ever a legislature called upon before to legislate upon a subject 
so small and so trivial ? Nothing is wanted by these petition- 
ers to make them perfectly happy and great, but the addition- 
al to their already sesquipedalian name. In other words, all 
they want is precisely the addition of that single element which 
now distinguishes that Society from ours. Unless there is some 
hidden hope or anticipated advantage concealed under this de- 
sired addition, the desire can have no other origin than idiosyn- 
crasy, like that of the frog, who thought that, by a little swelling, 
he would grow into, or be mistaken for, something very great. 

u 



346 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [MARCH, 

But, to treat the subject seriously, gentlemen, can it be for 
the interest of either of these Societies, or for the advantage of 
the public, that the name by which two important Societies 
are known should be identical ? For, grant the prayer of 
this petition, and, notwithstanding the supererogatory matter 
with which their name is loaded, in general and popular opi- 
nion there will be two historical societies, bearing the same 
name, in Massachusetts. Is this for the interest and conve- 
nience of the State or its citizens ? Will this long-tailing of the 
word historic increase that Society's power, spirit, or useful- 
ness ? 

It may aid you in deciding this question to possess a short 
sketch of the proceedings of this Society and its origin, as I 
have received the accounts from others, and believe in their 
substantial correctness. The Massachusetts Historical Society 
was, by its Act of Incorporation, restricted to sixty resident mem- 
bers. In the original draught of the Association, before its incor- 
poration, its resident members were restricted to thirty; not 
from any desire of exclusiveness, but as I have heard, if I mis- 
take not, Dr. Belknap, the real founder of the Society, himself 
say, to compel the Society to choose only men adapted and dis- 
posed to become active workers in that field ; in order that it 
should not be tempted to elect members for the sake of bestowing 
upon them a feather, and become pursy and heavy by numbers, 
without proportionate activity, and power of progress. The num- 
ber was raised to sixty by the Legislature, without, if not con- 
trary to, the wishes of the original associates ; at least, so I have 
always understood. With the number of sixty, the Society 
labored during more than fifty years, published about thirty 
volumes, and obtained a character and celebrity which rendered 
admission into it a subject of desire, especially by those who had 
congenial historical sympathies. In process of time, men of 
this class arose in Massachusetts, adapted and disposed to unite 
in the same labors, extremely desirous to become members of 
the Society, but into which they could not enter on account 



1858.] SPEECH OF THE HON. JOSIAH QUINCY. 347 

of the restriction contained in the Act of Incorporation. Men 
of this description gradually multiplied. Some of these, who 
hoped for admission, were disappointed when vacancies occa- 
sionally happened, and which were filled by others. Some of 
these were said to have had the mortification of being rejected 
when others were elected. With wishes and feelings of this 
kind, the Society now petitioning for an addition to its char, 
tered name, naturally, properly, and wisely originated. There 
was and could be no possible objection to it. Members 
of the Massachusetts Historical Society hailed it as a co-laborer 
in the same field : some of them joined it. Nor was 
there any thought or feeling or question concerning its 
tendency to any crossing of interests with the Massachu- 
setts Historical Society suggested, until, in addition to New- 
England Genealogical, they inserted historic into their 
nomenclature of objects. Friendly suggestions are stated to 
have been made to some of the projectors of the new Society, 
that this name might lead to some mistake or confusion ; but 
without effect. It was said that no such danger was to be 
apprehended ; that they had not taken the name of historical; 
that the word historic was, in their name, associated with 
genealogical, to which it was applicable alone, and not intended 
to embrace any general historical scope. Though not satis- 
fied with these explanations, the members of the Massachusetts 
Historical Society were compelled to be silent ; for the names 
were not entirely identical. Apprehension of some inconve- 
nience was, however, entertained, from the proximity of the 
names in this respect. Accordingly, as is set forth in the me- 
morial of the Massachusetts Historical Society, it can be 
proved, that the name the new Society already bears has occa- 
sioned many inconveniences to both Societies ; that they have 
been confounded with each other, both at the post-office and in 
the public mind ; communications, and contributions of pam- 
phlets and of books, have been so addressed from a distance as 
to leave a doubt for which Society they were intended. Under 



348 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [MARCH, 

such circumstances, is it possible that the Legislature of 
Massachusetts can think it wise or just to increase these incon- 
veniences by making the names of these Societies, in the 
manner proposed, identical ? 

It is proper here to ask, Why did not that Society originally 
assume, and ask the Legislature in their Act of Incorporation 
for, the same name for which they now petition ? Plainly for 
the reason, — there could be no other, — that the Legislature of 
that day would have seen the impropriety, and anticipated the 
inconvenience, of incorporating two Societies with names whose 
principal elements were identical. The Historical Society 
would have then, in such case, unquestionably remonstrated, 
and as unquestionably would have been successful. 

The next step indicates very clearly, that there was some- 
where, among the members of that Society, a disposition to 
assume the very name for it which they had not received from 
the Legislature, and for which they did not originally even 
dare to ask. For, almost immediately after the Act of Incor- 
poration of the new Society had been obtained, one of its ori- 
ginal founders, and, if report says true, the principal objector 
to its present name, published a periodical, which, to every 
reasonable mind, must, under the circumstances, be regarded 
as the act of the whole Society, which, instead of taking its 
corporate name, at once, in the very face of the Act of 
Incorporation, assumed the name for which they now peti- 
tion, and called itself " The New-England Historical Genea- 
logical Register;" plainly evidencing, that it was early in 
the intention of that Society to assume a name which the 
Legislature had not granted, and for which they did not 
originally dare to ask. Now, is it possible that the Legisla- 
ture of Massachusetts will sanction a name thus assumed 
under such circumstances, not only without, but in defiance of, 
their authority ? 

It is now proper to inquire, What are the grave, solid reasons 
on which these petitioners rest their hopes of success ? Fortu- 



1858.] SPEECH OF THE HON. JOSIAH QUINCY. 349 

nately, there can be no doubt on this subject. The Massachu- 
setts Historical Society happily enjoy the advantage which the 
scriptural patriarch so earnestly desired, " Oh that my ene- 
mies had written a book ! " The petitioners have written a 
book, setting forth those reasons in all their power and strength. 
" 1st, The desired name is in better taste and more euphonious 
than their corporate title." Grant that it is so. What then ? Was 
not taste and euphony as well known and as justly appreciated 
when their Act of Incorporation was petitioned for and granted 
as it is at this clay ? Why did they accept a charter-name 
which was in bad taste and so cacophonious ? The reason has 
been already explained. They did not dare to ask for that 
which they now desire, knowing that it would not be granted. 
Yet that, at the moment they accepted this cacophonious name, 
and one in such bad taste, they knew and intended, at some 
propitious time, if possible, to get rid of it, and assume that 
which the old Society has so long possessed, is apparent from 
the fact, that they did then immediately, though unauthorized 
by the Legislature, assume it, and, by this public assumption, 
have unquestionably contributed to produce that confusion in 
the public mind concerning the two Societies which has already 
occasioned so much inconvenience. 

" 2d, It corresponds with the title of the periodical issuedby the 
Society" Here it will be observed, that this periodical is openly 
avowed to be the work of the Society ; and thus they derive an 
argument from their own unwarranted assumption. Acknow- 
ledging the inconvenience to the public their assumption has 
occasioned, they make their own wrong the ground of its con- 
tinuance and of your sanction of it ; making their contempt of 
the legislative act a reason and groundwork of legislative 
favor. To say the least, there is a boldness in this argument 
somewhat original, and characteristic of their whole proceed- 
ings. The last ground on which they rest their petition is of 
the same extraordinary type : — " 3d, It is the name by which 
their Society is generally designated and known" In other 



350 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [MARCH, 

words, having taken upon themselves a name which did 
not belong to them, having persevered in the use of it in 
open contempt of the name given them by the Legislature, 
they ask that now, when the inconvenience they have thus 
produced is felt and acknowledged, it should be publicly 
sanctioned, and that this inconvenience should be made perma- 
nent. Can it be possible that such an argument can receive 
one moment's sanction from the Legislature ? This little book, 
or pamphlet, from which these weighty reasons for granting 
their petitions have been abstracted, has been, I understand, 
put into the hands of every member of the Legislature, — a 
sort of log-rolling emissary, intended to do its work out of doors 
and in the lobbies, where the real grounds of opposition to it 
cannot reach, and will be unknown. Now, these grounds are, 
that inconvenience has already been experienced, and more 
may be hereafter anticipated. This inconvenience was, in fact, 
anticipated originally, when the new Society inserted historic 
among their names, and was on that account objected to, yet 
adopted by them notwithstanding this objection, they main- 
taining that no such inconvenience could occur, because the 
name was not identical with ours. And yet, with a full know- 
ledge of these apprehensions, they immediately, in a publication 
under their sanction, drop the incorporated name, and take the 
particular element which made the names of the two Societies 
identical, and out of which all the inconveniences complained 
of have arisen. Can such proceedings deserve or receive the 
sanction of the Legislature of Massachusetts ? 

In justice to the petitioning Society, I ought to say, that 
the object petitioned for is far from being the unanimous wish 
of the members of it. Many of its members see the subject in 
the light in which it is viewed and here presented by the 
Massachusetts Historical Society, and feel the force of the ob- 
jections to the prayer of their petition. 

Finally, gentlemen, is it for the interest or honor of the 
State, that the names of two Societies, having both important 



1858.] SPEECH OF THE HON. JOSIAH QUINCY. 351 

bearings upon the history of the country, should be, in their 
principal element, so identical as to create inconvenience to 
them, and confusion in the public mind ? Shall not a Society 
which owes its origin to such names as Jeremy Belknap, 
George Richards Minot, John Eliot, and James Sullivan, be 
permitted to enjoy for ever, without obstruction, the name 
they originally assumed ? 



PROCEEDINGS 



COMMEMORATIVE OF 



THOMAS DOWSE, 



THE MUSIC HALL, BOSTON, 



Dec. 9, 1858. 



45 



At a Special Meeting of the Massachusetts Historical Society, 
Dec. 21, 1858, the following Resolution was unanimously adopted : — 

" Resolved, That the thanks of the Massachusetts Historical Society 
be presented to their distinguished associate, the Hon. Edward 
Everett, for the interesting, instructive, and eloquent Eulogy pro- 
nounced by him, at their request, on the evening of the 9th inst., on 
the late Thomas Dowse ; and that he be respectfully requested to 
furnish a copy for publication." 



[In order that all the Proceedings of the Society relating to the 
Dowse Donations may be included in one volume, Mr. Everett's 
Eulogy, with the Introductory Address of the President (Mr. 
Winthrop), is here printed.] 



INTRODUCTORY ADDRESS, 



BY THE HON. ROBERT C. WINTHROP. 



After an impressive prayer had been offered by the senior clerical 
member of the Society (the Rev. William Jenks, D.D.), the Presi- 
dent addressed the audience as follows : — 

It may not be inappropriate for me to remark, ladies 
and gentlemen, in the brief opening which is all that 
belongs to me on this occasion, that four times only, — 
during the nearly threescore years and ten which have 
elapsed since their original organization in 1790, — that 
four times only, I believe, have the Massachusetts His- 
torical Society been assembled, as they now are, for any 
purpose of public and formal commemoration. 

On the 23d of October, 1792, a discourse was de- 
livered before them by the Rev. Dr. Belknap, on the 
completion of the third century since the discovery of 
America by Christopher Columbus. 

On the 22d of December, 1813, a discourse was 
delivered before them, on the one hundred and ninety- 
third anniversary of the landing of the Pilgrim Fathers, 
by the late venerable Judge Davis. 

On the 29th of May, 1843, a discourse was delivered 



356 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Dec. 

before them, on the second centennial anniversary of the 
old New-England Confederation, by the late illustrious 
John Quincy Adams. 

On the 3 1st of October, 1844, a discourse was deli- 
vered before them, on the completion of the first half- 
century since their own incorporation, by Dr. John 
Gorham Palfrey, who, we are glad to remember, is still 
living and laboring in our chosen field, and whose His- 
tory of New England we are at this moment awaiting 
from the press with so much of eager interest and 
expectation. 

And now, once more, we are assembled here this even- 
ing, with these distinguished and welcome guests around 
us, to listen to our honored associate, Mr. Everett, while 
in our behalf, and in kind compliance with our request, 
he pays a tribute, such as he alone can pay, to one of 
our most recent and most munificent benefactors. 

We are not unmindful, in assembling for this purpose, 
that our old parent Historical Society, the mother of all 
in America, has been indebted heretofore to more than 
one most liberal benefactor for the means of carrying 
forward the cherished objects for which it was instituted. 
Its library, its cabinet, the halls it is privileged to oc- 
cupy, — overhanging the ancient sepulchres of so many 
of the Massachusetts Fathers, — the four and thirty 
volumes of its published Collections, all bear manifold 
and abundant testimony to the generous contributions 
of its founders and friends. 

There are those, I rejoice to say, yet among the living, 
and some of them within the sound of my voice at this 
moment, for whose pecuniary aid or personal service, in 



1858.] MR. WINTHROP'S INTRODUCTORY ADDRESS. 357 

many an hour of need, we can hardly be too grateful. 
May the day be still distant which shall unseal our lips 
by sealing their own, and which shall take off the 
injunction, which nothing but death can dissolve, against 
making them the subjects of public eulogy ! 

But no considerations of delicacy forbid the open 
acknowledgment of our obligations to those distinguished 
Governors of Massachusetts, and earliest Presidents of 
our Society, — James Sullivan and Christopher Gore, — 
who, however widely they may have differed about the 
politics of the day in which they lived, forgot all other 
rivalries in the cause in which we are engaged, and 
emulated each other in generous efforts for its promo- 
tion. 

Nor can any such consideration restrain the expression 
of our gratitude to the late excellent Samuel Appleton, 
to whom we owe the establishment of a noble fund for 
procuring, preserving, and publishing the materials of 
American history. 

And nothing, certainly, could excuse us for omitting 
an opportunity like the present, to make still more 
particular and emphatic mention of Dr. Jeremy Belknap, 
as one pre-eminently entitled to our grateful remem- 
brance and regard. Foremost among the founders of 
our Society, his labors for its advancement, and his 
contributions to its archives, ceased only with his life ; 
and now that more than half a century has passed 
away since that valuable and venerable life was brought 
to a close, we have again been called to a fresh recog- 
nition and a renewed admiration of his unwearied devo- 
tion to the objects for which we are associated, by the 



358 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Dec. 

rich and varied treasures, from his own original collec- 
tion, which have been so thoughtfully and liberally- 
added to our library and cabinet by his esteemed and 
respected daughter. Coming to us, within a few months 
past, through the hands of our accomplished associate, 
Mr. Ticknor, and carefully collated and arranged, as 
they already have been, by our untiring coadjutor, Mr. 
Charles Deane, they will form at once a precious addi- 
tion to our archives, and a most interesting memorial of 
Dr. Belknap and his family. 

But, while we can never forget our indebtedness to 
these earlier friends and benefactors of our Society, we 
are here to-night to acknowledge a gift, which must 
ever stand by itself in our annals. We are here to-night 
to commemorate a giver, whose remarkable qualities 
and career would alone have entitled him to no common 
tribute of respect. 

And I know not, my friends, how I can better dis- 
charge the duty which now devolves on me, as the 
organ of this Society, of introducing to you at once the 
subject and the orator of the occasion, than by holding 
up before you this ponderous volume, and by telling 
you at least one of the circumstances under which it 
originally came into my possession. 

It is the first volume of a sumptuous folio edition of 
Purchas's Pilgrims, printed in London in the year 1625, 
which was placed in my hands by Mr. Dowse himself, 
on the 30th day of July, 1856, and which contains an 
inscription which will speak for itself: — 



1858.] MR. WINTHROP'S INTRODUCTORY ADDRESS. 359 

" Cambridge, July 30, 1856. 
"This volume, ' Purchas his Pilgrims,' being numbered 812 in the 
Catalogue now in the press of Messrs. John Wilson and Son, is deli- 
vered by me, on this thirtieth day of July, 1856, to the Hon. Robert 
C. Winthrop, President of the Massachusetts Historical Society, as an 
earnest and evidence of my having given the whole of my library to 
said Massachusetts Historical Society, — the books to be preserved 
for ever in a room by themselves, and only to be used in said room. 

"Thomas Dowse. 
" In presence of 

" O. W. Watriss. 
George Livermore." 

It is not for me, my friends, to attempt any account 
of the more than five thousand rare and costly volumes 
of which this was the sample and the earnest. They 
will be described to you presently by one familiar with 
them from his youth, and who is far better able to do 
justice to them than myself. But I may be pardoned 
for alluding to a single circumstance, which he himself 
might shrink from recalling. 

When admitted into the library of Mr. Dowse, in 
company with my valued friend, Mr. George Liver- 
more, to receive this magnificent gift in behalf of our 
Society, my attention could not fail to be attracted to 
the one portrait which hung conspicuously upon the 
walls. Though only an unfinished sketch, it bore evi- 
dent marks of having come from the hand of that admi- 
rable artist, whose name is so proudly associated with 
the far-famed head of Washington in the gallery of the 
Boston Athenaeum, — Gilbert Stuart ; and it portrayed 
the features of a youthful student, in all the bloom of 
his earliest manhood, who, having taken the highest 



360 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Dec. 

honors of Harvard at an age when others were still 
preparing to enter there, was already adorning one of 
the classical chairs of that venerable university ; — 
lending the highest accomplishments of scholarship and 
eloquence to elevate the standard of American education, 
and giving abundant evidence of all those brilliant and 
surpassing powers which have since been displayed, in 
so many varied ways, in the service of his fellow-citizens 
and for the honor of his country. 

This, my friends, was the only portrait which Mr. 
Dowse had admitted to his library ; and a most signi- 
ficant indication it was of the estimation in which he 
held the original. 

You will not be surprised, therefore, that when the 
Massachusetts Historical Society proposed to pay a tri- 
bute to the memory of so munificent a benefactor, who 
lived but a few months after the gift was consummated, 
they should have eagerly welcomed that handwriting on 
the wall, and should have turned at once in the direction 
which it so clearly marked out for them. And it only 
remains for me to present to you, as I now have the pri- 
vilege of doing, in all the maturity of his manhood and 
his fame, the honored original of a portrait, which you 
will all, I am sure, have anticipated me in saying, is the 
only unfinished performance which has ever been asso- 
ciated with the name of Edward Everett. 




Cele^-tz^pL- C^-<^r-tZ^ . 



i 
Q 



EULOGY 



THOMAS DOWSE, 



BY HON. EDWARD EVERETT. 



Mr. President and Gentlemen of the Massachusetts Historical 
Society, — 

We are assembled this evening to pay a long-deferred 
debt of duty and gratitude to the memory of our greatest 
benefactor. At the time of the ever-memorable an- 
nouncement of the donation of his library on the oth 
of August, 1856, we expressed our thankfulness in 
becoming resolutions of acknowledgment. When, a few 
months afterwards, he was taken from us, we followed 
him to his last resting-place with unaffected demonstra- 
tions of sorrow and respect. When his magnificent 
library was, after his decease, transferred to the posses- 
sion of the Society, and opened for consultation and use, 
we took an appropriate public notice of the interesting 
and important occasion ; and we have now come together 
to unite in one more demonstration of respect, and one 
more act of grateful acknowledgment. We have come 
to gather up the recollections of the diligent, modest, 
unambitious, but in many respects important and memo- 

46 



362 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Dec. 

rable, life; to trace the strongly marked traits of a 
character, which, in an humble sphere of action, wrought 
out so much solid good, and appropriated to itself so 
much of the refinement and culture of the more favored 
pursuits ; to do justice to those pure tastes, refined 
sympathies, and high aspirations, which, beneath the 
burden of uncongenial circumstances, seemed hardly to 
do justice to themselves ; in a word, to characterize a 
representative man, unconsciously such on his own part, 
and during his life inadequately recognized by his con- 
temporaries. 

The events of Mr. Dowse's life were few and simple, 
of no great interest in themselves, and important only 
as furnishing the basis and cohesion of that quiet action, 
by which he carried on the even and beautiful tenor of 
his existence. He was born in the lower walks of so- 
ciety ; one might almost say, the lowest of those removed 
from actual dependence and penury. He enjoyed 
scarcely the humblest advantages of education ; and was 
placed in no position to give promise of future eminence, 
had he been designed and endowed by Providence for an 
eminent career. He was not favorably situated in early 
life to engage in any of the pursuits by which men 
attract notice and earn reputation : but he early entered 
on a course of manual labor not well adapted to stimu- 
late the mental powers ; a career which might be suc- 
cessful, but which in scarce any possible event could lead 
to distinction. Hugh Miller, a stone-mason in the old 
red-sandstone quarries of Cromarty, George Stephenson 
in the depths of the coal mines at Black Callerton, may 
seem to be placed on the lowest round of the ladder of 



1858.] mr. Everett's eulogy on thomas dowse. 363 

advancement ; but it was one which led by regular, though 
at first arduous, ascent to the heights of fame. The 
young leather-dresser's apprentice could, however suc- 
cessful, scarcely grow up to be any thing but a respecta- 
ble master-workman. His humble industry, pursued 
under the livelong disadvantage of a serious bodily 
infirmity, was crowned with success. The diligence, 
energy, and intelligence with which he carried on his 
laborious calling, resulted in the accumulation of a 
handsome property ; of which, from an early period, he 
began to employ a liberal share, not in the ordinary 
luxuries of building, equipage, and domestic establish- 
ment, but in the gratification of a taste for books, for 
art, and for Nature in her simpler beauties, and genial, 
home-bred relations. As his fortune continued to grow, 
instead of struggling to rise in social position or increased 
importance in the eyes of the community, he availed him- 
self of his ample means only to redeem added hours from 
manual labor, in order to devote them to reading. Late 
in life, he rose, not to the places which a vulgar ambition 
covets but cannot fill, but from his work-bench to his 
study-table. The shop-windows were still open beneath 
his library, though the work was carried on by others 
in his employ. The decently carved lamb still stood 
upon its lofty pillar before his door, symbolizing his 
quiet nature, while it advertised his humble trade, for 
years after the growing infirmities of age had obliged 
him to leave hard work to younger hands. Advancing 
years stole upon him, and still found him occupied with 
an instructive book ; turning a costly volume of engrav- 
ings, of the beauty of which he had a keen perception ; 



364 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Dec. 

contemplating with never-cloyed zest the valuable col- 
lection of copies in water-colors of the ancient masters, 
the acquisition of which formed what may be called the 
fortunate accident of his life ; strolling among his flower- 
beds, listening to the hum of his bees, whom he would 
not allow to be robbed of their honey ; superintending 
the planting of his shrubbery, and pruning his trees. 
Under still-increasing infirmities, he reaches, he passes, 
the accepted term of human life ; and the sobered thoughts 
which suit its decline take more exclusive possession of 
his mind. He begins to make frequent visits to Mount 
Auburn, in preparation for that visit on which we bore 
him company, from which there is no return. Humble 
mechanic, owing all the solace of his lonely exist- 
ence to the success with which he had been able to 
ennoble manual labor by intellectual culture, he thinks 
it no presumption, toward the close of his life, and when 
no selfish motive of attracting worldly applause could 
by possibility be ascribed to the act, to raise at Mount 
Auburn a simple and solid shaft in honor of his brother- 
mechanic, — the immortal printer ; he digs his own 
sepulchre at the foot of the monument thus piously 
erected to the memory of Franklin ; bestows his precious 
library, the fruit of all his labors, the scene of most of 
his enjoyments, the concentrated essence, so to say, of his 
existence, on the Massachusetts Historical Society ; at 
their request, yields his placid and venerable features for 
the first time to the pencil of the artist ; and sinks to 
rest. 

Such was our benefactor, whose biography I have 
substantially exhausted in this prelusive sketch. He 



1858.] MR. EVERETT'S EULOGY ON THOMAS DOWSE. 365 

was the seventh of the eight children of Eleazer and 
Mehitable Dowse ; and was born at Charlestown, in 
Massachusetts, on the 28th of December, 1772. His 
father was a leather-dresser, and owned a wooden house 
and a large lot of land nearly opposite to the spot where 
the church of our respected associate, the Rev. Dr. Ellis, 
now stands. I do not suppose that it would elevate Tho- 
mas Dowse in the estimation of any judicious person to 
be able to say of him, that he belonged to what is called 
a distinguished family ; on the contrary, it would rob 
him of much of his merit as a self-made man to trace 
his fondness for books, and his aptitude for intellectual 
and artistic culture, either to hereditary tastes or patri- 
monial advantages of education. Still, however, I have 
never known a person whose self-reliance was of so 
austere a cast, that he did not take pleasure, when it was 
in his power to do so, in tracing his descent from an 
honored line. It may, therefore, be proper to state, that, 
though the parents of Mr. Dowse occupied an untitled 
position at a time when titles were a trifle less shadowy 
than at the present day, one of his family, Jonathan 
Dowse, is mentioned in a land-conveyance in Middlesex 
County, in 1732, with the title of " Honorable." Hono- 
rable Jonathans are more plentiful now than then ; and I 
suppose, that, in the first third of the eighteenth century, 
that designation was confined to members of the Execu- 
tive Council, or persons in high judicial station, and 
entitled the individual decorated with it to the decent 
adornments of a scarlet cloak, white wig, and three- 
cornered hat. In what capacity Jonathan Dowse was 
complimented with this distinguished title, — distin- 



366 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Dec. 

guished at that time ; now rather conferring distinction 
on the principle that Cassius and Brutus were distin- 
guished at the funeral of Junia, — I am uninformed. 

If it were possible to penetrate to the remote and 
occult sources of temperament and character as deve- 
loped in after-life, some sensible effect would no doubt 
be traceable to the influence of stirring, anxious, and 
disastrous times upon the tenderest years of infancy. 
Vague but abiding impressions are probably made upon 
the imagination long before the reasoning faculties 
begin to act ; and, if the influence is one which pervades 
the whole community, the effect will be seen in the cha- 
racter of the age. It is, I suppose, in this way that we 
are to explain the appearance of vigorous, high-toned, 
and resolute generations of men in critical and decisive 
periods, when great interests are at stake, and mighty 
energies are in action. The year 1772, in which Thomas 
Dowse was born, was one of the most important of the 
momentous years that preceded the Revolution. The 
mind of the entire community was in a state of intense 
excitement, fermenting toward the crisis. The domestic 
circle of his father's house was darkened by the death, 
in that one year, of three children. The public crisis at 
length came on ; and his parents fled from the flames of 
their humble dwelling in Charlestown on the ever- 
memorable 17th of June, 1775 : he, a child of two and 
a half years of age, too young, of course, for a distinct 
remembrance of the event in after-times ; old enough to 
have retained dark and solemn though indistinct im- 
pressions of the anxious haste, the energetic trepidation, 
the sorrowful parting, the bitter and the tender emotions, 



1858.] MR. EVERETT'S EULOGY ON THOMAS DOWSE. 367 

which must pervade a quiet home, surrendered all at 
once to the worst horrors of war. The nurses in Nor- 
mandy still awe their restless children by the ominous 
chant of Malbrook, — a name of terror throughout the 
cottages of France a century and a half ago, of which 
the force is not yet expended. Dr. Samuel Johnson, 
at the same age with Mr. Dowse when his parents fled 
from Charlestown, was taken to London to be touched 
for the king's evil by Queen Anne, and retained through 
life " a sort of solemn recollection of a lady in diamonds, 
with a long black hood," — a spectral image which no 
doubt fed his constitutional melancholy. There was a 
shade of severity in Mr. Dowse's manner which may have 
had its origin in the impressions produced upon the 
child's mind by the sorrowful and indignant hegira from 
the naming streets of Charlestown ; kept alive, as those 
impressions would necessarily be, by the more distinct 
recollections of the members of his family older than 
himself. 

The family, fleeing from the ashes of their humble 
dwelling, retreated first for a short time to Holliston, and 
then to Sherborn, in Middlesex County, where it had 
been originally established; and here Thomas grew up 
till he became of age. It was far from being a time of 
prosperity. The burden of the Revolution, and of the 
unsettled times that succeeded it, fell heavy upon the 
land. Eleazer Dowse recommenced the business of a 
leather-dresser at Sherborn ; but it was much if it yielded 
a frugal support to his family. One incident only, as 
far as I am aware, has been remembered of the childhood 
of Thomas ; and it was one of two accidents, as they are 



368 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Dec. 

called, the one disastrous, the other fortunate, which 
exercised an important influence over his tastes and 
occupations. The misfortune took place when he was 
six years old. It was a fall from an apple-tree, succeeded 
by a rheumatic fever, which ended in an incurable lame- 
ness, with frequently recurring periods of acute suffering 
throughout his life. Judging him from his appearance 
at the meridian of his days, when, notwithstanding his 
lameness, he stood full six feet in height, — I think rather 
more, — with a frame by nature evidently of an athletic 
cast ; retaining even to the last, as we see in "Wight's 
excellent portrait, distinct traces of a countenance once 
symmetrical and comely, — it is not difficult to suppose, 
that as the thoughtful child compared himself with his 
nimble comrades in boyhood, or as he grew in years with 
his strenuous companions in later life, something of the 
bitterness of feeling which clouded Byron's spirit may 
have stolen over him, and given a sombre tinge to his 
habitual meditations. At all events, as I knew him, he 
was a taciturn, lonely, self-reliant man, drawing solitary 
enjoyment from the deep cold wells of reading and 
thought. 

It is probable, that during the first confinement, caused 
by the painful accident, and the fever which followed it, 
in his case, as in that of Scott and so many other intel- 
ligent children under similar circumstances, the weary 
and languishing hours were soothed by the assiduities of 
mother, sister, and friends reading to him such books 
— then few and precious — as would amuse the tedium 
of the sick-chamber, and that his taste for reading began 
in this way. He had some schooling; but the town- 



1858.] MR. EVERETT'S EULOGY ON THOMAS DOWSE. 369 

school in Sherborn, eighty years ago, could have been of 
very little account. His lameness was the most earnest 
and successful teacher. The feeble and aching limbs, 
which prevented his engaging in out-door sports, led him 
to seek occupation and amusement in books. In one of 
the few conversations which I ever had with him on this 
subject, — for, uncommunicative in all things, he was 
especially so in whatever concerned himself, — he said, 
that, from his very earliest recollection, he was fond of 
books, and devoted every shilling that came into his 
possession to their purchase. When, in after-life, he 
became acquainted with the writings and history of Sir 
"Walter Scott, he felt himself drawn by sympathy toward 
him as a fellow-sufferer. " Lameness," he used to say 
to a young friend, " drove us both to books, — him to 
making them, and me to reading them." This sympathy 
led him to procure a bust of Scott, the only one which 
adorned his library. 

But though books, from his childhood, formed the so- 
lace of his life, they could not furnish his support. The 
ample funds, which now exist for the education of meri- 
torious but needy young men, had not then been provided 
by public and private liberality. The circumstances of 
his family were not such as to put a college education 
within his reach. At the proper age, the poor lame boy 
must begin to learn a trade ; and that of a leather-dresser 
was naturally selected. He had probably begun to 
work under his father, in the shop and on the farm, 
as soon as he was able to labor. His taste for reading, 
as we have seen, was developed still earlier. As he 
grew up, all his leisure time was devoted to it ; and, before 

47 



370 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Dec. 

he was eighteen years of age, he had read all the books 
which he could procure in Sherborn. 

He continued to work with his father till he attained 
his majority ; at which time a strong desire possessed him 
to see the famous places abroad, of which he had learned 
something from books. To gratify this desire, he gladly 
accepted the offer of one of his father's friends and neigh- 
bors, the captain of a vessel about to sail from Norfolk, 
in Virginia, to London. He was to get to Norfolk be- 
fore the vessel sailed, at his own expense. Too poor to 
accompany the captain by land, he engaged a passage in 
a coasting vessel bound from Boston to Norfolk. A 
long-continued east-wind detained the coaster in port, till 
it was too late to reach Norfolk before the vessel sailed 
for London. Thomas lost that chance of seeing Europe ; 
and another never offered itself. It was a critical period 
in his life. The money which he had brought from 
Sherborn ran low at a boarding-house while the cruel 
east-wind prevailed ; and he was not willing to return, a 
disappointed adventurer, to his father's door. Seeking 
employment in the business in which he was brought up, 
he engaged in the service of Mr. Wait, a wool-puller and 
leather-dresser at Roxbury, as a journeyman, at twelve 
dollars a month. He remained in this situation for ten 
years ; and the highest wages he ever received was twenty- 
five dollars a month. 

In 1803, Mr. Dowse, now thirty-one years of age, was 
enabled, with the assistance of Mr. Wait, to set up in 
business for himself. In that year he established him- 
self in Cambridgeport ; which was beginning sensibly to 
prosper under the influence of the building of West- 



1858.] MR. EVERETT'S EULOGY ON THOMAS DOWSE. 371 

Boston, or, as it is now called, Hancock Bridge. Those 
who recollect the Port as it was at the beginning of the 
century will be able to appreciate the forecast which 
led Mr. Dowse to select it as an advantageous place of 
business. Few portions of the environs of Boston were, 
at that time, less attractive. It was near the great cen- 
tres of interest, literary, commercial, and historical ; but 
it was not of them. In the early settlement of the 
country, Governor Winthrop's party, as is well known, 
made its first permanent landing at Charlestown. The 
communication westward by land, from the spot where 
they stationed themselves for the summer of 1630, was 
over Charlestown Neck, and by the old Charlestown road, 
which now leads to Cambridge Common, and is called 
Kirkland Street. Along the line of this road there had 
probably been an Indian trail, which left Cambridge- 
port quite to the south. Water communication by 
boats was, in the absence of roads, much resorted to 
along the coast and up the river. It was, no doubt, the 
principal mode of conveyance from Charlestown and 
Boston to Watertown, which began to be settled earlier 
than Cambridge. The shores of Charles River for a 
considerable part of the way, along what is now Cam- 
bridgeport, were low and wet, and afforded no conve- 
niences for landing. A great part of the territory was 
a sunken marsh or an almost impenetrable swamp, 
interspersed with a few tracts of upland, nearly, and 
some wholly, insulated. This condition of things did 
not materially change for a century and a half. Lieu- 
tenant-Governor Phipps purchased as a farm the entire 
territory of what is now East Cambridge, in the early 



372 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [DEC. 

part of the eighteenth century. The Inman and Soden 
Farms were cultivated about the same time ; and these 
were the only considerable improvements, east of Dana 
Hill, before the building of West-Boston Bridge. 

That event took place in 1793. Till then, the chief 
value of the lands in Cambridgeport arose from the salt 
hay procured from them. The situation was altogether 
uninviting. There were no highways or bridges across 
the marshes. " It was," says Dr. Holmes, " a sort of 
insulated tract, detached from every other." It was called 
" the Neck ; " and few persons went into it in the course 
of the year, except for the purpose of cutting and bring- 
ing off the salt hay, and for what is ironically, I suppose, 
called " sport ; " that is, wading all day up to your middle 
through oozy creeks and tangled bushes, beneath a 
burning sun, and under clouds of mosquitos, gnats, and 
green-headed flies, with a heavy fowling-piece on your 
shoulder, and an affectionate but muddy dog at your 
heels, in the hope of bringing home a sheldrake and 
half a dozen yellow-legs, at nightfall, as the trophy of 
the day's success. There were but four houses east 
of Judge Dana's before the bridge was built, and a 
repulsive loneliness reigned around them. The remains 
of an Indian wigwam, of rather equivocal reputation, 
existed, within my recollection, in the depths of a gloomy 
thicket ; and there were portions of this forlorn territory, 
if the popular superstition could be credited, not in the 
exclusive occupation of the denizens of this world. 

With the building of the bridge, and the opening of 
the causeway to it, — of which, however, the construction 
was very imperfect, — the improvement of the Port began. 



1858.] mr. Everett's eulogy on thomas dowse. 373 

In 1801, a considerable part of the Inman Farm was sold 
in small parcels ; and a rapid increase of building and 
population now took place. Young men of enterprise 
began to resort to Cambridgeport from the interior of 
the Commonwealth. Mr. Dowse followed in 1803. He 
established himself near the Universalis t church, in part- 
nership with Mr. Aaron Gay ; his old master Wait fur- 
nishing the capital, and receiving half the profits. This 
arrangement lasted but about a year, when the partner- 
ship was dissolved. Mr. Dowse remained in the pursuit of 
his business for about ten years longer, on the spot where 
he had first established himself, and with such success 
that he felt warranted, in 1814, in erecting the ample 
premises at the corner of Main and Prospect Streets. 
These he continued to occupy as a wool-puller and 
leather-dresser, with a succession of partners, to the 
close of his life ; retiring, however, from the actual pur- 
suit of his business at about the age of seventy-four. 

Industrious, punctual, energetic, intelligent, and up- 
right, he prospered in his calling. The wool-trade 
was profitable: the sheep-skins manufactured by him, 
and chiefly in request with the book-binders and glo- 
vers, acquired the reputation of superior finish and 
durability, and consequently enjoyed a preference in 
the market. His gains were therefore steady, and 
they were frugally husbanded. But, though simple 
in his tastes and moderate in his expenditure, he 
was far from parsimonious. His house, his domestic 
establishment, and his garden, were on a scale of conve- 
nience and comfort — one might almost say luxury of a 
Doric cast — seldom witnessed on the part of those who 



374 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Dec. 

live by manual labor. A moderate fortune was invested 
by him — unproductively, except as it produced rational 
and healthful enjoyment — in his buildings and grounds ; 
and a constantly increasing portion of his income was 
laid out in books. His days were devoted to hard work, 
and to the conveyance of its products to market in 
Boston ; but the early morning and the evening hours 
were employed in reading. He never stinted himself in 
the purchase of books ; and the sums of money, hardly 
earned by daily labor, and withdrawn from accumulation 
to be expended in this way, amounted of themselves, in 
the course of his life, to what would have been an inde- 
pendent fortune. The cost of his library, as presented 
to our Society, is supposed to have been not less than 
forty thousand dollars. If interest is taken into the 
account, it must have been twice that sum. I mention 
these facts, not as wishing to bring the value of books 
in the hands of an intelligent reader down to a pecuniary 
standard, but for the opposite purpose of showing how 
little this was done by Mr. Dowse. It may be difficult 
to find another instance of an individual, especially one 
physically infirm, who confined himself beyond the age 
of threescore years and ten to a laborious mechanical 
trade, and invested in buildings, grounds, and books, a 
sum of money amply sufficient to have supported him 
without manual labor. 

About the year 1821 happened the second of the two 
accidental occurrences of his life — the one adverse, the 
other prosperous — to which I have alluded : I refer to 
the acquisition of a valuable collection of copies, in water- 
colors, of paintings by the great masters. Mr. Dowse 



1858.] mr. Everett's eulogy on thomas dowse. 375 

had early formed a taste, not merely for reading, but for 
beautiful typography and binding, in which the publi- 
cations of the American press were at that time sadly 
deficient. Nor were the shelves of our booksellers then, 
as now, supplied by importation with ample stocks of 
the choicest productions of the foreign press. To gra- 
tify his taste in the beauty of his editions, Mr. Dowse 
was accustomed to import his books directly from Lon- 
don. About the year 1820, his agent there sent him the 
prospectus of a lottery for the disposal of the copies of 
a magnificent series of engravings of the ancient masters, 
and of the water-color copies which had been made of 
the originals in order to this publication. The lottery 
was arranged on the principle, that, according as the 
first-drawn number was even or odd, all the even or all 
the odd numbers should receive a set of engravings as a 
prize; while the water-color copies were divided, and 
formed the two highest additional prizes. This probably 
was an artifice of the managers of the lottery to induce 
every one, disposed to adventure in it, to buy at least two 
tickets. Mr. Dowse and a neighbor in Cambridgeport 
united in the purchase of three, dividing them between 
the even and the odd numbers. It was not convenient 
to the neighbor to retain his interest in the purchase of 
the tickets, and Mr. Dowse took the three to himself. 

His first information of the fortunate result came from 
the Custom House in Boston, in the shape of a heavy 
demand for duties upon the boxes, which contained fifty- 
two paintings in water-colors, in their frames ; a set of 
the colored engravings executed from them, and a set 
of the same engravings not colored ; all of which he had 



376 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [DEC. 

drawn as the second and third prizes in the lottery. 
The entire amount of duties, freight, and other charges, 
was about a thousand dollars. Whether this was a 
greater sum than it was convenient to Mr. Dowse to 
advance for what he must have regarded at that time as 
a mere luxury, or whether his taste for this branch of 
art remained to be developed, I have been informed that 
he hesitated at first about retaining the collection, and 
consulted one or two friends on the expediency of doing 
so. Their counsel — seconded, no doubt, by his own in- 
clination — determined him, at any rate, to proceed with 
caution. The collection was placed on exhibition at 
Doggett's rooms, in Market Street, for the gratification 
of the public. It attracted great attention on the part of 
all persons of taste, and of the artists then residing 
in Boston, and especially of Allston and Stuart. Mr. 
Dowse himself, perceiving the value of the collection, 
abandoned all thoughts of parting with the treasure thus 
thrown into his hands ; fitted up two rooms in the rear of 
his library for their reception ; and there they remained, 
one of the great ornaments of his establishment, an 
object of curiosity and interest to strangers visiting this 
region, and of delightful contemplation to those who 
enjoyed the privilege of Mr. Dowse's friendship, to the 
end of his days. 

This event I take to have decided his course for the 
residue of his life. His hesitation, whether or not he 
would dispossess himself of the treasures of art which 
had fallen to his lot, seems to show, if the anecdote is 
authentic, that hitherto he had not entirely made up his 
mind to devote his time and his means wholly to the 



1858.] mr. Everett's eulogy on thomas dowse. 877 

gratification of intellectual and artistic tastes. It is 
probable that the inspection of the paintings at the 
exhibition, and the study of the engravings at home, 
opened within him the hitherto hidden fountains of feel- 
ing and perception for high art. It may seem extrava- 
gant to ascribe such an effect to a collection of copies : 
but although there is an incommunicable beauty in the 
original canvas of a great master, yet a faithful engraving, 
and still more a spirited copy, are to the intelligent ob- 
server no mean substitute ; for even the original canvas 
is, so to say, but a lifeless thing, into which the taste of 
the observer, in sympathy with the artist, is to infuse 
vitality and meaning. It is the medium through which 
the suggestive ideas of the creative mind are reflected 
to the perceptive mind, — painter and spectator dividing 
the work of enjoyment and admiration. Surveyed by the 
untaught eye, scanned by the unsympathizing gaze, 
Raphael's Madonna at Dresden, and Titian's Cornaro 
Family, stand upon a level with the memorable painting 
of the Primrose Family, which was executed by the indus- 
trious artist in four days. The sublime and beautiful 
images, created by genius in the soul of the artist, are 
projected on the canvas, — perhaps inadequately project- 
ed, even by the most gifted master, — in order to call up 
corresponding images in the mind of the beholder. There 
is no doubt that the gifted painter or sculptor, like the 
gifted poet, feels and conceives higher and brighter things 
than he can possibly express in words, in form, or colors ; 
while the observer and the reader of congenial spirit find 
a significance in the page, the statue, or the canvas, far 
above the literal expression. As he muses on the poem, 

48 



378 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Dec. 

the statue, the painting, the fire burns within him. The 
electric circuit between his mind and that of the poet, 
the sculptor, the painter, is completed ; and, lo ! the airy 
imaginings of the artist crystallize into substantial reali- 
ties. The dead letter of Homer and Dante and Milton 
begins to cry in melting articulate tones ; the stony lips 
of heroes and sages, moulded by Phidias and Praxiteles, 
shake off the dust of two thousand years, and move and 
talk to the beholder; and the transfigured canvas of 
Eaphael blazes with the unutterable glories which irra- 
diated the Son of God, when, as he prayed, the fashion 
of his face was altered, and his raiment was white and 
glistering. According to the acuteness of his natural 
perceptions, the extent of his artistic culture, and his 
own sympathy with original genius, the observer will 
find on the canvas mere mechanical execution, the 
lowest stage of art ; imitative resemblance of nature, 
the point where ordinary criticism stops ; embodied 
thought and character, in which the reign of genius 
begins ; rapt ideality, the third heaven of the artistic 
creation. Keen is the eye, profound the study, exqui- 
site the taste, rare the congeniality, of creative power, 
which can comprehend at once all the elements of artis- 
tic beauty and life, and melt them into a harmonious 
whole, in which sense and intellect and feeling, the eye, 
the mind, and the soul, enter for an equal part. 

Mr. Dowse's eye was true, though hitherto little exer- 
cised ; his taste was naturally pure and simple ; and, in 
matters of art, he had at least nothing to unlearn. The 
collection, of which he had become the fortunate pos- 
sessor, consisted indeed of copies in water-colors ; but 



1858.] mr. Everett's eulogy on thomas dowse. 379 

they were copies of choice originals, executed by skilful 
hands. They were truthful representatives of some of 
the most celebrated works of the greatest masters of what 
has been called the lost art of painting ; works of which, 
at that time, neither copies nor engravings had often 
reached this country. The collection consisted altoge- 
ther of fifty-two paintings, of which four were copies of 
Raphael ; three each of Titian, Guercino, Claude Lor- 
raine, Rembrandt, and Rubens ; two each of Giotto, 
Domenichino, Guido, Annibale Caracci, and Andrea del 
Sarto ; and one each of Cimabue, Ghirlandaio, Coreggio, 
Giulio Romano, Parmegiano, Bordone, Garofolo, Schi- 
done, Cortona, Sebastian del Piombo, Salvator Rosa, 
Murillo, Giorgione, the two Poussins, Paul Potter, Teni- 
ers, jun., Ostade, Gherard Dow, Berghem, Van de Werf, 
Wouvermans ; and one fine water-piece, of the Dutch 
school, not named, — nearly all the greatest names in 
all the classic schools of art, and an adequate specimen 
of their peculiar styles ; and this, too, before the sparkling 
paradoxes and fearless dogmatism of Ruskin had cast a 
shade of doubt on their accepted merit. 

Thus he became possessed of a collection of paintings, 
— copies, indeed, but copies of originals that never cross 
the Atlantic ; a collection which was declared by Allston 
to embody in the aggregate richer and more instructive 
treasures of art than could have been found at that time 
in the whole United States. This acquisition no doubt 
exercised, as I have already stated, a considerable influ- 
ence upon his feelings and purposes, and confirmed him 
in his resolution to devote his time and his means to the 
gratification of his taste and the improvement of his mind. 



380 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Dec. 

Of his personal history at this period of his life there 
is little else to record. There is a tradition, that, at the 
age of fifty, he contemplated marriage. This intention, 
if ever cherished, was soon abandoned ; and his latter 
like his earlier days were passed in the somewhat un- 
genial solitude which appears to have suited his tempe- 
rament. He seems to have been wholly free from the 
unhappy restless desire " to better his condition," as it 
is called, which, in a few exceptional cases, leads to bril- 
liant fortune, condemns the majority of men to a life of 
feverish and generally unsuccessful change, and tempts 
not a few to their ruin. Giving his hours of labor to his 
trade, and those of relaxation to his books, his pictures, 
and his garden, he lived on to a serene, contented, unas- 
piring, and venerable age ; exhibiting a beautiful example 
of the triumph of a calm and resolute spirit over what 
are usually regarded as the most adverse outward circum- 
stances. 

A supposed invincible necessity of our natures has, in 
our modern society, almost separated the mechanical from 
the intellectual pursuits. A life of manual labor and 
business cares has usually been found (less perhaps in 
our country than in most others) to be inconsistent with 
the cultivation of a taste for literature and art. It is 
generally taken for granted, that, for this purpose, means 
and leisure are required, not within the reach of those 
who live by the labor of the hands. Hence society, speak- 
ing in general terms, is divided into two classes, — one 
engrossed with manual labor or business cares, and suf- 
fering for want of a due culture of the mental powers ; 
the other employed in pursuits that task the intellect, 






1858.] MR. EVERETT'S EULOGY ON THOMAS DOWSE. 381 

without calling into play the wonderful faculties of our 
material frames. The result in too many cases gives us 
labor without refinement, and learning without physical 
development. Such was evidently not the design of our 
nature. Curiously, wondrously compounded of soul and 
body, it was meant to admit the harmonious and sympa- 
thetic development of the material and intellectual prin- 
ciple : rather let me say, its attainable highest excellence 
can exist only when such development takes place. It 
is quite evident, that, as far as that object is attainable, 
labor should be ennobled and adorned by the cultivation 
of intellectual tastes and the enjoyment of intellectual 
pleasures ; while those whose leading pursuits are of a 
literary or scientific character ought to inure themselves 
to exercises, occupations, and sports which strengthen 
the frame, brace the muscles, quicken the senses, and call 
into action the latent powers of our physical nature. 

It has ever appeared to me that Mr. Dowse's life and 
career were replete with instruction in this respect ; in 
which, indeed, he is entitled to be regarded as a repre- 
sentative man. Few persons, as we have seen, above 
the dead level of absolute penury, start in life with such 
slender advantages of position and outfit. He inherits 
no fortune, he enjoys no advantages of education. From 
the age of six years, he labors under a serious physical 
infirmity. The occupation he has chosen furnishes no 
facilities for the cultivation of the mind over most other 
mechanical trades ; and, till he has advanced to the age 
of fifty, nothing that can be called a piece of " good luck " 
occurs to give an impulse to his feelings. But, under 
these certainly not propitious circumstances, he forms a 



382 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Dec. 

taste for books and for art such as is usually displayed 
only by persons of prosperous fortune ; and he provides 
himself, by the labor of his hands, with ampler means for 
gratifying those tastes than are often employed by the 
affluent and the liberal. If his example proves the im- 
portant and salutary truth, that there is no incompati- 
bility between manual labor and intellectual culture, the 
rarity of the example shows with equal plainness how 
firm was the purpose, how resolute the will, which en- 
abled him to overcome the difficulties of such a course. 
We can fancy the unspoken reflections that may some- 
times have passed through his mind as he leaned over 
his work-bench. We can imagine, that in his hours of 
solitary labor, and at the commencement of his career, 
he sometimes said to himself, " These halting limbs and 
this enfeebled frame shall not gain the mastery. If I 
cannot move with vigor in the active and busy world, 
much more shall these hard-working hands provide me 
the means of mental improvement. Poverty is my inhe- 
ritance : I know from the cradle the taste of her bitter 
but wholesome cup ; but I will earn for myself the 
advantages which fortune sometimes in vain showers on 
her favorites. A resolute purpose shall be my patri- 
mony ; a frugal life, my great revenue. Mean may be 
the occupation, hard and steady the toil ; but they shall 
not break nor bend my spirit. It has not been given 
me to pass the happy days of emulous youth in the 
abodes of learning, or to sit at the feet of the masters of 
science and literature ; but, if Providence has denied 
me that privilege which most I should have coveted, it 
has granted me a love of letters not always brought from 



1858.] MR. EVERETT S EULOGY ON THOMAS DOWSE. 383 

academic halls. The wise of every country and age shall 
teach me from the shelves of my library ; the gray dawn 
and the midnight lamp shall bear witness to my dili- 
gence ; at the feet of the great masters I will educate 
myself." 

How effectually he did this, may be seen by a hasty 
glance at his library. A short time before his death, he 
caused a few copies of a catalogue of it to be printed for 
private distribution. It is contained in an octavo volume 
of two hundred and fourteen pages. The number of 
works entered in the catalogue is two thousand and 
eight, and the estimated number of volumes is not less 
than five thousand ; all decently, many elegantly, a few 
magnificently, bound. They are, for the most part, of 
choice editions, where a choice of editions exists. A fair 
proportion of them are specimens of beautiful typogra- 
phy ; a few of them works of bibliographical luxury and 
splendor. It is an English library. Mr. Dowse was not 
acquainted with the ancient or foreign languages ; and 
as it was formed not for ostentation, but use, it contained 
but a few volumes not in the English tongue. In run- 
ning over the catalogue cursorily for this purpose, I find 
nothing in the Greek language, and but a single work 
in Latin, and that not an ancient author, — a volume 
of De Bry's collection of voyages ; and nothing in any 
foreign languages but the works of the three great mas- 
ters of sacred oratory in French, — Bossuet, Bourdaloue, 
Massillon ; in all, seventy-two volumes. These, with 
the addition of the voyage of Father Marquette, who, 
first of civilized men, descended the Mississippi, from its 
junction with the Wisconsin to the Arkansas, were the 



384 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Dec. 

only books in a foreign language contained in Mr. 
Dowse's library, — the last being a present. 

But, though he confined his library almost exclusively 
to the English language, it was enriched with the best 
translations of nearly all the classical writers of Greece 
and of Rome, as well as of several of the standard authors 
of the principal modern tongues. Thus his shelves con- 
tained translations of Homer, Hesiod, the minor lyric 
and elegiac poets, Pindar, Theocritus, iEschylus, Sopho- 
cles, Euripides and Aristophanes, Plato and Aristotle, 
Philostratus, Epictetus, Marcus Antoninus, Demosthenes, 
Herodotus, Thucydides, Xenophon, Arrian, Diodorus 
Siculus, Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Polybius, Plutarch, 
Pausanias, Dio Chrysostom, Longinus, Aristsenetus, Ana- 
creon, Lucian, Porphyry, and the Emperor Julian. From 
the Latin he had translations of Lucretius, Virgil, Ovid, 
Horace, Catullus, Tibullus, Lucan, Claudian, Juvenal, 
Persius, Plautus, Terence, Csesar, Sallust, Livius, Taci- 
tus, Suetonius, Justin, Cicero, Quintilian, Seneca, Pliny 
the Younger, and Apuleius. Among German writers he 
had translations of the principal works of Klopstock, 
Wieland, Goethe, Schiller, of Norden, Niebuhr, father 
and son, Johannes von Miiller, Heeren, Otto Miiller, 
Raumer, Ranke, Mendelssohn, Kant, the two Schlegels, 
Menzel, Heinrich Heine, and Weber. From the Italian 
language he had translations of Dante, Petrarch, Boccac- 
cio, Ariosto, Tasso, Guarini, Marco Polo, Machiavelli, 
the Memorials of Columbus, Guicciardini, Clavigero, 
Botta, Lanzi, and Metastasio. Of French authors he 
had translations of the old Fabliaux, De Comines, Frois- 
sart, Monstrelet, Rabelais, Montaigne, Pascal, De Retz, De 



1858.] mr. Everett's eulogy on thomas dowse. 385 

la Rochefoucault, Fenelon, Racine, Lafontaine, Moliere, 
Madame de Sevigne, Boileau, De la Salle, La Hontan, 
Rapin, Bayle, Rollin, Montesquieu, Bossu, Charlevoix, 
Voltaire, Rousseau, Grimm, Vertot, the Abbe Raynal, 
St. Pierre, De Vaillant, Volney, Brissot de Warville, De 
Chastellux, Marmontel, Barthelemi, Necker, Madame de 
Stael, Madame Roland, Mirabeau, Chenier, Chateaubri- 
and, La Roche Jacquelein, Baron Humboldt, Sismondi, 
Guizot, De Tocqueville, Lamartine, and Beranger. In 
Spanish and Portuguese he had Cervantes, Cortez, Go- 
mara, Bernal Diaz, Las Casas, De Soto, De Solis, Garci- 
lasso de la Vega, Herrera, Mariana, Molina, Quevedo, 
Ulloa, Cabrera, Alcedo, and Camoens. It is scarcely ne- 
cessary to add to this, I fear, tedious recital of names, 
that it was evidently Mr. Dowse's intention, as far as it 
could be effected through the medium of translations, 
that his shelves should not only contain the works of 
the master-minds of every language and age, but also 
a fair representation of the general literature of the 
ancient and modern tongues. 

But it was, of course, upon his own language that he 
expended his strength ; for here he was able to drink at 
the fountains. Putting aside purely scientific, profes- 
sional, and technical treatises, — in which, however, the 
library is not wholly deficient, — it may be said to con- 
tain, with a few exceptions, the works of nearly every 
standard English and American author, with a copi- 
ous supply of illustrative and miscellaneous literature, 
brought down to within a few years of his death, when, 
under the growing infirmities of age, he ceased to add to 
his collection. No one department appears to predomi- 

49 



386 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Dec. 

nate ; and it would be impossible to gather, from the 
choice of his books, that his taste had even strongly 
inclined to any one branch of reading beyond all others. 
He possessed the poets and the dramatists, from the 
earliest period to the present day (more than three pages 
and a half of the printed catalogue are devoted to Shak- 
speare and his commentators) ; a fine series of the chro- 
niclers ; the historians and biographers ; the writers and 
collectors of voyages and travels, among which is the 
beautiful set of Purchas's Pilgrims, one volume of which 
was selected as the earnest volume of the donation of his 
library to the Historical Society ; the philosophers, theo- 
logians, moralists, essayists ; and an ample choice of 
miscellaneous writers. To enumerate the most impor- 
tant of them would be simply to repeat the prominent 
names in the literature of the English language. Though 
not aiming in any great degree at the acquisition of books 
whose principal value consists in their rarity, Mr. Dowse 
was not without fondness for bibliographical curiosities. 
His collection contains a considerable number of curious 
works seldom found on this side of the Atlantic, and 
among them a magnificent large paper-copy of Dibdin's 
bibliographical publications. Though somewhat re- 
served in speaking of his books, and generally contented 
with simply calling a friend's attention to a curious 
volume, he sometimes added, in a low voice, " A rare 
book." 

When the works of authors, falling within his range, 
had been collected in a uniform edition, he was generally 
provided with it. There is not much of science, abstract 
or applied ; though that expression may seem ill chosen, 



1858.] mr. Everett's eulogy on thomas dowse. 387 

when I add that it contains translations of Newton's 
"Principia" and Laplace's "System of the World." 
There is but little of jurisprudence in any department; 
but Grotius and Vattel, and one of the critical editions 
of Blackstone, show that neither the public nor municipal 
law had been wholly overlooked by him. In American 
books the library is rather deficient. It contains Pre- 
sident John Adams's " Defence of the American Con- 
stitutions ; " but no work on the Constitution of the 
United States, and but very few having any bearing upon 
political questions. There are the works of Hamilton, 
whom Mr. Dowse greatly respected ; of Fisher Ames ; 
Jefferson's " Notes on Virginia ; " and the little volume 
entitled the " Political Legacies of Washington : " but 
with these exceptions, and that of the works of Frank- 
lin, whom he held in especial honor, Mr. Dowse's library 
contains the writings of no one of the Presidents of the 
United States, nor of any one of our distinguished states- 
men. It is well supplied in the department of American 
history, and in that branch contains some works of great 
rarity and value. Of congressional documents, I think 
there is not one on the catalogue ! 

That it wants many books not less valuable than many 
which it contains, is no doubt true. Nothing else was 
possible, in a collection of five thousand volumes. Had it 
been fifty or five hundred thousand, the case would have 
been the same. It is to be remembered also, that he 
formed his library not in a mass, and on the principle of 
embracing at once all the books belonging to any parti- 
cular department. He sent for the books which he 
wanted ; for the books which were offered in sale cata- 



388 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [DEC. 

logues at acceptable prices ; for the books which fell in 
with his line of thought at the time ; reserving to future 
opportunities to supply deficiencies, and make depart- 
ments more complete. It must be recollected, too, that 
though his business prospered, and yielded what, under 
the circumstances of the case, might be deemed an ample 
income, he never had at command the means for extra- 
vagant purchases. Nothing would be more inconsider- 
ate than to compare his library with the great foreign 
private libraries, — Mr. Grenville's or Lord Spencer's 
in England, or Mr. Lenox's in this country, on which 
princely fortunes have been expended ; although, if esti- 
mated in proportion to his means, his modest collection 
would not suffer in the contrast. " When I was twenty- 
eight years of age," Mr. Dowse remarked to Mr. Ticknor, 
" I never had any means but the wages of a journeyman 
leather-dresser, at twenty-five dollars per month ; I had 
never paid five dollars for conveyance from one place to 
another ; I never had worn a pair of boots ; and I was 
at that time in the possession of several hundred good 
books, well bound." 

Such, very inadequately described, — and how can a 
library be adequately described, except by reading the 
catalogue % — was Mr. Dowse's collection of books, of 
which with such simple but affecting formality he trans- 
ferred the possession to the Historical Society, through 
you, sir, its President, on the 30th of July, 1856. Here, 
as he advanced in years, he passed the greater part of his 
time ; withdrawing more and more from the out-door 
cares of the world, and the heavier toils and closer 
confinements of his handicraft. His lameness, which 



1858.] mr. Everett's eulogy on tiiomas dowse. 389 

increased with the advance of age, caused him to have 
rather a morbid disinclination for company abroad ; and 
he had pursued his taste for books and art without sym- 
pathy at home. Hence, though his heart was kindly, it 
was, except in the circle of his most familiar friends, 
closed in by an unaffected modesty. He had never 
coined the rich ore of his really genial nature into that 
bright currency of affable demonstration, which adds so 
much to the ease and spirit of social intercourse. Hav- 
ing never formed those domestic relations which call out 
and train the tenderest of our affections, that portion of 
his nature remained undeveloped. He had never lived 
in the sunshine of a loving eye, nor reposed in the soft 
moonlight of a patient, uncomplaining smile. "With a 
mind full of the richest materials for the exercise of that 
great characteristic of our common humanity, — the gift 
of rational speech, — his words, in general society, were 
ever few. Naturally affectionate, he had but little apti- 
tude for the minor graces of life, by which the affections 
are nourished. It was not difficult for him to render a 
great service ; nor would it have been easy for him to fur- 
nish the social circle with the amusement of a leisure hour. 
A person who judged of him from his taciturnity in a 
mixed company would have supposed him wholly desti- 
tute of that beautiful talent of conversation, too lightly 
deemed of, too little cultivated, exhausted by most per- 
sons when the state of the weather has been agreed upon, 
the last wretched phase of party politics canvassed, or 
the character of some absent friend handsomely pulled 
to pieces, — this happy gift, the product in about equal 
degrees of good temper, good spirits, and a ready wit ; 



390 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Dec. 

which with playful mastery wrests our time and thoughts 
from the dominion of the grim perplexities of life, 
extracts real happiness out of the sportive nothings of 
the hour, lights up the fireside with contagious cheer- 
fulness, sets the table in a harmless roar of sympathetic 
mirth, casts out for a while the legion demons of care, 
and charms even rooted sorrows, for the moment, into 
forge tfulness. They would have judged amiss. There 
are those in this hall who can testify that he also had 
his genial hours ; and they were not few, nor far be- 
tween. In a trusted company, on a happy theme, a 
choice volume, a favorite character, the ice was melted, 
the waters flowed ; and he poured forth his thoughts 
and feelings, and the fruits of his reading, in a stream of 
colloquial eloquence which the most gifted might have 
envied, and to which the best informed might have lis- 
tened with instruction. 

Mingling but little in society, still less did he take 
part in the larger gatherings of men ; scarcely ever 
attending church, — though the hours of Sunday were 
given to a graver choice of books, of which his library 
contained an ample store. To every form of communi- 
cation with the public by the written or the spoken word 
he was absolutely a stranger. He never addressed a 
public meeting ; for he never attended a public meet- 
ing, except to exercise the right of suffrage. He never 
wrote a paragraph for the press ; never was a candidate, 
successful or unsuccessful, for office ; and never, that I 
am aware of, took any active part in the political discus- 
sions of the day ; at least, in the course of nearly forty 
years' acquaintance with him, it never occurred to me to 



1858.] mr. Everett's eulogy on thomas dowse. 391 

hear him express an opinion on any question of party 
politics. 

Of the religious opinions of Mr. Dowse I have no 
personal knowledge. I have reason to believe, from 
reliable information, that he cherished a profound tradi- 
tionary respect for the Christian Revelation ; and that, 
having pursued a course of manly inquiry, he had set- 
tled down upon a rational faith in those prominent 
doctrines which unite the assent of most professing 
Christians. His library contained, in whole or in part, 
the works of Lord Herbert of Cherbury, of Hobbes, of 
Toland, of Chubb, of Tindal, of Mandeville, of Voltaire, 
and of Rousseau : but it also contained those of the great 
theologians of the English church, — of Hooker, Jeremy 
Taylor, Chillingworth, Barrow, Tillotson, Clark, Sherlock, 
and Horseley ; those of the orthodox dissenters, Watts 
and Doddridge; those of Campbell and Blair; and those 
of Lindsey, Priestley, and Wakefield. Of American di- 
vines, he had the writings of Chauncey ; of Freeman, of 
whom he was a great admirer; and of Buckminster; but 
not those of Jonathan Edwards, Dwight, or Channing. 
He admired the Liturgy of the church of England ; and 
it was in presumed conformity with his wishes in this 
respect, that the solemn and affecting service for the 
burial of the dead was performed at the door of his 
tomb, amid the falling leaves of November. He had 
constantly on his table, during the latter months of his 
life, a copy of the Liturgy compiled a few T years since, by 
a distinguished layman of this city,* from the liturgies 

* Hon. David Sears. 



392 



MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



[Dec. 



of the leading branches of the Christian church ; a truly- 
significant expression of that yearning for union, which 
is cherished, as I think, by sincere and earnest men 
throughout Christendom. I am inclined to the opinion, 
that, without dogmatizing, he leaned to the ancient for- 
mularies of belief, as they were received by the liberal 
clergy of the last quarter of the eighteenth century and 
the first quarter of the nineteenth ; not following opinion 
to the extremes to which it has more recently been car- 
ried. I believe that he felt devoutly, speculated modestly 
and sparingly, and aimed to give proof of Christian prin- 
ciples by Christian word and deed ; covering up the deep 
things of religion in a thick-woven veil, of which awe of 
the Infinite w 7 as the warp, humility the woof, love the 
bright tincture ; and which was spangled all over with 
the golden works of justice and mercy. The queen of 
New England's rivers flows clear and strong through her 
fertile meadows ; the vaporous mists of morning hang 
over her path : but the golden wealth of autumn loads 
her banks and attests her presence. In like manner, the 
stream of practical piety flowed through the heart and 
conduct of our departed friend ; but the fleecy clouds of 
silent reverence hovered over the current, and a firm and 
rational faith was principally manifested, not in secta- 
rian professions, but in a chastened temper, a pure con- 
versation, and an upright life. 

It would not, I think, be easy to find another instance 
of a person, possessing equal means of acting upon so- 
ciety, who, from unaffected diffidence, impressed himself 
less by outward demonstration on the public mind. As 
his fortune grew, his establishment grew with it, but so 



1858.] mr. Everett's eulogy on thomas dowse. 393 

that no sudden expansion arrested the attention of the 
public. His library swelled to be in some respects the 
most remarkable in the neighborhood ; but no flourish 
of trumpets proclaimed its existence or its increase. He 
kept no company, he joined no clubs, belonged to no 
mutual-admiration societies, talked little, wrote less, 
published nothing. At length, toward the close of his 
life, and when no selfish end could be promoted by the 
unavoidable notoriety of the act, he stepped out of 
the charmed circle of his diffidence to make a very sig- 
nificant public demonstration of his interior sentiment; 
not by the methods which most win the gratitude of 
society, or, what is often mistaken for it, the applause 
of public bodies ; not by donations to public institutions 
or fashionable charities ; but by a most expressive tribute 
of respect to the honored, the irresponsive dead. Frank- 
lin had always been one of his chief favorites among the 
great men of America. The example of the poor appren- 
tice, of the hard-working journeyman-printer, who rose 
to the heights of usefulness and fame, had often cheered 
the humble leather-dresser, as it has thousands of others 
similarly situated, in the solitary and friendless outset 
of his own career. The teachings of the philosopher of 
common sense had found a clear echo in his practical 
understanding : and so, at the close of his life, he pro- 
nounced the eulogy of the great man whom he so highly 
honored and warmly appreciated ; not in the fleeting 
breath of well-balanced phrases, but in monumental 
granite. Mr. Dowse's eulogy on Franklin was pro- 
nounced in the following inscription, placed upon the 
side of the obelisk, in which all the prominent points 

50 



394 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Dec. 

in the character of the great man to whom it is conse- 
crated are indicated with discrimination, and nothing 
appropriate to the place is omitted but the name of the 
venerable and modest admirer, by whom this expensive 
and abiding tribute of respect was paid : — 

TO THE MEMORY 
OF 

BENJAMIN FRANKLIN 

THE PRINTER 

THE PHILOSOPHER 

THE STATESMAN 

THE PATRIOT 

WHO 

BY HIS WISDOM 

BLESSED HIS COUNTRY AND HIS AGE 

AND 

BEQUEATHED TO THE WORLD 

AN ILLUSTRIOUS EXAMPLE 

OF 

INDUSTRY 

INTEGRITY 

AND 

SELF-CULTURE 

BORN IN BOSTON MDCCVI 

DIED IN PHILADELPHIA MDCCXC 

The manner in which Mr. Dowse proceeded in the 
erection of a monument to Franklin was as remarkable 
as the act itself. It was eminently characteristic of the 
man. He raised no committee ; levied no contribu- 
tions on the weary circle of impatient subscribers, who 
murmur while they give ; summoned no crowd to wit- 
ness the laying of the corner-stone ; but, in the solitude 



1858.] mr. Everett's eulogy on thomas dowse. 395 

of his library, projected, carried on, completed, and paid 
for the work. With the exception of the urn in Frank- 
lin Place, — a matter of ornament rather than comme- 
moration, — the first monument raised to the immortal 
printer, philosopher, and statesman, — one of the 
brightest names of his age, — was erected by the lea- 
ther-dresser of Cambridgeport. Boston, that gave him 
birth ; Philadelphia, that holds his ashes ; # America, 
that boasts him, with one peerless exception, her great- 
est son ; Europe, that places him on a level with the 
highest names, — had reared neither column nor statue 
to Franklin ; when within the shades of Mount Auburn, 
and by the side of his own tomb, a substantial granite 
obelisk was erected to his memory by Thomas Dowse. 

One more duty remained to be performed ; and I 
know nothing more beautifully heroic in private charac- 
ter than the last few weeks of Mr. Dowse's life. For a 
long course of years, he seems to have contemplated no 
other destination for his books than that which awaits 
the majority of libraries at home and abroad, — that of 
coming to the hammer on the decease of their proprie- 
tors. Happily for us, — and, may I not add, happily for 
him while he yet lived ] — happily for his memory, he 
conceived the noble idea of bestowing it, while he lived, 
on a public institution. By an act of calm self-posses- 
sion rarely witnessed so near the falling of the curtain, 
he called you, sir (Hon. Robert C. Winthrop), with our 



* Since this discourse was delivered, I have been reminded that a statue to Franklin 
was procured at the expense of the distinguished merchant, Mr. William Bingham, 
of that city, and is placed in front of the Philadelphia Library, originally founded by 
Franklin. 



396 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Dec. 

worthy associate, Mr. Livermore, to his presence, as 
the representatives of our Society; and divesting him- 
self in our favor of what had been his most valued 
property, — the occupation of his time, the ornament of 
his existence, — in which he had lived his life and 
breathed his soul, transferred it to the Massachusetts 
Historical Society. 

The disposition of the remainder of his property was 
equally characterized by generous feeling toward his 
natural kindred, and an enlightened regard to the pub- 
lic. Twenty-five thousand dollars were distributed 
by will to his relations, in equal shares, according to 
their affinity, which in no case was nearer than nephew 
or niece ; forty-five hundred dollars were given in special 
bequests ; and the residuum of his estate — above forty 
thousand dollars — was confided to his executors, to be 
by them appropriated to charitable, literary, or scientific 
uses. I may, without indelicacy, venture to say, that 
they have, in my judgment, fulfilled the important trust 
with signal good judgment and discretion. His beauti- 
ful collection of water-colors has been appropriately 
added by them to the gallery of the Boston Athenaeum. 
A conservatory at the Botanic Garden, built, in part, 
at their expense, will preserve the memory of his own 
fondness for the beauties of nature. The public clock, 
procured by them for the street in which he lived, and 
the chime of bells in the not distant village, toward the 
expense of which they have liberally contributed, will 
frequently remind his fellow-citizens of the remarkable 
man who has left behind him these pleasing memen- 
toes of his liberality. The Asylum for Aged Indigent 



1858.] mr. Everett's eulogy on thomas dowse. 307 

Females, and the Massachusetts General Hospital (two of 
the most meritorious charities in Boston), have received 
important additions to their funds from the same source. 
The town of Sherborn, where he passed his youth and 
learned his trade, will possess, in the Dowse High 
School, an abiding monument to his memory ; while his 
immediate fellow-citizens and neighbors, in the hopeful 
institution which bears his name in Cambridgeport, are 
destined, I doubt not, — they, and their children to a 
far-distant posterity, — - to enjoy the rich fruits of his 
energy, perseverance, and probity. May the courses 
of instruction which it will furnish be ever sacred to 
the cause of virtue and truth ; and the love of letters, 
which cheered the existence of the generous founder, 
be nourished by the provision which is thus made for 
their culture ! 

You, gentlemen of the Historical Society, appreciated 
the value, you felt the importance, of the gift of his 
library, and received it as a sacred trust. You have 
consecrated to it an apartment, I may venture to say, 
not unworthy a collection so curious in its history, so 
precious in its contents, — an inner room in your sub- 
stantial granite building, approached through your own 
interesting gallery of portraits and extremely important 
historical library, looking out from its windows on the 
hallowed ground where the pious fathers of Boston and 
Massachusetts rest in peace. There, appropriately 
arranged in convenient and tasteful cabinets at the ex- 
pense of his executors, and by their liberality, wisely 
interpreting and carrying out the munificent intentions 
of the donor, endowed w T ith a fund which will insure 



398 



MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



[Dec. 



that permanent supervision and care, without which the 
best library soon falls into decay, it will remain to 
the end of time, a fiv^/m as well as a «t^o eig m, — a noble 
monument, more durable, more significant, than marble 
or brass, — to his pure and honored memory. There, 
with the sacred repose of death beneath the windows, 
and the living repose of canonized wisdom around the 
walls, the well-chosen volumes — the solace for a long 
life of his own lonely, but, through them, not cheerless 
hours — will attract, amuse, inform, and instruct succes- 
sive generations. There his benignant countenance — 
admirably portrayed by the skilful artist, at the request of 
the Society, in the last weeks of his life — will continue 
to smile upon the visitor that genial welcome, which, 
while he lived, ever made the coveted access to his 
library doubly delightful. There the silent and self- 
distrusting man, speaking by the lips of all the wise 
and famous of our language, assembled by his taste and 
judgment on the shelves, will hold converse with stu- 
dious and thoughtful readers, as long as the ear drinks 
in the music of the mighty masters of the English 
tongue, — as long as the mind shall hunger, with an 
appetite which grows with indulgence, for the intel- 
lectual food which never satisfies and never cloys. 



INDEX. 



INDEX 



A. 

Act of the Legislature in relation to the 

Society, 157-158. 
Acts of Colonial and Provincial Govera- 

ments, 216, 219. Of Parliament relating 

to the Colonies, 110. 
Adams, Hon. Charles F., 1, 5, 6-7, 33, 42, 

111, 112, 131-132, 259. 
Adams, Rev. Hngh, pastor of a church at 

Dover, N.H., 322-326. 
Adams, John, original visiting-card of, 

152. 
Adams, Hon. John Quincy, 356. 
Adams, Samuel, 301, 302, 303, 304, 308. 
Address by Rev. Nathaniel L. Frothing- 

ham, D.D., 152-153. By Hon. Josiah 

Quincy, 344-351. 
Addresses by Hon. Robert C. Winthrop, 

30-31, 100-101, 115-117, 164-171, 355- 

360. By Hon. Edward Everett, 104- 

107, 117-122, 174-177, 361-398. 
Adlard, George, on the Dudleys of Massa- 
chusetts, 281. 
Agricultural Society of the State of New 

York, donations from, 214, 265, 284. 
Alabama Historical Society, donation 

from, 93. 
Albany Institute, donation from, 37. 
Allen,*Rev. William, D.D., donation from, 

32. 
Allin, Rev. John, the ejected Vicar of 

Rye, 132, 155. 
Almack, Richard, donation from, 40. 
Almanacs of Rev. Dr. Belknap, 295. 
Amendment of Charter, 31-32, 33-34, 154- 

155, 157-158. 
American Antiquarian Society, donations 

from, 37, 50, 132, 239. Letter from, 98. 

Invitation to, 204. 
American Insurance Company, donation 

from, 182. 
American Philosophical Society, donations 

from, 32, 63, 110, 204, 283. 
American Tract Society, donation from, 

37. 
Ames, Ellis, 28, 33, 35, 38, 39, 41, 50, 89, 

92, 110, 114, 131, 216, 218, 219, 237. 
Ames, Fisher, member of the Massachu- 
setts Convention in 1788, 298, 299. 
Amherst, General, 307. 
Amory, Thomas C, jun., 128-129. 



Angelis, Don Pedro de, letter and dona- 
tion from, 1. 

Animal meetings, 1, 84, 155. 

Antiquaries, Society of, donations from, 
204, 220, 259, 262. 

Appleton Fund, 2-7, 32, 163. 

Appleton, John, M.D. (Assistant Libra- 
rian), 87, 114, 160, 178. 

Appleton, Hon. Nathan, 5, 33, 41, 42, 47, 
64, 66, 67, 68, 85, 89, 107, 168, 258, 262. 

Appleton, Samuel. His donation of 
$10,000, 2-7, 168, 357. Memoir of, 7- 
18, 90. 

Appleton, Hon. William. A Trustee, 5. 
Donations from, 40, 168. Acknowledg- 
ment to, 84. 

Arnold, Hon. Samuel G. : acceptance of 
his election as Corresponding Member, 1. 

Aspinwall, Col. Thomas, 33, 36, 89, 162, 
206, 261, 282-283. Elected Resident 
Member, 18. 

Assembly, Massachusetts, letter contain- 
ing the doings of the, 98. 

Astor Library, Trustees of the, donation 
from, 204. 

Atkins, Thomas B., donation from, 263. 

August meetings, 37, 109, 220. 

Austin, Hon. James T., resigns his mem- 
bership, 50. 

Aylwin, Hon. William C, donation from, 
31. 



Babcock, G. W., donation from, 66. 

Bachelder, John : his exploration on the 
banks of Manomet River, 252-256. 

Balch, Thomas, donation from, 42. 

Bancroft, Captain, interview between, and 
Colonel Brooks, 271-277. 

Barber. John W., donation from, 114. 

Barry, 'Rev. John Stetson, 20, 33-34, 49, 
89, 102. Elected Resident Member, 44. 

Barry, Rev. William, letters from, 89, 96. 

Bartfett, Charles W., donation from, 37. 

Bartlett, John, donations from, 36, 37. 

Bartlett, Hon. John R., elected Corre- 
sponding Member, 88. His acceptance 
of membership, 111. Donations from, 
214. 

Bartlett, Dr. Josiah, resigns his member- 
ship, 150. 



51 



402 



INDEX. 



Bartol, Rev. Cyrus A., request of, 51. 

Donation from, 88. 
Baylies, William, one of the founders, 166. 
Beke, Dr. Charles T., donation from, 264. 
Belcher, Governor, 41. 
Belknap donation, Mr. Deane's report on 

the, 286-328. 
Belknap Papers, 327. 
Belknap, Edward, 310. 
Belknap, Miss Elizabeth, letter of, to 
George Ticknor, LL.D., 285-286. Re- 
solutions of thanks to Miss Belknap, 
328-329. 
Belknap, Rev. Jeremy, D.D., 166, 285, 

355, 357, 358. 
Belknap, John, donation of, 31. 
Berkeley, Dean, a chair of, presented, 24. 
Berrien, Hon. John Macpherson, death of, 

63. 
Bigelow, Jacob, LL.D., elected Resident 

Member, 270. 
Bill of lading, ancient, 27. 
Binding of books, &c, 39, 94, 159. 
Bishop, of Rehoboth, a noted insurgent, 

301. 
Blackstone Monument Association, dona- 
tion from the directors of, 40. 
Blagden, Rev. George W., D.D., 33. 
Blomfield, Right Rev. Charles James, 
D.D., Bishop of London, 21-23, 39, 91, 
98. 
Boltwood, Lucius, donation from, 258. 
Bond, Dr. Henry, donation from, 63. 
Books, pamphlets, and manuscripts no- 
ticed in report on the Belknap dona- 
tion: — 
Higginson's New-England Plantation, 

286-287. 
The Glorious Progress of the Gospel 
amongst the Indians in New England, 
287. 
Strength out of Weakness, 287. 
Increase Mather's Essay for the Record- 
ing of Illustrious Providences, 287. 
Scottow's Narrative of the Planting of 

the Massachusetts Colony, 287. 
Mayhew's Narrative of the Success of 
the Gospel among the Indians of Mar- 
tha's Vineyard, 287. 
Massachusetts ; or, the First Planters of 

New England, 288. 
Calef's More Wonders of the Invisible 

World, 288. 
Cotton Mather's manuscript Diary, 289- 

293, 322. 
Remarks on a Scandalous Book against 
the Gospel and Ministry of New Eng- 
land, 293. 
Entertaining Passages relating to Phi- 
lip's War, 293. 
Bonifacius: Essays to do Good, 293-294. 
The Prey taken from the Strong, 294. 
Clap's Annals of Yale College, 294. 
Weeks's Faithful Account of God's 

Goodness, 294. 
Narrative of the Massacre of Indians in 
1764, 294. 



Books, &c. (Belknap) — continued. 

Cotton Mather's Discourse on Michael 

Wigglesworth, 294. 
The Destructive Doctrines of James 

Macsparran, 294. 
Washington's Farewell Address, first 

edition, 294. 
Funeral Sermons by Mather, Prince, 

&c, 294. 
Belknap's manuscript Sermons, 294. 
Manuscript material for historical and 
biographical works, 295, 311. Cor- 
respondence, 295. Tour to the White 
Mountains, 295. Memoranda in inter 
leaved Almanacs, 295=311. Private 
journal of a visit to the Indians at 
Oneida, &c, 311. 
Autograph letters of Thomas Dudley, 
John Eliot, and Roger Williams, 311— 
316. 
Fragment in the handwriting of Gov- 
ernor Winthrop. 
Autograph poem by Governor Bradford, 

317. 
Diaries of Increase Mather, 317-320. 
Diary of Lawrence Hammond, 320. 
Preface to Hubbard's History, 320-322. 
Manuscript autobiography of Rev. Hugh 

Adams, 322-326. 
Jabez Fitch's manuscript Narrative of 
the Province of New Hampshire 326- 
327. 
Autograph letters of Dr. Isaac Watts, 

327. 
Account of John Loring, of Hull, 327. 
Letter-book of Edmund Quincy, father 
of Mrs. Hancock, 327. 
Boston Board of Trade, donation from, 

112. 
Boston, City of, donations from, 1, 97,251. 
Boston Mercantile- Library Association, 

donations from, 32, 93. 
Boston Public Library, Commissioners for 
erecting, donation from, 63. Trustees 
of the, donation from, 126. 
Boston Town House, papers relating to 

the, 337-344. 
Bowditch, Dr. Henry Ingersoll, donation 

from, 132. 
Bowditch, Nathaniel Ingersoll, 5, 132, 152, 
154, 163, 203, 281, 283, 284, 333. Elected 
Resident Member, 128. 
Bowdoin, Governor, 179, 304, 336. 
Rowen, Professor, Francis, 97. 
Braddock's campaign, reminiscences of, 

230-237. 
Bradford, Governor: his History of Ply- 
mouth, 19-23, 90, 91, 98, 160, 168. His 
Account of New England, in verse, 
317. 
Bradford, Majors William and John, 22. 
Bradlee, Rev. Caleb D., donations from, 

114, 182. 
Brevoort. J. Carson, donation from, 259. 
Brighan^ William, 29, 31, 33, 38, 41, 50, 86, 
110, 130, 154, 162, 177, 181, 182, 281, 
284, 336. 



INDEX. 



403 



Brooks, General, jun., 297. 

Brooks, Governor, extracts from a me- 
moir of, 271-277. 

Brooks, Rev. Charles, donation from, 63. 

Brooks, Peter C.: his contribution in aid 
of the funds, 92, 168. 

Brooks, William G., donation from, 132. 

Brown, Rev. John, donation from, 36. 

Bunker-Hill battle, 99. 

Burgoyne, campaign of 1777 against 
General, 278-280. 

Bust of Frederic Tudor, 31 ; of Sir Walter 
Scott, 169, 172. 

Busts of Shakspeare, Milton, Franklin, 
and Washington, 169. 

Bute, caricature of the Earl of, 37, 38. 

By-laws, Committees appointed to revise 
"the, 83, 154, 178, 188. By-laws, as re- 
vised, adopted, 239-250. By-laws for 
the Dowse Library, 178. 



c. 



Cabinet, 133, 159, 203. 

Cabinet-Keeper (Dr. Shurtleff ), 29, 40, 86, 
156, 162, 203.— See "Shurtleff, Nathaniel 
B., M.D.," p. 410. 

Calef, Robert, author of " More Wonders," 
288-293, 322. 

Cambridge, donation from city of, 36. 

Camden Society's Publications, donation 
of, 110. 

Campaign of 1777 against General Bur- 
goyne, 278-280. 

Campbell, C, donation from, 256. 

Candlestick saved from the " Bonhomme 
Richard," 214-215. 

Carlyle, Thomas, donation from, 174-176. 

Carrigan, J. N., donation from, 85. 

Gary, Hon. Thomas G., donations from, 63, 
93. 

Catalogue of the Dowse Library, 102, 103. 

Catalogue, statement as to the preparation 
of the new, 160. 

Chairman of the Standing Committee, 
(Charles Deane) 29.— (Rev. Dr. Bobbins) 
86, 93-95, 131, 158, 161, 163, 174. — 
(William Brigham) 162. 

Channing, Dr. Wm. F., donation from, 85. 

Charter, amendment of the, 31-32, 33-34, 
154-155, 157-158. 

Chase, Hezekiah S., donation from, 40. 

Chase, Hon. Joshua V. H., donation from, 
93. 

Chatham, Lord, relic of, 151. 

Chicago Historical Society, 89, 94, 95, 96. 
Donation from, 182, 214, 283. 

Church, Captain Benjamin, 237. 

Church, Thomas: his "Entertaining Pas- 
sages," 293. 

Cincinnati, Society of the, invitation to 
the, 204. 

Cincinnati Young Men's Mercantile Li- 
brary Association, donation from, 65. 

Circular for contributions to the Library, 
178. 



City of Boston, donations from, 1, 97, 261. 
Clap, Thomas: his "Annals of Vale Col- 
lege," 294. 
Clarendon, Lord, letter from, 205. 
Clark, James, and Governor Bradford's 

letter-book, 19-20. 
Clark, John, donation from, 85. 
Clarke, Hyde, letter and donation from, 

91. 
Class of 1829, donation of a portrait of 

Hon. Josiah Quincy from, 329. 
Cleaveland, Nehemiah, donation from, 1. 
Clifford, Hon. John H., 50, 154, 157, 182, 

270. 
Coffin, family of, 27. 
Coins, ancient, donation of, 183-188. 
Collections of the Societv, 3, 4, 7, 20, 68, 
83, 88, 89, 90, 92, 93, 98, 99, 132, 144, 
159, 160, 167, 188, 207, 251, 257, 264, 
286, 287, 310, 311, 317, 320, 336, 356. 
Colleges and Universities, donations from, 

43, 48, 63, 84, 110, 112, 114, 132. 
Colonial Records, ancient copy of, ex- 
hibited, 36. 
Commissioner of Patents, donation from, 

262. 
Committee of arrangements on the fiftieth 
anniversary of the settlement of Rev. 
B. Emerson, D.D., donation from, 32. 
Committees: — 
of examination as to Rev. Dr. Pierce's 

Memoirs, 281. 
on amendment of the Charter, 31-32, 

33, 154, 157. 
on the Appleton Fund, 2-4, 6-7. 
on the Dowse Library, 107, 125, 126, 

178, 203-204. 
on the Treasurer's accounts, 1-2, 32, 67, 

85, 154, 162, 284. 
on Publications, 4, 35, 68, 89, 90, 91, 93, 

95, 99, 188, 251. 
to arrange the Davis manuscripts, do- 
nated to the Society, 96-97. 
to arrange, for binding, the books and 
tracts of the Belknap donation, 328, 
329. 
to collect Acts of Parliament relating 

to the Colonies, 110. 
to nominate Officers, 28, 67, 85, 154, 

162-163, 284. 
to procure books and documents from 

the Commonwealth, 41. 
to provide enlarged accommodations, 

42-43, 44, 47, 48, 49, 64-65, 66, 83. 
to represent the Society before the Le- 
gislature, 270, 332, 344. 
to revise the By-laws, 154, 178, 188, 

239. 
to solicit information concerning towns 

in the State, 89. 
See " Standing Committee," p. 411. 
Communications respecting — 
A candlestick saved from the " Bon- 
homme Richard," 214-216. 
Ancient bill of lading, 27-28. 
Ancient coins found in Richmond Is 
land, 182-188. 



404 



INDEX. 



Communications — continued. 

Books and documents respecting Nan- 
tucket and Martha's. Vineyard, 25-26, 
43, 44. 

Bunker Hill, 99. 

Campaign against General Burgoyne, 
278-280. 

Colonel Brooks and Captain Bancroft, 
271-277. 

Documents bearing on the question of 
the boundary line between the Colo- 
nies of Plymouth and Massachusetts, 
216—219. 

Dr. Elisha Kent Kane, 152-153, 156-157. 

Estates of Wm. and Roger Sherman, 28. 

Extinction of slavery in Massachusetts, 
188-203. 

General Gage, 261-262. 

Goffe the regicide, 60-63. 

Governor Bradford's History, 19-23. 

Introduction of cotton into the United 
States, 221-228. 

Memoranda of the Franklin family in 
England, 174-177. 

Narrative by Father Gabriel Druillettes, 
34-35. 

Petition of Roger Williams, 229-230. 

Proclamation of the Council of Phila- 
delphia in 1787, 179-180. 

Provincial resolves, 35. 

Relics of Washington, 123-125, 133-134. 

Relief for the inhabitants of Boston, 
259-260. 

Reminiscences of Braddock's campaign, 
230—237. 

Rev. John Allin, 132. 

The ice-trade, 51-60. 

Thomas Dowse's Library, 100-104, 115- 
117. 

Trading-house on the Manomet River, 
252-256. 
Congar, Samuel H., donation from, 1. 
Congress of the United States, donation 

from, 114. 
Connecticut, donation from the State of, 

182. 
Connecticut Association, donation from, 36. 
Connecticut Historical Society, donations 

from, 37, 110. 
Cooper, William Durrant, F.S.A.,155,251. 

Elected Corresponding Member, 203. 

His acceptance of membership, 220. 
Corresponding Members elected, 31, 37, 38, 

50, 67, 88, 110, 114, 128, 152, 203, 220, 

237, 264. 
Corresponding Secretary, (Rev. William 

P. Lunt, D.D.) 1, 25, 29, 33, 44, 63, 66, 

67, 86, 111, 114, 125, 130, 206, 207, 214. 

— (Joseph Willard) 130, 150, 156, 162, 

178, 181, 182, 206, 216, 220, 229, 239, 

251, 258, 262, 265, 281, 284. 
Cotton, Rev. John, of Boston, 312, 313- 

315, 317. 
Cotton, Rev. John, of Plvmouth and 

Charleston, 132-133, 313, 316. 
Cotton, the introduction of, into the United 

States, 221-228. 



Cummings, John M., donation of gold 

coins from, 183, 185, 188. 
Cutler, Rev. Dr., of Ipswich, 295. 
Cutler, Rev. Timothy, D.D., 25. 



D. 



Dale, Eben., 163, 173. 

Dallas, his Excellency George M., 204, 
205. 

Dana, Hon. Francis, and the Massachusetts 
Convention in 1788, 297-299. 

Darling, Captain Cassius, donation from, 
126. 

Davies, Hon. Charles S., elected Corre- 
sponding Member, 31. 

Davis, Hon. George T., elected Resident 
Member, 270. 

Davis, Isaac P., 18, 24, 25, 96, 97, 206. 

Davis, Mrs. I. P., 24, 25, 96, 97. 

Davis, John, the English navigator, 181. 

Davis, Judge, 30, 96, 97, 355. 

Dawson, H. B., donation from, 220. 

Dean, J., donation from, 114. 

Deane, Charles, 19, 30, 21, 24, 29, 33, 38, 
47, 48, 66, 67, 86, 87, 90, 91, 97, 125, 
134, 150, 154, 161, 168, 173, 205, 221, 
281, 286, 329, 358. 

" Decemviri" of the Society, 166. 

Deeds, ancient, 216, 217, 218. 

Department of State, donations from, 37, 
88, 111, 114. 

Derby, E. H., donation from, 284. 

Derby, Dr. George, donations from, 113, 
151, 182. 

Dexter, Hon. Samuel, and the Society for 
propagating the Gospel, 307-308. 

Dixon, B. Homer, donations from, 42, 229. 

Donation of books, &c, belonging to the 
late Dr. Belknap, 285. 

Donation of the Dowse Library, 100-109. 

Donations for the Librarv, 1,27, 28,31,32, 
34, 35, 36, 37-38, 40, 42, 43, 48-49, 50, 
51, 63, 65-66, 84, 85, 88, 91, 92, 93, 95, 
96-98, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 126, 
130, 132, 133, 151, 155, 181, 182, 204, 
205, 214, 220, 229, 237, 239, 251, 256, 
258, 259, 262, 263, 264, 265, 281, 283, 
284, 285-327, 333, 334, 336-337. 

Donations of money, 2-7, 45-47, 49, 111, 
168. 

Donations, other, 24-25, 31, 33, 111-112, 
123-125, 126, 133-134, 182-188,214-216, 
262, 264, 329, 332-333. 

Dorchester Antiquarian and Historical So- 
cietv, communication from, 229. 

Dowse Fund, 172, 173. 

Dowse, Thomas,100-109, 110, 115-122, 125, 
126-128, 131, 161, 163-164, 169-173, 177, 
178, 264, 353, 354, 358-360. Eulogy on, 
by Hon. Edward Everett, 361-398. 

Drowne, Henry P., donation from, 1. 

Druillettes, Father Gabriel, narrative of, 
presented, 34. 

Dudley, Thomas, letters of, 288, 311-312. 

Dyer, Mrs. Mary M., donation from, 114. 



I N D E X. 



405 



E. 



Edwards, William H., donation from, 229. 

Election of Members. — See '' Correspond- 
ing Members," p. 404 ; " Honorary Mem- 
bers," p. 406 : and " Resident Members," 
p. 410. 

Election of Officers, 29, 86, 162. 

Eliot, Rev. Andrew, D.D., 25. 

Eliot, Ephraim, letter from, to Isaac P. 
Davis, 25. 

Eliot, Rev. John, Apostle to the Indians, 
287, 311, 312-313. 

Eliot, Rev. John, D.D., 25, 134, 166, 295. 

Eliot, John F., donation from, 43. 

Eliot, Professor Samuel, resignation of, as 
Resident Member, 98. Elected Corre- 
sponding Member, 114. 

Ellerv, William, patriotic letters of, read, 
99,' 282. 

Ellis, Rev. George E., D.D., 33, 67, 85, 90, 
155, 281. 

Emery, Charles H., donation from, 229. 

Emery, S. Hopkins, donation from, 132. 

Emmons, Lieut. George F., U.S.N., dona- 
tion from, 182. 

Endicott, Governor, 311, 312-313. 

Essex Institute, donations from, 50, 97, 
110. 

Eulogy on Thomas Dowse, by Hon. Ed- 
ward Everett, 361-398. 

Everett, Hon. Edward, 33, 42, 104, 105, 109, 
117, 122, 169, 172, 174, 182, 336, 354, 
356, 360. Eulogy on Thomas Dowse, 
361-398. 

Executive of the Commonwealth of Penn- 
sylvania, donation from, 284. 

Executors of will of Thomas Dowse, 173. 

Exhibitions of ancient books, pamphlets, 
deeds, maps, and other relics, 26,27, 36, 
37, 38, 113-114, 125, 131, 133, 151, 152, 
180, 181, 216-218, 229-230, 237-238, 257, 
281, 282, 283. 

Extinction of slavery in Massachusetts, 
188-203. 

Extracts from memoranda of Rev. Dr. 
Belknap, 295-311. 



F. 



Farmer, John, the antiquary, 288. 

Farnham, Rev. Luther, donation from, 50. 

February meetings, 63, 131, 265. 

Felt, Rev. Joseph B., LL.D., 29, 32, 33, 65, 
111. 

Felton, Professor Cornelius C, 125, 237, 
334-336. Elected Resident Member, 67. 

Fidelity of an Indian, 304-305. 

Fisher, J. Francis, donations from, 258, 
262, 263. 

Fisher, Dr., of Beverly, 295. 

Fitch, Rev. Jabez, 326-327. 

Folger, Peter, of Nantucket, 26, 27. 

Foote, John P., donation from, 50. 

Force, Peter, elected Corresponding Mem- 
ber, 110. 



Fowle, William B., donation from, 182. 

Fowler, Samuel P., donation from, 214. 

Fowler, William C, donation from, 265. 

Franklin, Dr. Benjamin, 27, 111, 113, 115, 
169, 174-177, 179, 256, 293, 294. 

Freeman, Rev. James, D.D., one of the 
" Decemviri," 166. 

French, Benjamin F., elected Correspond- 
ing Member, 237. His acceptance of 
membership, 251. 

Frothingham, Rev. Nathaniel L., D.D., 152, 
207. 

Frothingham, Hon. Richard, jun. — See 
" Treasurer," p. 411. 

Fulham Library, 19, 20, 39. 

Fuller, Rev. Dr., donation from, 182. 

G. 

Gage, General, 180, 261. 

Gardner, George, donation from, 336-337. 

Gay, Miss Ann L., donation from, 262. 

Genealogical chart of the Folger family 
exhibited, 27. 

Georgia Historical Society, 63. 

Gerry, Elbridge, 297, 298, 299. 

Gillis, Lieut. J. M., U. S. N., donations 
from, 48, 50. 

Goffe, Col. William, the regicide, 60-61. 

Goodwin, Daniel, donation from, 98. 

Gore, Christopher, 168, 357. 

Gorham, Nathaniel, 301, 304. 

Government of Great Britain, donation 
from, 220. 

Gray, Hon. Francis C, 40, 42, 67, 133. 
Announcement of his death, 131. Me- 
moir of him to be prepared, 132. 

Grav, Hon. John C, 29, 33, 38, 67, 85, 86, 
109, 154, 168, 266, 284. 

Grey, Right Hon. Sir George, 205. 

Green, Dr. Samuel A., donations from, 40, 
42, 48, 65, 85, 88, 214, 284. 

Grigsby, Hugh B., donation from, 204. 

Grosvenor, L., donation from, 49. 

Guizot, Francois Pierre Guillaume, elected 
Honorarv Member, 203. Donations 
from, 251, 259. 

Gullager, Christian, the painter, 310. 

H. 

" Haarlemsche Courant," 332-333. 

Hale, Charles, donation from, 88. 

Halliwell, J. O., F.R.S., donation from, 97. 

Hammersley, William J., letter from, 111. 

Hammond, Captain Lawrence: his jour- 
nal, 320. 

Hancock, Governor, 281, 304, 308, 309. 

Harris, Dr., 31. 

Hawley, Joseph, letter from, 264. 

Hedge, Rev. Frederick H., D.D., elected 
Resident Member, 264. His acceptance 
of membership, 265. 

Henderson, Rev. D. P., donation from, 
182. 

Herrick, E. C, donation from, 32. 



406 



INDEX. 



Hersey, Isaac, donation from, 114. 
Hickcox, J. H., donation from, 132. 
Higginson, Waldo, donation from, 281. 
Hildreth, Richard, elected Resident Mem- 
ber, 67. Vice Mr. Hildreth, N. I. Bow- 
ditch elected, 128. 
Hillard, Hon. George S., 33. 
Historical papers, publication of, 2-3, 6-7. 
Historical Societies, donations from, 32, 

37, 48, 63, 93, 110, 114, 182, 214, 229, 

283. 
Historical Society, Massachusetts, sketch 

of the rise and progress of, 165-169. 
Historical Society of Chicago, 89, 94, 95, 

96. 
Historical Trust Fund, 45-47, 49. 
Hoadly, Charles J., donations from, 36, 

98. His letter announcing a gift from 

the State of Connecticut, 182. 
Hoar, President of Harvard College, 317, 

318, 319. 
Hoar, Hon. Samuel : announcement of his 

death, and resolution passed, 122. In 

his place, G. R. Russell, LL.D., elected a 

Resident Member, 131. 
Holmes, Oliver Wendell, M.D., elected 

Resident Member, 237. 
Homer, Charles, donation from, 126. 
Honorary Members elected, 64, 203, 271. 

Acceptance of membership, 44, 251. 
Hooker, Rev. Dr. E. W., donation from, 

31. 
Hosmer, Charles, donation from, 49. 
Hough, Dr. Franklin B., letters from, 33, 

44. Donation from, 151. 
Houo-hton, George F., donation from, 132. 
Hubbard's History, Preface to, 320-322. 
Hudson, Hon. Charles, donation from, 1, 
Hughes, J. M. : his Notes relative to the 

campaign against Burgovne, 278-280. 
Humphreys, Colonel D., 133-134. 
Hunter, Rev. Joseph, of London, 21-23, 38, 

39, 98. 
Hurd, Dr. Samuel H., donations from, 

182, 204. 
Hutchinson, Governor, 41, 282, 308, 309. 

His historical publications, 19, 23, 134- 

150, 216. 
Hutchinson, "Mrs., 312. 



I. 



Ice-trade, history of the, 51-60. 

Indians, Penobscot, 305-307. Indians at 

Oneida and Stockbridge, 311. The 

Pequots, 313. The Norridgwock tribe, 

324-325. 
Insurance of the books, &c, 83. 
Introduction of cotton into the United 

States, 221-228. 
Invitation, official, to societies, 204. 



J. 



January meetings, 50, 130, 162. 
Jarvis, Dr. Edward, donation from, 32. 



Jefferson, Thomas, 151. 

Jenks, Rev. William, D.D., 33, 98, 167, 

355. 
Johnson, Dr. William Otis, donation from, 

42. 
Julv meetings, 36, 97, 214. 
June meetings, 32, 93, 204. 

K. 

Kane, Dr. Elisha Kent, resolutions on the 
death of, 152-154. 

Kane, Judge, letter from, 156-157. 

Kimball, Moses, donations from, 126, 239. 

King, Hon. John G., announcement of the 
death of, 220-221. 

King, Rufus, and the Massachusetts Con- 
vention in 1788, 297-301. 

Kingsbury, Fisher A., donation from, 31. 

Kinzie, Mrs. John H., donation and letter 
from, 258-259. 

Kirkbride, Thomas S., M. D., donations 
from, 65, 284. 



Lafayette, General, 336. 

Latour, L. A. Huguet, donations from, 

182, 214, 251, 258, 262. 
Lawrence, Hon. Abbott, 33. Resolutions 

passed on his death, 40, 41. Memoir, 

67-82. 
Lawrence, Samuel, the artist, 175. 
Lawson,Thomas,Surgeon-General,U.S.A., 

donation from, 85. 
Letchford's heretical book, 311-312. 
Lenox, James, elected Corresponding 

Member, 37. Donations from, 258, 262, 

265. 
Letters from the following persons and 
societies read or referred to : — 

Don Pedro de Angelis, 1. 

Hon. Samuel G. Arnold, 1. 

Trustees under the will of S. Apple- 
ton, 5. 

Joseph Hunter, 21-23, 38, 98. 

Ephraim Eliot, 25. 

Thomas Aspinwall, 33. 

Dr. Franklin B. Hough, 33, 44. 

Governor Hutchinson, 41. 

Governor Belcher, 41. 

Recording Secretaries, 43, 154. 

The Bishop of Oxford, 44. 

Jared Sparks, LL.D., 44, 91. 

Rev. John S. Barry, 49. 

John A. Lowell, LL.D., 49. 

Hon. David Sears, 49. 

Hon. James T. Austin, 50. 

Rev. Charles Lowell, D.D., 50. 

Frederic Tudor, 51-60, 265. 

Winthrop Sargent, 66, 262. 

Rev. Dr. Palfrey, 66. 

Commodores Preble and Bainbridge, 84. 

Rev. William Barry, 89, 96. 

Hyde Clarke, 91. 

General Washington, 91. 



INDEX. 



407 



Letters — continued. 
W. H. Whitmore, 91. 
(Of attorney) Alexander Hood, 02. 
Dr. E. B. O'Callaghan, 96, 98. 
American Antiquarian Society, 98. 
Samuel Eliot, 98. 
Colonel Head to the Town Council of 

Plymouth, 98. 
Stephen Moylan, 98. 
William Ellerv, 99, 282. 
Hon. Robert C. Winthrop, 101-102. 
George Livermore, 102-103, 161. 
Hon. John R. Bartlett, 111, 115. 
The Committee of Arrangements on 

the inauguration of the statue of 

Franklin, 111. 
William J. Hammersley, 111. 
Joseph Mills, 112. 
Richard Hildreth, 113. 
John Walley Langdon and Jonathan 

Thompson to Lord Mountjoy, 113. 
Theodore Parsons and Captain James 

Grav, 118. 
G. C. Rippon, 113. 
J. Lathrop Motley, 114. 
Professor Samuel Eliot, 114. 
Benjamin R. Winthrop, 123-125. 
The executors of the will of Mr. Dowse, 

131, 171-173. 
Cotton Mather to the widow of Rev. 

John Cotton, 132. 
Col. D. Humphreys to the Rev. Dr. John 

Eliot, 133-134. 
Dr. Josiah Bartlett, 150. 
William Paver, 150. 
William Vassall, 155. 
Rev. John Allin, 155. 
Hon. Charles H. Warren, 156. 
Judge Kane, 156-157. 
Secretary of the Tennessee Historical 

Societv, 157. 
Thomas Carlyle, 175-177. 
Rev. W. B. Sprague, D.D., 178. 
Benjamin Franklin, 179, 256. 
James Otis, 181. 
A French commissioner, 182. 
Charles J. Hoadly, 182. 
Hon. William Willis, 182-188. 
The American minister at London, 204- 

205. 
Henry Lunt, 214-215. 
Shirley to General Waldo, 216. 
William Durrant Cooper, F.S.A., 220. 
Secretary of the Society of Antiquaries, 

220, 259. 
William W. Parrott, 221-224. 
J. A. Winthrop, 221, 224-226. 
Dorchester Antiquarian and Historical 

Society, 229. 
Rev. E. H. Sears, 239. 
Sterne and his friends, 251. 
General J. W. de Peyster, 258. 
Mrs. J. H. Kinzie, 259. 
Professor H. W. Longfellow, 262. 
Thomas B. Atkins, 263. 
Joseph Hawley, 264. 
Rev. F. H. Hedge, D.D., 265. 



Letters — continued. 

Dr. Francis Lieber, 265. 

Sarah Bancroft, 277. 

Charles Stoddard, 280-281. 

Secretary of the State of Pennsylvania, 
284. 

William H. Trescott. 

Elizabeth Belknap, 285-286. 

Dudley's Letter to the Countess of Lin- 
coln, 288. 

Ebenezer Hazard to Dr. Belknap, 295. 

Dr. John Eliot to Dr. Belknap, 295. 

Thomas Dudley to John Winthrop, 311- 
312. 

John Eliot to John Endicott, 312-313. 

Roger Williams to John Cotton, of Ply- 
mouth, 313-316. 

Rev. Chandler Robbins, D.D., to Hon. 
Josiah Quincy, 329-330. 

Hon. Josiah Qiiincv to Rev. Chandler 
Robbins, D.D., 330-331. 

Mr. Atkins, Record Commissioner of 
Nova Scotia, 334. 

Between Governor Bowdoin and Gene- 
ral Lafayette, 336. 
Lewes, Milo, donation from, 42. 
Librarian, (Rev. Joseph B. Felt, LL.D.) 

1,29, 32. — (Rev. Samuel K. Lothrop, 

D.D.) 29, 31, 32, 36, 37, 40, 41, 42, 43, 

47, 48, 49, 50, 63, 65, 66, 84, 86, 88, 93, 

97, 107, 110, 111, 112, 114, 125, 126, 132, 

155, 162, 169, 182, 203, 204, 214, 220, 

229, 239, 251, 258, 262, 263, 265, 281, 

283, 332, 334. 
Library, 41, 47, 49, 50, 86, 87, 155-156, 

159, 160, 178, 205. 
Library, the Dowse, 125, 126-128, 131, 

162,"l63-164, 169-173, 174, 177, 178. 
Library, the Fulham, 19, 20, 39. 
Library, the New-England, 19, 22. 
Library Association, Mercantile, dona- 
tions from, 32, 65, 93, 97, 220, 229, 284. 
Library Committee of the London Tra 

ders' Tokens, donation from, 48. 
Lieber, Dr. Francis, elected a Corre- 
sponding Member, 264. His acceptance 

of membership, 265. 
Likenesses of members, 33. 
Lincoln, General, 306. 
Lincoln, Hon. Solomon, 111, 154, 162, 284. 
Little, Brown, and Co., donation from, 204. 
Little, Rev. Mr., of Wells or Kennebunk, 

295, 305, 306. 
Livermore, George, 1, 4, 33, 34, 41, 86, 89, 

96, 97, 101-104, 109, 126, 152, 154, 161, 

162, 163, 164, 171, 173, 174, 203, 204, 

220, 264, 283, 336, 359. 
London Societv of Antiquaries, donations 

from, 204, 220, 259, 262. 
Longfellow, Professor Henry W., donation 

from, 93. Elected Resident Member, 

259. His acceptance of membership, 

262. 
Loring, Colonel Benjamin, donations from, 

130, 132. 
Loring, James S., donations from, 32, 40, 

93, 111. 



408 



INDEX. 



Loring, John, of Hull, 327. 

Lothrop, Kev. Samuel K., D.D., 4, 7, 32, 
33. — See " Librarian," p. 407. 

Lowell, Eev. Charles, D.D., resignation 
of, 50. Request of, 210. 

Lowell, John Amory, LL.D., 85. Elected 
Resident Member, 44. His acceptance 
of membership, 49. 

Lunatic Asylum of South Carolina, dona- 
tion from the Regents of, 132. 

Lunt, Henry, 214-216. 

Lunt, Rev. William Parsons, D.D., an- 
nouncement of the death of, with reso- 
lutions, 206. Memoir of him, 207-213. 
See " Corresponding Secretary," p. 404. 

Lyndhurst, Lord, elected Honorary Mem- 
ber, 271. 

M. 

Macsparren, James: a pamphlet on his 
" Destructive Doctrines," 294. 

Madison, President, unpublished pamphlet 
by, 281. 

Maine Historical Society,donation from, 93. 

Managers of the New-York State Lunatic 
Asylum, donation from, 265. 

Manuscripts, 4, 19, 34, 86, 94, 96, 97, 130, 
159, 174-177, 181, 206, 237, 256, 259, 
263, 264, 271, 278, 294-328. 

Manypenny, George D., donation from, 63. 

Maps, manuscripts, &c, assorted or bound, 
93-94, 159. 

March meetings, 65, 150, 283. 

Martha's Vineyard, documents concern- 
ing, 33, 43, 44. 

Massachusetts Assembly, letter contain- 
ing the doings of the, 98. 

Massachusetts Convention for ratifying 
the Federal Constitution, 296. 

Marvland Historical Society, donation 
from, 32. 

Massachusetts Historical Society, sketch 
of the rise and progress of, 165-169. 

Massachusetts Historical Trust Fund, 45- 
47, 49. 

Mather, Cotton, 132, 288-293, 294, 322. 

Mather, Increase, 287, 288, 317. 

Mather, Samuel, 293. 

Maury, Lieutenant, U.S.N., letter in reply 
to, 1. 

Mavhew, Matthew: his " Brief Narrative," 
287. 

May meetings, 31, 88, 182. 

M'Ewen, Thomas, Secretary-General of 
the Society of the Cincinnati, donation 
from, 204. 

M'Mullen, John, donation from, 85. 

Means, Rev. James, donation from, 40. 

Medford, Selectmen of, donation from, 48- 
49. 

Meetings, Annual, 1, 84, 155. Special, 82, 
89, 96, 100, 129, 177, 280, 333, 354. 
Stated monthly, 31, 32, 36, 37, 39, 42, 
43, 48, 50, 63, 65, 88, 93, 97, 109, 111, 
112, 114, 126, 130, 131, 150, 182, 204, 214, 
220, 229, 239, 251, 258, 262, 265, 283. 



Melancthon, a Bible which had belonged 
to, exhibited, 152. 

Members, election of. — " See Correspond- 
ing Members," p. 404 ; " Honorary Mem- 
bers," p. 406 ; and " Resident Members," 
p. 410. 

Membership, resignation of, 50, 98, 150. 

Memoir of Samuel Appleton, 7-18. Of 
Hon. Abbott Lawrence, 67-82. Of Rev. 
William Parsons Lunt, D.D., 207-213. 

Memoirs of deceased members, the pre- 
paration of, requested, 3, 4, 122, 131, 
132, 206, 207, 221. 

Memoirs, Rev. Dr. John Pierce's, 280- 
281. 

Memorial to the Legislature against a pe- 
tition of the New-England Historic- 
Genealogical Society, 265-270, 332. 

Memoranda of Rev. Dr. Belknap, extracts 
from, 295-311. 

Mercantile-Library Association, donations 
from, 32, 65, 93," 97, 220, 229,284. 

Metcalf, Hon. Judge, donations from, 93, 
98, 132, 258. 

Mills, Joseph, communication from, 112. 

Milton, John, bust of, 169. 

Minnesota Historical Society, donation 
from, 63. 

Minot, Hon. George Richards, 166. 

Minot, Hon. William, 5, 28, 122. 

Minutes of the debates in the Massachu- 
setts Convention of 1788, 296-304. 

Mitchell, J. H., donation from, 114. 

Mitchell, Jonathan, of the seventeenth 
century, 133. 

Montcalm, 98. 

Monthly special or social meetings, 64. — 
See "Meetings," supra. 

Monthly, stated, meetings. — See "Meet- 
ings," supra. 

Mortgage-deed, 65. 

Morton's Memorial, 19, 20. 

Motions. — See " Resolutions," p. 410. 

Motley, J. Lathrop, elected Resident Mem- 
ber," 114. 

N. 

Nantucket, documents concerning, 33, 43, 
44. 

Narraganset Territory in 1643, 65. 

Navigation of the river Amazon, 1. 

Neal, Theodore Augustus, donation from, 
132. 

Nelson, Thomas, jun., in 1774, 259. 

New-Bedford Free Public Library, dona- 
tion from the Trustees of the, 220. 

New-England Historic-Genealogical Soci- 
ety, exchange of publications with, 94. 
Memorial against the petition of, 265- 
270. Speech of Hon. Josiah Quincy 
against the petition of, 344-351. 

New-England Library, 19, 22. 

New-Hampshire Historical Society's Col- 
lections, 288, 326. 

New-Jersey Historical Society, donation 
from, 63. 



INDE X. 



409 



New York, donations from the Regents of 
the University of the State of, 43, 63, 
84, 112. 

New York, donations from the State of, 
32, 36. 

New-York Historical Society, donation 
from, 214. 

New-York Mercantile-Library Associa- 
tion, donation from, 97. 

New- York State Agricultural Society, 
donations from, 214, 265, 294. 

New-York State Library, donations from 
the Trustees of, 36, 110, 132. 

Norton, Charles B., donation from, 40. 

Notes relative to the campaign against 
Burgoyne, 278-280. 

November meetings, 43, 114, 251. 



o. 



O'Callaghan, Dr. E. B., letters from, 96, 98. 
Donations from, 112, 251. His election 
as Corresponding Member, 237. His 
acceptance of membership, 251. 

October meetings, 42, 112, 239. 

Officers, nomination and election of, 28, 
29; 67, 85, 86; 154, 162. 

Orders respecting the Appleton Fund, 
6-7. Respecting the Belknap donation, 
328-329. 

Osgood, Rev. Samuel, D.D., elected Cor- 
responding Member, 220. His accept- 
ance of membership, 251. 

Otis, James, autograph letter of, pre- 
sented, 181. 

Owen, Rev. Dr. John, 314. 



P. 



Paige, Rev. Lucius R., 29, 174. 

Paine, Dr. Martyn, donation from, 32, 93. 

Paine, Timothy A., donation from, 36. 

Palfrev, John Gorham, D.D., 66, 167, 356. 

Papers, 60-63, 84, 134-150, 188-203, 214- 
216, 230-237, 278-280. — See "Commu- 
nications," p. 403 ; and " Letters," p. 406. 

Park, Rev. E. A., D.D., donation from, 220. 

Parkman, Francis, 86, 93, 95, 162, 204, 
214. 

Parrott, William W., letter from, on cot- 
ton, 221-224. 

Parsons, Dr. Usher, donation from, 50. 

Parsons, Hon. Theophilus, member of the 
Massachusetts Convention, 297, 298, 
299. 

Pass from General Gage, 180-181. 

Paver, William, elected Corresponding 
Member, 128. His acceptance of mem- 
bership, 150. 

Pease, Richard, donation from, 65. 

Penobscot Indians, 305. 

Pevster, General J. W. de, donation from, 
258. 

Philadelphia Librarv Company, donation 
from, 93. 



Philip, King, papers relating to, 44. 
Phillips, Hon. Jonathan, 84, 168. 
Photographic likenesses of members, 33. 
Pierce, Rev. John, D.D., 203, 205, 281. 
Piper, Solomon, donation from, 1. 
Plymouth, Governor Bradford's History 

of, 19-23, 90, 91, 98, 160, 168. 
Pocasset, purchase of the lands of, 237, 

238. 
Portrait of General Washington, 310. 
Portrait of Thomas Dowse, 108-109, 110, 

170. 
Portraits of members, 33, 169, 172, 329. 
Pownal, Governor, 306. 
Pratt, Peter: his " Prev taken from the 

Strong," 294. 
Pratt, Phineas: his "Narrative," 336. 
Prescott, William H., LL.D., 33, 63, 154. 
Presentations. — See " Donations," p. 404. 
President (Hon. James Savage) 1, 27, 28, 

29, 30, 33. — See " Savage, Hon. James," 
p. 410. 

President (Hon. Robert C. Winthrop), 29, 

30, 31, 32, 33, 36, 37, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 
44, 46, 49, 50, 63, 65, 66, 82, 83, 84, 
85, 86, 88, 89, 91, 93, 96, 97, 98, 100-104, 
108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 
123, 125, 126, 129, 130, 131, 132, 150, 
151, 154, 155, 156, 157, 160, 161, 162, 
164, 171, 173, 179, 180, 182, 183, 204, 
205, 206, 207, 214, 220, 221, 229, 239, 
251, 258, 259, 262, 264, 265, 270, 281, 
283, 284. 

Prince, the annalist, 19, 20, 22, 23, 287, 317, 

320, 328, 329, 333, 334, 336, 354, 355, 359. 
Prison-Discipline Societv, donation from 

the, 84-85. 
Proceedings commemorative of Thomas 

Dowse, 353-398. 
Provincial Resolves, 35. 
Public Library in Boston, donations from, 

63, 126. 
Publication of historical papers, 2. 
Publications suggested or voted to be 

undertaken, 3-4, 36, 41, 83, 99. 
Publishing Committee, 4, 21, 27, 28, 35, 

68, 89, 90, 91, 93, 95, 99, 1S8, 251. 
Publishing Fund, 168. 
Punderson, Dr. S., donation from, 40. 



Q- 



Quarterly Historical Journal suggested, 

3-4. 
Quincy, Edmund, father of Mrs. Hancock, 

327.' 
Quincv, Hon. Josiah, 33, 104, 109, 110, 

111, 130, 164, 168, 259, 261, 270, 282, 

329, 331. 
Quint, Rev. Alonzo H., donation from, 

229. 



R. 



Ralle", Sebastian, the French Jesuit, 324- 
325. His "strong box," 40. 



52 



410 



I N I) E X. 



Recording; Secretary, (Joseph Willard) 29, 
33, 43, 82-83, 86,96, 129, 173. — William 
Brigham (pro tern.) 130. — Charles Deane 
(pro tern.) 150. — (Rev. Chandler Rob- 
bins) 162, 188, 207, 229, 239, 252, 256, 
270, 284. 

Recovery of Governor Bradford's manu- 
script, 19-23. 

Regents of the Lunatic Asylum of South 
Carolina, donation from, 132. 

Regents of the University of New York, 
donations from, 43, 63, 84, 112. 

Relief for the inhabitants of Boston, 259- 
260. 

Reminiscences of Braddock's campaign, 
230-237. 

Reports, 1-2, 2-4, 5, 6, 28, 33-34, 42, 43, 
44-45, 47-48, 49, 50, 64, 66, 67, 83, 85, 
86, 87, 88, 90, 93-95, 111, 126-128, 129- 
130, 131, 154, 155-156, 157, 158-162, 162- 
163, 178, 188, 203, 286-328, 332. 

Resident Members elected, 18, 44, 67, 114, 
128, 131, 152, 203, 220, 237, 259, 264, 
270, 284. Acceptance of membership, 
49, 114, 156, 239, 262. 265. 

Resignations of membership, 50, 98, 150. 

Resolutions passed, 2, 4, 5, 24, 25, 26, 28, 
29, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 38, 39, 40, 41, 64, 
68, 83, 84, 88, 92, 107, 108-109, 110, 112, 
113, 121-123, 125, 126,128-129,130,131, 
152-154, 159, 173, 174,178,205,206,216, 
259, 264, 281, 282, 328-229, 331-332, 334, 
336, 337. 

Resolves passed by last House of Repre- 
sentatives of the Province of Massachu- 
setts Bay, 35. 

Rhode-Island Historical Society, donation 
from, 32. 

Rhode Island, State of, donation from, 132. 

Richmond Island, coins found on, 182-188. 

Ricketson, David, donations from, 132, 
182. 

Rives, Hon. William C, elected Corre- 
sponding Member, 67. . 

Robbins, Rev. Chandler, D.D., 29, 33, 36, 
43, 86, 95, 96, 99, 132, 133, 154,158,162, 
169, 174, 206, 329, 330. — See "Record- 
ing Secretary," supra. 

Rooms, alterations and improvements in 
the, 83, 158-159, 161. 

Royal Society of Northern Antiquaries, 
donation from, 48. 

Russell, George R., LL.D., 154, 163, 284. 
Elected Resident Member, 131. 



Sabine, Hon. Lorenzo, 84, 89. 

Safford, James M., donation from, 262. 

Sales of books, 2-3, 160. 

Salisbury, Hon. Stephen, elected a Resi- 
dent Member, 284. 

Saltonstall, Leverett, donations from, 283, 
284. 

Sargent, Lucius M., 50, 214. Elected 
Resident Member, 67. 



Sargent, Winthrop, elected Corresponding 
Member, 50. His acceptance of mem- 
bership, 66. Donations from, 110, 258, 
262-263. 

Savage, Hon. James, 1, 27, 28, 29, 30, 
33, 60, 66, 82, 93, 109, 111, 122, 126, 
128, 130, 131, 132, 155, 164, 180, 181, 
182, 257, 258, 262, 264, 265, 284, 331, 
332. 

Schenectady Union College, donation 
from, 132' 

Schuyler, Major, 305. 

Scots' Society for propagating Christian 
Knowledge, 311. 

Scott, Sir Walter, bust of, 169, 172. 

Scottow's "Narrative" and "Old Men's 
Tears," 287. 

Scranton, Rev. Erastus, donation from, 110. 

Sears, Hon. David, 2, 33, 36, 45-47, 48, 49, 
51, 109, 156, 168. 251, 257. Elected a 
Vice-President, 162. 

Sears, Rev. Edmund H., elected a Resi- 
dent Member, 220. His acceptance of 
membership, 239. 

Secretaries of the Society. — See " Corre- 
sponding Secretary," p. 404; and "Re- 
cording Secretary," supra. 

Secretary of the Society of Antiquaries, 
letter from the, 220. 

Secretary of the State of Pennsylvania, 
communication from, as to books pre- 
sented, 284. 

September meetings, 39, 111, 229. 

Sermons and Discourses by Mather, 
Prince, and Belknap, 294. 

Shakspeare, bust of, 169. 

Shattuck, Lemuel, 88, 89, 110. 

Shaw, Chief-Justice, 33, 37, 99, 107, 109. 

Shays's captains and counsellors, 296. 

Shea, John Gilmary, donations from, 34, 
35, 37. Elected Corresponding Mem- 
ber, 37. 

Shedd, William B., donation from, 126. 

Sherman, Roger, 28. 

Sherman, William, of Stoughton, 28. 

Shurtleff, Nathaniel B., M.D., 1, 20, 24, 
29, 31, 33, 36, 40, 41, 42, 48, 86, 89, 110, 
125, 133, 161, 162, 169, 174, 203, 204. 

Sibley, John Langdon, 31, 33, 42, 43, 63, 
85, 88, 89, 126,' 204, 205-206, 239, 258, 
265, 284. 

Slavery, extinction of, in Massachusetts, 
188-203. 

Smith, Buckingham, elected Correspond- 
ing Member, 237. 

Smith, Dr. J. V. C, donation from, 32. 

Smithsonian Institution, donations from, 
40, 114, 229. 

Society, Massachusetts Historical, sketch 
of the rise and progress of, 165-169. 

Society of Antiquaries, London, dona- 
tions from, 204, 220, 259, 262. 

South-Carolina Lunatic Asylum, donation 
from the Regents of, 132. 

Sparks, Jared, LL.D., 33, 43, 44, 50, 91, 
95, 151, 174. Elected a Vice-President, 
162. 



INDE X. 



411 



Special meetings, 82, 89, 96, 100, 129, 177, 
280, 333, 354. 

Speech of the Hon. Josiah Quincy before 
the Committee of the Massachusetts 
Legislature, 344-351. 

Sprague, Rev. William B., D.D., donations 
from, 65, 126. Elected Corresponding 
Member, 152. His acceptance of mem- 
bership, 178. 

Standing Committee, 29, 39, 41,42,43, 44, 
47, 64, 82, 83, 84, 86, 88, 89, 91, 92, 93-95, 
96, 99, 100, 110, 111, 112, 129, 130, 131, 
133, 150, 154, 157, 158, 161, 162, 163, 
174, 177, 178, 203, 206, 221, 229, 263, 
265. 

Standing Committees, election of, 29, 86, 
162. 

Stanhope, Earl, elected Honorary Member, 
64. 

State Department, donations from, 37, 88, 
111, 114. 

State Historical Society of Wisconsin, do- 
nations from, 114, 229. 

State of New York, donations from, 32, 
36. 

State of Rhode Island, donation from, 132. 

Stated monthly meetings. — See " Meet- 
ings," p. 408. 

Stevens, Henry, donations from, 110, 111, 
132. 

Stimson, J., donation from, 264. 

Stoddard, Charles, donation from, 220. 
Letter from, 280-281. 

Stone, Rev. Edwin M., donations from, 65, 
258. 

Straznicky, E. R., donation from, 262. 

Stuart, J. W., donation from, 112. 

Sturgis, Hon. William, 96, 97. 

Subscription-list of contributions in Vir- 
ginia for inhabitants of Boston, 259-261. 

Suffolk Insurance Company, donation 
from, 182. 

Sullivan, Hon. James, one of the " Decem- 
viri," 166, 357. 

Sumner, Hon. Charles, donations from, 31, 
32. 

Sumner, General William H., 271, 278, 
284. Elected Resident Member, 259. 



Tennessee Historical Society, letter from, 

157. 
Thacher, Anthony: the account of his 

shipwreck, 287. 
Thacher, Rev. Peter, D. D., one of the 

" Decemviri," 166. 
Thayer, John Eliot, donations from, 92, 

16*8. 
Thompson, Dexter C, donation from, 111. 
Thornton, J. Wingate, donation from, 85. 
Ticknor, George, LL.D., 1, 2, 5, 26,29,32, 

33, 47, 67, 132, 285, 286, 328, 329, 358. 
Tocqueville, Alexis de, elected Honorary 

Member, 203. His acceptance of mem- 
bership, 251. 



" Tour to the White Mountains," an ac- 
count of, by Rev. Dr. Belknap, 295. 

Town House in Boston, papers relating to 
the history of the, 336-344. 

Treasurer (Hon. Richard Frothingham, 
jun.), 2, 3, 5, 6, 24, 29, 33, 36, 42, 49, 65, 
67, 85, 86, 89, 98, 111, 162, 163,229,264, 
282, 284, 332, 336. 

Treasurer's accounts, 1-2, 32, 67, 85, 154, 
162-163. 

Trescott, William H., the acceptance of 
his election as Corresponding Member, 
284. 

Trumbull, Governor, 310. 

Trumbull papers, 93. 

Trust Fund, Massachusetts Historical, 45- 
47, 49, 163. 

Trustees of the Astor Library, donation 
from, 204. 

Trustees of the Boston Public Library, 
donation from, 126. 

Trustees of the Free Public Library, New 
Bedford, donation from, 220. 

Trustees of the New- York State Library, 
donations from, 36, 110, 132. 

Trustees under the will of Samuel Apple 
ton, 3, 5, 6. 

Tudor, Frederic, 31, 51-60, 265, 284. 
Elected Resident Member, 264. 

Tudor, Hon. Judge, one of the " Decem- 
viri," 165, 166. 



u. 



Union College, Schenectady, donation 
from, 132. 

United-States Patent Office, donation 
from, 40. 

University of the State of New York, do- 
nation from the Regents of, 43, 63, 84, 
112. 

V. 

Vice-Presidents elected, 162. 
Votes. — See " Resolutions," p. 410. 

w. 

Wake, Mr., 175, 177. 

Walker, Rev. James, D.D., elected Resi- 
dent Member, 203. 

Wallcutt, Thomas, one of the " Decem- 
viri," 166, 167. 

Walley, Hon. S. H., donation from, 40. 

Warren, Hon. Charles H., 156, 181, 204, 
206, 251, 262, 281. Elected Resident 
Member, 152. 

Warren, Dr. John C, donation from, 37. 

Warren, Dr. Joseph: his day-book ex- 
hibited, 131. 

Washburn, Hon. Emory, 38, 66, 110, 122, 
126, 173, 174, 188, 230, 270, 332. 

Washington, General, 91, 98, 133, 169, 206, 
294, 309, 310, 334-336, 359. 



412 



I N D E X. 



Watriss, 0. W., 359. 

Watson, John F., of Philadelphia, 133. 

Watts, Rev. Isaac, D.D., 327. 

Webb, Thomas H., M.D., 1, 25, 26, 27, 31, 

38, 66, 99, 129. 
Weeks, George: his "Faithful Account," 

294. 
Wentvvorth, John, Governor of the Pro- 
vince of New Hampshire, 327. 
Western Lunatic Asylum, donation from 

the Directors of, 63. 
Wheatland, Henry, M.D., 50. 
Whipple, Hon. John A., donation from, 33. 
White, Hon. Daniel A., 33, 107, 122, 221. 
White, Henry, donation from, 88. 
White, J., donation from, 50. 
White, Hon. Joseph, donation from, 284. 
Whitmore, William H., donations from, 65, 

92, 93, 182. Letter from, 91. 
Whitney, Frederic A., donation from, 63. 
Whitney, Henrv Austin, donation from, 

114. Elected" Resident Member, 284. 
Whitwell, Samuel, donation from, 264. 
Wier, Capt. Robert, and the expedition to 

Quebec, 307. 
Wigglesworth, Michael, author of the 

" Day of Doom," 181, 294. 
Wilberforce, Right Rev. Samuel, D.D., 

Bishop of Oxford, 20, 21, 44, 92, 98. 

Elected Corresponding Member, 38. 



Willard, Joseph. — See 
retary," p. 410; and 
Secretary," p. 404. 

Willard, Sylvester D., 
from, 182. 



Recording Sec- 
" Corresponding 

M. D., donation 



Williams, Rev. Eleazer, donation from, 
229. 

Williams, Roger, 229, 311, 313-316. 

Willis, Hon. William, donations from, 37, 
214. Communication from, 182-188. 

Winslow papers, 92. 

Winthrop, Benjamin R., gift of a chair 
from, 123-125. 

Winthrop, James, one of the " Decemviri," 
166. 

Winthrop, John, Governor of Massachu- 
setts, 311, 314, 317. 

Winthrop, John, jun., Governor of Con- 
necticut, 126. 

Winthrop, Jos. A., on cotton, 221, 224-226. 

Winthrop, Hon. Robert C, 24, 25. — See 
" President," p. 409. 

Winthrop, Hon. Thomas L., 221. 

Winthrop, William, donations from, 239, 
333. 

Wisconsin Historical Society, donations 
from, 48, 114, 229. 

Wolfe, General, 307. 

Worcester, Joseph E., LL.D., 85, 114. 

Y. 

Yale College, donations from, 48, 110, 114. 

Young, Rev. Alexander, D.D., and his 
" Chronicles of the Pilgrims," 20, 23, 
287. 

Young Men's Association, Milwaukie, do- 
nation from, 37. 

Young Men's Mercantile-Library Associa- 
tion, Cincinnati, donation from, 65. 



THE END. 



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